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Genetic basics of acute lymphoblastics leukemia

Motohiro Kato
The prognosis of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has dramatically improved, both basic research and clinical studies are continuously conducted in pursuit of further improvement. Recent advances in genomic analysis technology have enabled us to comprehensively identify genomic alterations in leukemic cells and thus have contributed to the better understanding of the molecular pathogenesis underlying ALL development. These genomic alterations can be applied not only as prognostic factors but also as therapeutic targets...
2018: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
Yin Ting Cheung, Raja B Khan, Wei Liu, Tara M Brinkman, Michelle N Edelmann, Wilburn E Reddick, Deqing Pei, Angela Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Deokumar Srivastava, Cheng Cheng, Leslie L Robison, Melissa M Hudson, Ching-Hon Pui, Kevin R Krull
Importance: Little is known about treatment-related neurotoxic mechanisms in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treated with chemotherapy only. Objective: To examine concentration of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers of brain injury at ALL diagnosis and during cancer therapy and to evaluate associations with long-term neurocognitive and neuroimaging outcomes and relevant genetic polymorphisms. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study included 235 patients with ALL who received a chemotherapy-only protocol...
July 12, 2018: JAMA Oncology
Heng Xu, Yang Shu
Treatment outcomes for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), especially pediatric ALL, have greatly improved due to the risk-adapted therapy. Combination of drug development, clinical practice, as well as basic genetic researches has brought the survival rate of ALL from less than 10% to more than 90% today, not only increasing the treatment efficacy but also limiting adverse drug reactions (ADRs). In this review, we summarized the landscape identification of ALL genetic alterations, which provided the opportunity to increase the survival rate and especially minimize the relapse risk of ALL, and highlighted the importance of the development of new technologies of genomic investigation for translational medicine...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
AHyun Choi, Anuradha Illendula, John A Pulikkan, Justine E Roderick, Jessica Tesell, Jun Yu, Nicole Hermance, Lihua Julie Zhu, Lucio H Castilla, John H Bushweller, Michelle A Kelliher
The gene encoding the RUNX1 transcription factor is mutated in a subset of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) patients, and RUNX1 mutations are associated with a poor prognosis. These mutations cluster in the DNA-binding Runt domain and are thought to represent loss-of-function mutations, indicating that RUNX1 suppresses T-cell transformation. RUNX1 has been proposed to have tumor suppressor roles in T-cell leukemia homeobox 1/3-transformed human T-ALL cell lines and NOTCH1 T-ALL mouse models. Yet, retroviral insertional mutagenesis screens identify RUNX genes as collaborating oncogenes in MYC-driven leukemia mouse models...
October 12, 2017: Blood
Takaomi Sanda, Wei Zhong Leong
In hematopoietic cell development, the transcriptional program is strictly regulated in a lineage- and stage-specific manner that requires a number of transcription factors to work in a cascade or in a loop, in addition to interactions with nonhematopoietic cells in the microenvironment. Disruption of the transcriptional program alters the cellular state and may predispose cells to the acquisition of genetic abnormalities. Early studies have shown that proteins that promote cell differentiation often serve as tumor suppressors, whereas inhibitors of those proteins act as oncogenes in the context of acute leukemia...
September 2017: Experimental Hematology
W S Liau, S H Tan, P C T Ngoc, C Q Wang, V Tergaonkar, H Feng, Z Gong, M Osato, A T Look, T Sanda
The transcription factor TAL1/SCL is one of the most prevalent oncogenes in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), a malignant disorder resulting from leukemic transformation of thymus T-cell precursors. TAL1 is normally expressed in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) but is silenced in immature thymocytes. We hypothesize that TAL1 contributes to leukemogenesis by activating genes that are normally repressed in immature thymocytes. Herein, we identified a novel TAL1-regulated super-enhancer controlling the GIMAP locus, which resides within an insulated chromosomal locus in T-ALL cells...
