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Hepatitis A vaccine

Megan K Young, Allan W Cripps, Graeme R Nimmo
Objective To describe the use of normal human immunoglobulin (NHIG) recommended for public health purposes in Queensland and Australia. Methods Queensland public health unit (PHU) data on notified cases of measles, rubella and hepatitis A from 2004 to 2014 were examined; particularly regarding the number of contacts offered NHIG and the volume recommended per contact. The National Blood Authority (NBA) provided unidentified data from NHIG order form inception (June 2014) through December 2016. Queensland orders were compared to PHU data where the data timeframes overlapped...
March 15, 2019: Communicable Diseases Intelligence
Zeinab Kimia, Seyed Nezamedin Hosseini, Seyed Siamak Ashraf Talesh, Maryam Khatami, Alireza Kavianpour, Amin Javidanbardan
Production of recombinant HBsAg as a main component of the hepatitis B vaccine has already been established in commercial scale. So far, many studies have been performed to optimize the production process of this recombinant vaccine. However, still aggregation and dissociation of rHBsAg virus-like particles (VLPs) are major challenges in downstream processing of this biomedicine. The structural diversity of rHBsAg is dependent on many factors including cell types, molecular characteristics of the expressed recombinant rHBsAg, buffer composition as well as operation condition and specific characteristics of each downstream processing unit...
March 11, 2019: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
D S O Daian E Silva, T M G Pinho, M A Rachid, D F Barbosa-Stancioli, F G Da Fonseca
Recombinant virus vectors represent a promising strategy for vaccine research. Among available viral vectors, members of the Poxviridae family-especially the modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)-stand out as immunogenic and safe vaccine platforms. Because MVA usually does not produce plaques in cell culture, visible selection markers such as the green fluorescent protein (GFP) are frequently incorporated into the constructions in order to facilitate the recognition of recombinants. However, these genetic markers have to be removed before any clinical trial...
March 15, 2019: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
Esther Hernández, Visitación de Castro, Ana Avellón, Itxaso González, Nerea Muniozguren, Sonia Vázquez, Milagros Muñoz-Chimeno
INTRODUCTION: The reporting of one case of hepatitis A in a food handler at a bakery and five cases in employees of a company after consuming products from the same bakery prompted an outbreak investigation. METHODS: Outbreak cases were defined as individuals with laboratory-confirmed hepatitis A (HAV) infection, with symptoms which started in June and who, during the incubation period, worked with the food handler and/or had close contact with him and/or consumed products from the bakery...
March 12, 2019: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
Vivek Soi, Chantale Daifi, Jerry Yee, Elizabeth Adams
An in-depth understanding of viral hepatitis is important to the care of patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing hemodialysis. Both hepatitis B and C viruses are acquired through hematogenous spread and can lead to horizontal transmission. Concurrent hepatic and renal injuries have ominous outcomes with significant morbidity. Hepatitis B incidence has decreased through practices including vaccination of nonimmune individuals and isolation of patients with the disease. The pathogenesis of hepatitis B leads to various symptoms and serologic changes with unique temporal associations dictating an acute or chronic presentation...
January 2019: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
Mustapha Bittaye, Patrick Idoko, Bissallah Ahmed Ekele, Samuel Amenyi Obed, Ousman Nyan
BACKGROUND: Infection with Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a serious public health problem worldwide, with over 360 million carriers. Sixty million of these are resident in Sub-saharan Africa. Hepatitis B infection is the cause of Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which is the second commonest cause of death from cancers among women in The Gambia. Vertical transmission is the commonest route of spread of Hepatitis B Virus in many endemic areas. The main aim of the study was to determine the sero-prevalence of Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at the Edward Francis Small Teaching Hospital, Banjul, The Gambia...
