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T X Diao, Q H Han, H J Shan, X Q Wu, Y J Lin, Q Li, G H Wang, Y Y Jing, X Ma, M Shen, L S Yu, L Han, Y X Wang
Objective: To investigate the correlation between age-related hearing loss and cognitive impairment. Methods: 201 elderly patients, who were admitted to the Department of Otorhinolaryngology of Peking University People's Hospital from March 1, 2017 to March 31, 2017, were evaluated with hearing screening and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Scale. Among them, 101 were female and 100 were male, aged 60-90 years old. Taking the cognitive level as the dependent variable, and taking the age, sex, education, occupation, marital status, residence, and average hearing loss (average hearing threshold of 500, 1 000, 2 000, and 4 000 Hz), as well as the length of conscious hearing loss as the independent variables, the single factor analysis and multivariate linear regression analysis were used to screen the main factors affecting the cognitive level of the elderly...
February 7, 2019: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
Joshua A Grant, Fadel Zeidan
Consciousness, defined here as the quality of awareness of self and the corresponding sensory environment, is considered to be one of most enigmatic and contentious areas of scholarly dissection and investigation. The subjective experience of pain is constructed and modulated by a myriad of sensory, cognitive and affective dimensions. Thus, the study of pain can provide many inroads to a concept like consciousness that the traditional sense modalities do not. Mindfulness defined here as non-reactive awareness of the present moment, can uniquely control and/or modulate particular substrates of conscious experience...
January 9, 2019: Current Opinion in Psychology
Dieter Müller, Hartmud Neurath, Merja A Neukamm, Maurice Wilde, Caroline Despicht, Sabine Blaschke, Marcel Grapp
INTRODUCTION: Fentanyl derivatives like cyclopropylfentanyl have recently appeared on the recreational drug market. Cyclopropylfentanyl is probably a highly potent opioid, but human toxicological data are not available so far. Similar to other fentanyl derivatives the most serious acute health risk due to the use of cyclopropylfentanyl is likely to be respiratory depression. In case of overdose, this may lead to apnoea, respiratory arrest and death. In this paper, we present three cases of severe intoxication with cyclopropylfentanyl...
February 18, 2019: Clinical Toxicology
A Demertzi, E Tagliazucchi, S Dehaene, G Deco, P Barttfeld, F Raimondo, C Martial, D Fernández-Espejo, B Rohaut, H U Voss, N D Schiff, A M Owen, S Laureys, L Naccache, J D Sitt
Adopting the framework of brain dynamics as a cornerstone of human consciousness, we determined whether dynamic signal coordination provides specific and generalizable patterns pertaining to conscious and unconscious states after brain damage. A dynamic pattern of coordinated and anticoordinated functional magnetic resonance imaging signals characterized healthy individuals and minimally conscious patients. The brains of unresponsive patients showed primarily a pattern of low interareal phase coherence mainly mediated by structural connectivity, and had smaller chances to transition between patterns...
February 2019: Science Advances
Yutaka Fujioka, Toshiyuki Amano, Akira Nakamizo, Satoshi Matsuo, Shigeto Kawauchi
Background: Brain tumor are a major etiology of secondary intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) because ICH in patients with cancer often occurs from an intratumoral hemorrhage. However, it is sometimes difficult to detect a tumor when it is tiny and buried, especially during initial examination. Case Description: A 65-year-old woman who was diagnosed with pulmonary small cell carcinoma 6 months previously developed sudden-onset consciousness disturbance and left hemiparesis...
2019: Surgical Neurology International
Natsumi Fujii, Makoto Ideguchi, Takafumi Nishizaki, Norio Ikeda, Taichi Shimabukuro, Tomomi Okamura, Machiko Oono
Background: We present a case of tentorial dural arteriovenous fistula (TDAVF) causing subarachnoid hemorrhage with mass effect of large venous pouches, which was struggling to diagnosis and management due to complex vasculature and severe general condition. Case Description: A 43-year-old man was transferred to our hospital due to sudden consciousness disturbance. A neurological examination revealed tetraparesis and pupil dilatation with no light reflex. Imaging findings showed a large lesion in the brainstem with subarachnoid and intraventricular hemorrhage...