August 2017: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
Medhat A Al-Ghobashy, Said A Hassan, Doaa H Abdelaziz, Noha M Elhosseiny, Nirmeen A Sabry, Ahmed S Attia, Manal H El-Sayed
Individualized therapy is a recent approach aiming to specify dosage regimen for each patient according to its genetic state. Cancer chemotherapy requires continuous monitoring of the plasma concentration levels of active forms of cytotoxic drugs and subsequent dose adjustment. In order to attain optimum therapeutic efficacy, correlation to pharmacogenetics data is crucial. In this study, a specific, accurate and sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been developed for determination of methotrexate (MTX), 6-mercaptopurine (MP) and its metabolite 6-thioguanine nucleotide (TG) in human plasma...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Olalekan O Oluwole, Marco L Davila
T cells kill microbial-infected and malignant cells by detection of nonself antigens with the TCR. Tumor reactivity can be encoded genetically by introducing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) into T cells. CARs are composed of an antigen-binding domain and an intracellular T cell activation domain. Early human trials evaluating CD19-targeted CAR T cells for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) showed limited responses until CARs included a costimulation domain, and conditioning chemotherapy was given before T cell infusion...
December 2016: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
E Mandato, S Manni, F Zaffino, G Semenzato, F Piazza
Genetic mutations of oncogenes often underlie deranged cell growth and altered differentiation pathways leading to malignant transformation of B-lymphocytes. However, addiction to oncogenes is not the only drive to lymphoid tumor pathogenesis. Dependence on non-oncogenes, which act by propelling basic mechanisms of cell proliferation and survival, has also been recognized in the pathobiology of lymphoid leukemias, lymphomas and multiple myeloma. Among the growing number of molecules that may uphold non-oncogene addiction, a key place is increasingly being recognized to the serine-threonine kinase CK2...
November 24, 2016: Oncogene
Aissa Benyoucef, Carmen G Palii, Chaochen Wang, Christopher J Porter, Alphonse Chu, Fengtao Dai, Véronique Tremblay, Patricia Rakopoulos, Kulwant Singh, Suming Huang, Francoise Pflumio, Josée Hébert, Jean-Francois Couture, Theodore J Perkins, Kai Ge, F Jeffrey Dilworth, Marjorie Brand
T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is a heterogeneous group of hematological tumors composed of distinct subtypes that vary in their genetic abnormalities, gene expression signatures, and prognoses. However, it remains unclear whether T-ALL subtypes differ at the functional level, and, as such, T-ALL treatments are uniformly applied across subtypes, leading to variable responses between patients. Here we reveal the existence of a subtype-specific epigenetic vulnerability in T-ALL by which a particular subgroup of T-ALL characterized by expression of the oncogenic transcription factor TAL1 is uniquely sensitive to variations in the dosage and activity of the histone 3 Lys27 (H3K27) demethylase UTX/KDM6A...
March 1, 2016: Genes & Development
Theodoros N Sergentanis, Thomas P Thomopoulos, Spyros P Gialamas, Maria A Karalexi, Stylianos-Iason Biniaris-Georgallis, Evangelia Kontogeorgi, Paraskevi Papathoma, Gerasimos Tsilimidos, Alkistis Skalkidou, Anastasia N Iliadou, Eleni T Petridou
The role of reproductive factors, such as parental age, in the pathogenesis of childhood leukemias is being intensively examined; the results of individual studies are controversial. This meta-analysis aims to quantitatively synthesize the published data on the association between parental age and risk of two major distinct childhood leukemia types in the offspring. Eligible studies were identified and pooled relative risk (RR) estimates were calculated using random-effects models, separately for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML)...
December 2015: European Journal of Epidemiology
Rimas J Orentas, Crystal L Mackall
After decades of basic research, immune-based therapeutics for the treatment of cancer are showing evidence of efficacy in clinical trials; several immunotherapeutics already incorporated into standard treatment regimens. Intensive research is underway to improve the efficacy of immunotherapeutics and to expand the application of immunotherapy to a wider array of cancers. The therapeutic options that comprise immunotherapy for cancer are vast and span monoclonal antibodies, tumor vaccines, adoptive cellular therapies, as well as therapies aimed at reversing immunosuppression and enhancing immune reactivity globally and/or locally within the tumor microenvironment...
