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Pengbo Cao, Xueming Wei, Ram Prasad Awal, Rolf Müller, Daniel Wall
Self-recognition underlies sociality in many group-living organisms. In bacteria, cells use various strategies to recognize kin to form social groups and, in some cases, to transition into multicellular life. One strategy relies on a single genetic locus that encodes a variable phenotypic tag ("greenbeard") for recognizing other tag bearers. Previously, we discovered a polymorphic cell surface receptor called TraA that directs self-identification through homotypic interactions in the social bacterium Myxococcus xanthus Recognition by TraA leads to cellular resource sharing in a process called outer membrane exchange (OME)...
February 12, 2019: MBio
Carola Goecke, Francisca Grob
INTRODUCTION: The most frequent cause of congenital hyperthyroidism is maternal Graves' disease (GD), in which thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor antibodies (TRAb) cross the placenta and stimulate the fetal and/or neonatal TSH receptor to produce thyroid hormones. Thyroid dys function in these patients is confirmed by increased thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) levels accompanied by suppressed TSH levels. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the clinical and biochemical evo lution of newborns of mothers with GD and to suggest recommendations regarding treatment and follow-up...
December 2018: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
Eric Amado, Gunther Muth, Ignacio Arechaga, Elena Cabezón
TraB is an FtsK-like DNA translocase responsible for conjugative plasmid transfer in mycelial Streptomyces Unlike other conjugative systems, which depend on a type IV secretion system, Streptomyces requires only TraB protein to transfer the plasmid as dsDNA. The γ-domain of this protein specifically binds to repeated 8-bp motifs on the plasmid sequence, following a mechanism that is reminiscent of the FtsK/SpoIIIE chromosome segregation system.  In this work, we purified and characterized the enzymatic activity of TraB, revealing that it is a DNA-dependent ATPase that is highly stimulated by dsDNA substrates...
February 5, 2019: Journal of Biological Chemistry
J Karmisholt, S L Andersen, I Bulow-Pedersen, A Carlé, A Krejbjerg, B Nygaard
Purpose. To study predictors of attaining (part 1) and sustaining (part 2) remission in patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism (GH) treated with antithyroid drugs (ATD). Methods. In the prospective first part, the included patients were treated with ATD until a prespecified definition of remission (thyrotropin > 0.4 mU/L and TSH-receptor antibodies (TRAb) ≤ 1. 0 IU/L in a patient receiving a methimazole dose ≤ 5 mg/day, on two occasions two months apart) was met, or for 24 months. In the second part, patients attaining remission in part 1 were randomized to treatment or observation and followed until relapse or for 24 months...
2019: Journal of Thyroid Research
Stephanie Allelein, Matthias Schott
DIAGNOSIS:  Also accordingly to the recent European Thyroid Association Guidelines 2018, TSH receptor antibody (TRAb) measurement is highly sensitive and specific for the detection of Graves' disease (GD) and to distinguish from autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT). Bioassays are used for distinguishing stimulating from blocking antibodies and are used for scientific questions. THERAPY:  According to the current guidelines - and with exception for pregnant women - the use of thiamazol/carbimazole is generally favored from propylthiouracil (PTU)...
February 2019: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Johannes J Roggenbuck, Miklos Veiczi, Karsten Conrad, Peter Schierack, Gerd Wunderlich, Joerg Kotzerke, Dirk Roggenbuck, Klaus Zöphel
TSH receptor (TSHR) autoantibody (TRAb) is the serological hallmark of Graves' disease (GD). Third-generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) using monoclonal TRAbs instead of TSH have been found useful for TRAb analysis recently. For the first time, a mouse monoclonal antibody (mAb) against TSHR was analyzed for TRAb detection and compared with human mAb M22 and TSH by the same competitive binding assay technique. A mouse monoclonal antibody (T7) binding to the TSH receptor and inhibiting TSH binding was generated and used for TRAb analysis in a third-generation ELISA...