2019: Surgical Neurology International
J van Son, R C Rietbroek, F M Vaz, C E M Hollak
This case report presents an adult patient with decreased levels of consciousness and bizarre behavior. A silent delirium was first suspected however, symptoms did not improve and further examination revealed elevated ammonia levels. A hepatic cause and portosystemic shunting were excluded and eventually a diagnosis of ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency was made. After treatment with high carbohydrate intake, a low protein diet and supplementation with arginine and sodium benzoate, the patient recovered.
January 2019: Netherlands Journal of Medicine
Samer S Hoz, Ali A Dolachee, Husain A Abdali, Hidetoshi Kasuya
PURPOSE: We report a series of 29 pediatric patients who sustained head injuries due to metallic ceiling fans. They all were admitted to the Emergency Department of Neurosurgery Teaching Hospital in Baghdad, Iraq, during January 2015 to January 2017. RESULTS: Pediatric ceiling fan head injuries are characterized by four traits which distinguish them from other types of head injuries; 1- Most of them were because of climbing on or jumping from furniture between the ages of two and five...
February 18, 2019: British Journal of Neurosurgery
Merideth Addicott, Bruce Luber, Duy Nguyen, Hannah Palmer, Sarah Lisanby, Lawrence Appelbaum
The insular cortex supports the conscious awareness of physical and emotional sensations, and the ability to modulate the insula could have important clinical applications in psychiatry. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) uses transient magnetic fields to induce electrical currents in the superficial cortex. Given its deep location in the brain, the insula may not be directly stimulated by rTMS; however, rTMS may modulate the insula via its functional connections with superficial cortical regions...
February 16, 2019: Brain Connectivity
Subhas Sitaula, Pratibha Kaul, Vikram Aggarwal
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is reported as leading cause of death in patients on chronic hemodialysis. Arrhythmias are proposed to be a major predisposing factor for SCD. However, triggers for potentially lethal arrhythmias are not well understood. Here we describe a case of 72-year-old man on chronic hemodialysis via permanent Central venous catheter (CVC) who was admitted for evaluation after unwitnessed fall. Within 10 minutes of his first routine dialysis session in the hospital, he had cardiac-arrest. He was successfully resuscitated within 3 minutes...
February 18, 2019: Hemodialysis International
Klaas-Ole Blohm, Katharina M Hittmair, Alexander Tichy, Barbara Nell
OBJECTIVE: To assess quantitative perfusion of intra- and extraocular regions of interest (ROIs) in conscious, healthy dogs utilizing contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS); to compare varying enhancement with the first and second bolus injection and in the right and left eye; and to determine the most appropriate examination time. PROCEDURES: Gray scale ultrasonography and contrast harmonic imaging using sulfur hexafluoride were performed randomly assigned in both eyes in 10 university-owned beagles...
February 17, 2019: Veterinary Ophthalmology
Navin Bhatt, Sudha Agrawal, Kabindra Mehta
BACKGROUND: Facial appearance has increasing importance to individuals and women, in particular. Till date, there are no reports of the extrinsic factors influencing skin aging in Nepalese population. OBJECTIVES: To assess the risk factors and self-perception for facial aging in Nepalese population. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 110 attendees aged 30-70 years visiting the dermatology outpatient department of B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences...
February 17, 2019: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
Yu Shimizu, Katsuhiro Tsuchiya, Hironori Fujisawa
BACKGROUND: Cerebral venous thrombosis is rare and an uncommon cause of stroke and has diverse etiologies and varied clinical presentations. Here, we report 2 cases of deep cerebral venous thrombosis. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 64-year-old woman presented with cerebral venous thrombosis due to a hypercoagulable state associated with ovarian tumor. On initial fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and diffusion-weighted imaging, there was a diffuse high-intensity lesion in the bilateral thalamus...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Sabine Aust, Matti Gärtner, Laura Basso, Christian Otte, Katja Wingenfeld, Woo Ri Chae, Isabella Heuser-Collier, Francesca Regen, Nicoleta Carmen Cosma, Franziska van Hall, Simone Grimm, Malek Bajbouj
About 20 to 30 percent of patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) do not respond to standard treatment and are considered treatment-resistant. The N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor antagonist ketamine has demonstrated rapid antidepressant effects in treatment-resistant MDD, but it is unknown whether its acute psychological effects are related to the later antidepressant effect. Therefore, we investigated the association between antidepressant responses to ketamine and the quality of ketamine-induced psychological experiences in MDD...