2015: Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis
Alem S Gabriel, Fadhel M Lafta, Edward C Schwalbe, Sirintra Nakjang, Simon J Cockell, Alice Iliasova, Amir Enshaei, Claire Schwab, Vikki Rand, Steven C Clifford, Sally E Kinsey, Chris D Mitchell, Ajay Vora, Christine J Harrison, Anthony V Moorman, Gordon Strathdee
Although children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) generally have a good outcome, some patients do relapse and survival following relapse is poor. Altered DNA methylation is highly prevalent in ALL and raises the possibility that DNA methylation-based biomarkers could predict patient outcome. In this study, genome-wide methylation analysis, using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip platform, was carried out on 52 diagnostic patient samples from 4 genetic subtypes [ETV6-RUNX1, high hyperdiploidy (HeH), TCF3-PBX1 and dic(9;20)(p11-13;q11)] in a 1:1 case-control design with patients who went on to relapse (as cases) and patients achieving long-term remission (as controls)...
2015: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
Zhengshan Chen, Seyedmehdi Shojaee, Maike Buchner, Huimin Geng, Jae Woong Lee, Lars Klemm, Björn Titz, Thomas G Graeber, Eugene Park, Ying Xim Tan, Anne Satterthwaite, Elisabeth Paietta, Stephen P Hunger, Cheryl L Willman, Ari Melnick, Mignon L Loh, Jae U Jung, John E Coligan, Silvia Bolland, Tak W Mak, Andre Limnander, Hassan Jumaa, Michael Reth, Arthur Weiss, Clifford A Lowell, Markus Müschen
B cells are selected for an intermediate level of B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) signalling strength: attenuation below minimum (for example, non-functional BCR) or hyperactivation above maximum (for example, self-reactive BCR) thresholds of signalling strength causes negative selection. In ∼25% of cases, acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) cells carry the oncogenic BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase (Philadelphia chromosome positive), which mimics constitutively active pre-BCR signalling. Current therapeutic approaches are largely focused on the development of more potent tyrosine kinase inhibitors to suppress oncogenic signalling below a minimum threshold for survival...
May 21, 2015: Nature
Huimin Geng, Christian Hurtz, Kyle B Lenz, Zhengshan Chen, Dirk Baumjohann, Sarah Thompson, Natalya A Goloviznina, Wei-Yi Chen, Jianya Huan, Dorian LaTocha, Erica Ballabio, Gang Xiao, Jae-Woong Lee, Anne Deucher, Zhongxia Qi, Eugene Park, Chuanxin Huang, Rahul Nahar, Soo-Mi Kweon, Seyedmehdi Shojaee, Lai N Chan, Jingwei Yu, Steven M Kornblau, Janetta J Bijl, B Hilda Ye, K Mark Ansel, Elisabeth Paietta, Ari Melnick, Stephen P Hunger, Peter Kurre, Jeffrey W Tyner, Mignon L Loh, Robert G Roeder, Brian J Druker, Jan A Burger, Thomas A Milne, Bill H Chang, Markus Müschen
Studying 830 pre-B ALL cases from four clinical trials, we found that human ALL can be divided into two fundamentally distinct subtypes based on pre-BCR function. While absent in the majority of ALL cases, tonic pre-BCR signaling was found in 112 cases (13.5%). In these cases, tonic pre-BCR signaling induced activation of BCL6, which in turn increased pre-BCR signaling output at the transcriptional level. Interestingly, inhibition of pre-BCR-related tyrosine kinases reduced constitutive BCL6 expression and selectively killed patient-derived pre-BCR(+) ALL cells...