January 26, 2019: Immunologic Research
Robert Krysiak, Karolina Kowalcze, Bogusław Okopień
OBJECTIVE: Despite high prevalence in a female population, surprisingly little is known about sexual functioning of women with thyroid hyperfunction. This study was aimed at assessing female sexual function and depressive symptoms in women with overt hyperthyroidism of autoimmune and non-autoimmune origin. STUDY DESIGN: The study included three age-matched groups of young women inhabiting the Upper Silesia (a selenium-deficient and iodine-sufficient area): individuals with overt hyperthyroidism induced by Graves' disease (group A, n = 31), women with overt hyperthyroidism caused by toxic multinodular goiter or toxic adenoma (group B, n = 30) and women with normal thyroid function (group C, n = 34)...
January 9, 2019: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Yu-Ru Ma, Shuang-Xia Zhao, Lu Li, Feng Sun, Xiao-Ping Ye, Fei-Fei Yuan, Dan Jiang, Zheng Zhou, Qian-Yue Zhang, Yue-Yue Wan, Guang-Ya Zhang, Jing Wu, Rui-Jia Zhang, Ya Fang, Huai-Dong Song
Background: Graves' disease (GD) is a common thyroid-specific autoimmune disease and one of the most heritable diseases in the population, we present the first risk prediction model including confirmed known genetic variants associated with GD. Methods: To construct a stable prediction model, we used known GD susceptibility single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as markers and trained and tested our model in the largest cohort to date of 4,897 GD patients and 5,098 healthy controls...
January 14, 2019: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Ewa Cyranska-Chyrek, Michal Olejarz, Ewelina Szczepanek-Parulska, Piotr Stajgis, Anna Pioch, Marek Ruchala
BACKGROUND: Thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO) constitutes an immune-mediated inflammation of the orbital tissues of unclear etiopathogenesis. TAO is most prevalent in hyperthyroid patients with Graves' disease (GD); however, severe cases of orbitopathy associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) have rarely been described. CASE PRESENTATION: Herewith we report an unusual case of a middle-aged clinically and biochemically euthyroid woman with a stable HT, who developed a severe unilateral left-sided TAO...
January 8, 2019: BMC Ophthalmology
Zhaohui Cui, Zhixiao Wang, Xiaoyun Liu, Yun Cai, Xinyu Xu, Tao Yang
BACKGROUND: A clinical diagnosis model include thyroid functions, thyroid antibodies and radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) of patients with hyperthyroidism were established and as new evaluation indicators for the differentiation of the Graves' disease (GD) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT). METHODS: Clinical data of patients with newly diagnosed hyperthyroidism including gender, age, thyroid function, thyroid antibodies (FT3, FT4, TSH, TPOAb, TGAb, TRAb), RAIU (2 h, 6 h, 24 h) were collected...
January 7, 2019: Journal of Translational Medicine
Bushra Shahida, Tereza Planck, Peter Åsman, Mikael Lantz
Background: Deiodinase type 2 (DIO2) is an enzyme that catalyzes the production of the active form of thyroid -hormone triiodothyronine (T3) from thyroxine (T4) and is important for maintaining intracellular T3 levels. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DIO2 were associated with several diseases. The association of SNPs in DIO2 with Graves' disease (GD) was suggested in 2 Russian studies. Objectives: The aim of the study was to examine whether SNPs in DIO2 are associated with GD or Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO)...
November 2018: European Thyroid Journal
Xiaoxiao Song, Yimin Shen, Ying Zhou, Qinhua Lou, Li Han, Jon Kee Ho, Yuezhong Ren
RATIONALE: Hyperpigmentation is a common skin disease. However, there are few reported cases of Grave's disease with diffuse hyperpigmentation. We hereby described a rare case with diffuse hyperpigmentation induced by Grave's disease. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 42-year-old Chinese woman with accumulated general pigmentation of skin was admitted to our hospital in October 2017. On examination, hyperpigmentation was observed throughout the whole body, especially on the extremities and the face...