February 13, 2019: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Claudia L Craven, Roshini Ramkumar, Linda D'Antona, Simon D Thompson, Lewis Thorne, Laurence D Watkins, Ahmed K Toma
OBJECTIVEChronic ventriculomegaly in the absence of raised intracranial pressure (ICP) is a known entity in adult hydrocephalus practice. The natural history and indication for treatment is, however, poorly defined. A highly heterogeneous group, some adults with ventriculomegaly are asymptomatic, while others have life-threatening deteriorations. The authors hypothesized that the various presentations can be subtyped and represent different stages of decompensation. A cluster analysis was performed on a cohort of patients with chronic ventriculomegaly with the aim of elucidating typical clinical characteristics and outcomes in chronic ventriculomegaly in adults...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Neurosurgery
Jennifer Todd, Jane E Aspell, David Barron, Viren Swami
Previous research has identified a relationship between interoception and body image, where lower interoceptive awareness (IA) is associated with negative body image. However, relationships between facets of interoception and positive body image remain unexplored, and men and older adults remain underrepresented. To overcome these limitations, we assessed relationships between multiple dimensions of interoceptive awareness (IA) and multiple facets of body image in community adults. An online sample of 646 British adults (447 women) aged 18-76 years completed the Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA), the Body Appreciation Scale-2, the Functionality Appreciation Scale, the Authentic Pride subscale from the Body and Appearance Self-Conscious Emotions Scale, and the Appearance Orientation and Overweight Preoccupation subscales from the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire...
February 13, 2019: Body Image
Maria Kozhevnikov
Phenomenological studies suggest the existence of enhanced cognitive states, termed flow or peak experiences, in which specific cognitive processes (e.g., attention, perception) can be dramatically increased for limited durations. Here we review new scientific evidence that shows that specific types of meditation that developed out of certain religious traditions such as Vajrayana (Tantric Buddhism) and Hindu Tantra lead to the enhanced cognitive states, characterized by heightened sympathetic activation and phasic alertness (a significant temporary boost in focused attention)...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Religion and Health
David Pilecky, Mate Vamos, Peter Bogyi, Balazs Muk, Dora Stauder, Hajnalka Racz, Noemi Nyolczas, Gabor Z Duray, Gabor Zacher, Endre Zima
OBJECTIVE: Patients with electrical injury are considered to be at high risk of cardiac arrhythmias. Due to the small number of studies, there is no widely accepted guideline regarding the risk assessment and management of arrhythmic complications after electrical accident (EA). Our retrospective observational study was designed to determine the prevalence of ECG abnormalities and cardiac arrhythmias after EA, to evaluate the predictive value of cardiac biomarkers for this condition and to assess in-hospital and 30-day mortality...
February 15, 2019: Clinical Research in Cardiology: Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society
Matthew G Permenter, Bonna C McDyre, Danielle L Ippolito, Jonathan D Stallings
BACKGROUND: Heat illness remains a significant cause of morbidity in susceptible populations. Recent research elucidating the cellular mechanism of heat stress leading to heat illness may provide information to develop better therapeutic interventions, risk assessment strategies, and early biomarkers of organ damage. microRNA (miRNA) are promising candidates for therapeutic targets and biomarkers for a variety of clinical conditions since there is the potential for high specificity for individual tissues and unique cellular functions...
February 15, 2019: BMC Genomics
Christine Blume, Monika Angerer, Marion Raml, Renata Del Giudice, Nayantara Santhi, Gerald Pichler, Alexander B Kunz, Monika Scarpatetti, Eugen Trinka, Manuel Schabus
INTRODUCTION: Healthy circadian rhythmicity has been suggested to relate to a better state of brain-injured patients and to support the emergence of consciousness in patient groups characterised by a relative instability thereof such as patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC). METHODS: Going beyond earlier studies, we have adopted a systems-level perspective and, using multilevel modelling, assessed the joint predictive value of three indexes of circadian rhythm integrity derived from skin temperature variations, melatoninsulfate (aMT6s) secretion, and physical activity (wrist actigraphy) patterns for DOC patients' (13 unresponsive wakefulness syndrome [UWS]; 7 minimally conscious (exit) state [E/MCS]) behaviourally assessed state (Coma Recovery Scale-Revised [CRS-R] score)...
February 15, 2019: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
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