March 9, 2015: Cancer Cell
Jean-Marc Navarro, Aurore Touzart, Lydie C Pradel, Marie Loosveld, Myriam Koubi, Romain Fenouil, Sandrine Le Noir, Muhammad Ahmad Maqbool, Ester Morgado, Claude Gregoire, Sebastien Jaeger, Emilie Mamessier, Charles Pignon, Salima Hacein-Bey-Abina, Bernard Malissen, Marta Gut, Ivo G Gut, Hervé Dombret, Elizabeth A Macintyre, Steven J Howe, H Bobby Gaspar, Adrian J Thrasher, Norbert Ifrah, Dominique Payet-Bornet, Estelle Duprez, Jean-Christophe Andrau, Vahid Asnafi, Bertrand Nadel
T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemias (T-ALL) are aggressive malignant proliferations characterized by high relapse rates and great genetic heterogeneity. TAL1 is amongst the most frequently deregulated oncogenes. Yet, over half of the TAL1(+) cases lack TAL1 lesions, suggesting unrecognized (epi)genetic deregulation mechanisms. Here we show that TAL1 is normally silenced in the T-cell lineage, and that the polycomb H3K27me3-repressive mark is focally diminished in TAL1(+) T-ALLs. Sequencing reveals that >20% of monoallelic TAL1(+) patients without previously known alterations display microinsertions or RAG1/2-mediated episomal reintegration in a single site 5' to TAL1...
January 23, 2015: Nature Communications
Bastien Gerby, Cedric S Tremblay, Mathieu Tremblay, Shanti Rojas-Sutterlin, Sabine Herblot, Josée Hébert, Guy Sauvageau, Sébastien Lemieux, Eric Lécuyer, Diogo F T Veiga, Trang Hoang
The molecular determinants that render specific populations of normal cells susceptible to oncogenic reprogramming into self-renewing cancer stem cells are poorly understood. Here, we exploit T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) as a model to define the critical initiating events in this disease. First, thymocytes that are reprogrammed by the SCL and LMO1 oncogenic transcription factors into self-renewing pre-leukemic stem cells (pre-LSCs) remain non-malignant, as evidenced by their capacities to generate functional T cells...
December 2014: PLoS Genetics
Marc R Mansour, Brian J Abraham, Lars Anders, Alla Berezovskaya, Alejandro Gutierrez, Adam D Durbin, Julia Etchin, Lee Lawton, Stephen E Sallan, Lewis B Silverman, Mignon L Loh, Stephen P Hunger, Takaomi Sanda, Richard A Young, A Thomas Look
In certain human cancers, the expression of critical oncogenes is driven from large regulatory elements, called super-enhancers, that recruit much of the cell's transcriptional apparatus and are defined by extensive acetylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27ac). In a subset of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cases, we found that heterozygous somatic mutations are acquired that introduce binding motifs for the MYB transcription factor in a precise noncoding site, which creates a super-enhancer upstream of the TAL1 oncogene...
December 12, 2014: Science
Nadia El-Menshawy, Doaa Shahin, Hayam Fathi Ghazi
OBJECTIVE: Aberrant activation of transcription factor genes is the most frequent target of genetic alteration in lymphoid malignancies. The lymphoblastic leukemia-derived sequence 1 (LYL1) gene, which encodes a basic helix-loop helix, was first identified with human T-cell acute leukemia. Recent studies suggest its involvement in myeloid malignancies. We aimed to study the expression percent of oncogene LYL1 in primary and secondary high-risk myeloid leukemia and the impact on prognostic significance in those patients...
June 2014: Turkish Journal of Haematology: Official Journal of Turkish Society of Haematology
Rui D Mendes, Leonor M Sarmento, Kirsten Canté-Barrett, Linda Zuurbier, Jessica G C A M Buijs-Gladdines, Vanda Póvoa, Willem K Smits, Miguel Abecasis, J Andres Yunes, Edwin Sonneveld, Martin A Horstmann, Rob Pieters, João T Barata, Jules P P Meijerink
Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)-inactivating mutations and/or deletions are an independent risk factor for relapse of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) patients treated on Dutch Childhood Oncology Group or German Cooperative Study Group for Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia protocols. Some monoallelic mutated or PTEN wild-type patients lack PTEN protein, implying that additional PTEN inactivation mechanisms exist. We show that PTEN is inactivated by small deletions affecting a few exons in 8% of pediatric T-ALL patients...
July 24, 2014: Blood
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