December 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Arjola Bano, Earn Gan, Caroline Addison, Kilimangalam Narayanan, Jolanta U Weaver, Vasileios Tsatlidis, Salman Razvi
Context: Thyrotropin receptor antibodies (TRAbs) play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of Graves' disease (GD). However, factors that influence the association of TRAbs with thyroid hormones and relapse risk in GD remain unclear. Objective: We investigated: (i) the associations of TRAbs at diagnosis with thyroid hormones and relapse risk; (ii) potential factors that can influence these associations in GD. Design and Setting: A prospective study in GD patients from a single endocrine centre in the north-east of England, seen between January 2008 and March 2018...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Antonio Rahal Junior, Priscila Mina Falsarella, Guilherme Falleiros Mendes, Jairo Tabacow Hidal, Danielle Macellaro Andreoni, José Flávio Ferreira Lúcio, Marcos Roberto Gomes de Queiroz, Rodrigo Gobbo Garcia
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate safety and effectiveness of nodule volume reduction and thyroid function after percutaneous laser ablation treatment in patients with benign nonfunctioning thyroid nodules. METHODS: Prospective single-center study, from January 2011 to October 2012, which evaluated 30 euthyroid and thyroid antibodies negative patients with benign solitary or dominant nodule with indication of treatment due to compressive symptoms and aesthetic disturbances...
November 29, 2018: Einstein
Carlos Romero Morales, Jaime Almazán Polo, David Rodríguez Sanz, Daniel López López, Sergio Vázquez González, José Luis Arias Buría, César Calvo Lobo
The purpose of this study was to assess and compare with rehabilitative ultrasound imaging (RUSI) the perimuscular connective tissue (PMCT) and interrecti distance (IRD) between elite and amateur basketball players. A sample of 22 healthy basketball players was included and divided into two groups: elite basketball players from Spanish 1st division (n = 11) and amateur basketball players from an entertainment Spanish division (n = 11). Ultrasound images of the external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), transversus abdominis (TrAb), rectus anterior (RA) and IRD PMCT were measured and analysed by the ImageJ software...
October 2018: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
Fabienne Delay, Vincent Dochez, Florence Biquard, Marie-Thérèse Cheve, Philippe Gillard, Chloe Arthuis, Norbert Winer
INTRODUCTION: The incidence of fetal goiters is reported to be around 1 per 40 000 births. The risk of complications is first of all obstetric, directly related to goiter size, but it may also affect longer term fetal and child development, depending on whether the goiter is due to hypo- or hyperthyroidism. Management is multidisciplinary, but not yet consensual and not always optimal by either endocrinologists or obstetricians. OBJECTIVES: The principal objective of this retrospective study was to analyze the data that enabled the physicians to assess whether the goiter was hypo- or hyperthyroid and then to analyze the obstetric practices used in the Pays de Loire network to describe in detail the tools used to diagnose and characterize the goiters and the management chosen in these cases...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Yuyan Li, Ting Xu, Qinyun Mo, Weiling Fu, Chunyan Yao
BACKGROUND: Thyroid autoantibody has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, thyroid-receptor antibody (TRAb) has not been considered as a potential risk assessment indicator for adverse pregnancy outcomes. Therefore, we assessed the role of TRAb in evaluation of the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: Pregnant women residing in Chongqing were enrolled in the study from 2012 to 2014. The TRAb, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4 ), and free triiodothyronine (FT3 ) of all patients were analyzed via electrochemiluminescence assays...
November 30, 2018: Clinical Biochemistry
Jessica L M Ting, Christopher J Rudnisky, Karim F Damji
OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy and safety of ab interno trabeculectomy with the Trabectome combined with cataract surgery (phaco-AIT) versus Trabeculectomy with mitomycin C combined with cataract surgery (phaco-Trab) in open-angle glaucoma. METHODS: A prospective randomized controlled trial with a single surgeon and surgical center was undertaken. Patients were recruited from July 2009 to October 2014. Primary outcomes were mean intraocular pressure (IOP) at 6 months and surgical complications...
December 2018: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
Jonathan C P Roos, Carla Moran, V Krishna Chatterjee, Joanne Jones, Alasdair Coles, Rachna Murthy
Alemtuzumab-a monoclonal antibody targeting the CD52 glycoprotein expressed by most mature leucocytes-effectively decreases relapse rate and disability progression in early, relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). However, secondary autoimmune disorders complicate therapy in nearly 50% of treated patients, with Graves' disease being the most common. Rarely, thyroid eye disease (TED) ensues; only seven such cases have been reported. Our aim was to analyse the largest series of MS patients developing thyroid eye disease after alemtuzumab treatment...
November 29, 2018: Eye
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