March 15, 2019: BMC Infectious Diseases
David L Albright, Antoinette A Landor, Justin T McDaniel, Kelli Godfrey, Kari L Fletcher, Kate H Thomas, Jessica Bertram
The purpose of the study was to determine whether veteran students and non-veteran students differed in their sexual behaviors and health practices and, furthermore, whether or not those differences were gender specific. Demographic characteristics of the study sample were explored by calculating frequencies and percentages by military service status. Research questions were explored with maximum likelihood multiple logistic regression. Results showed that student veterans were more likely than non-veteran students to have sex with multiple partners, with males and transgender students more likely than females to report multiple sexual partners...
March 11, 2019: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Joshua Kwabena Aniaku, Edem Kojo Amedonu, Adam Fusheini
BACKGROUND: Viral hepatitis B is a disease condition of the liver caused by the hepatitis B virus, and it leads to complications such as cancer and cirrhosis. This poses an occupational hazard because about 66,000 health care workers get infected with the virus annually. Adequate knowledge and right attitude of health workers are required to prevent the disease. Compared to average health care workers, trainee nurses are more vulnerable to the disease due to inadequate knowledge on infection control guidelines...
February 28, 2019: Annals of Global Health
Jesper S Krog, Lars E Larsen, Solvej Ø Breum
Pigs are considered the main reservoir of genotypes 3 and 4 of the human pathogen hepatitis E virus (HEV). These viruses are prevalent at a high level in swine herds globally, meaning that consumers may be exposed to HEV from the food chain if the virus is present in pigs at slaughter. The aim of this study was to determine the HEV infection dynamics from birth to slaughter using 104 pigs from 11 sows in a single production system. Serum was collected from sows at 2 weeks prior to farrowing, in addition feces and serum samples were collected from the pigs every second week, from week 1 to week 17...
2019: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Jia Xiao, Fei Wang, Nai-Kei Wong, Jinhan He, Rui Zhang, Ruijuan Sun, Yanying Xu, Yingxia Liu, Wei Li, Kazuo Koike, Weiling He, Hong You, Yinglei Miao, Xiaowei Liu, Mingming Meng, Bin Gao, Hua Wang, Cui Li
Liver diseases affect millions of people worldwide. In most developed countries, the incidence of viral hepatitis is waning as a result of modern advances in disease prevention, diagnosis, and therapies. Expanded programs for systematic immunization against hepatitis B virus (HBV) have also significantly brought down the number of new cases in many countries, including China. In contrast, with the improvement of living standards, prevalence of metabolic liver diseases, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is set to rise, which ultimately leads to more cases of end-stage liver diseases (liver failure, cirrhosis, and liver cancer)...
March 11, 2019: Journal of Hepatology
Joachim Denner
Hepatitis (HEV) is widely distributed in pigs and is transmitted with increasing numbers to humans by contact with pigs, contaminated food and blood transfusion. The virus is mostly apathogenic in pigs but may enhance the pathogenicity of other pig viruses. In humans, infection can lead to acute and chronic hepatitis and extrahepatic manifestations. In order to stop the emerging infection, effective counter-measures are required. First of all, transmission by blood products can be prevented by screening all blood donations...
March 13, 2019: Viruses
Gabrielle Vieyres, Thomas Pietschmann
The replication cycle of the liver-tropic hepatitis C virus (HCV) is tightly connected to the host lipid metabolism, during the virus entry, replication, assembly and egress stages, but also while the virus circulates in the bloodstream. This interplay coins viral particle properties, governs viral cell tropism, and facilitates immune evasion. This review summarizes our knowledge of these interactions focusing on the late steps of the virus replication cycle. It builds on our understanding of the cell biology of lipid droplets and the biosynthesis of liver lipoproteins and attempts to explain how HCV hijacks these organelles and pathways to assemble its lipo-viro-particles...
March 12, 2019: Cells
Doug Campos-Outcalt
Immunization rates for hepatitis B are still suboptimal; a new 2-dose vaccine may help turn that around. HepA vaccine is now preferred as post-exposure prophylaxis for adults >40 years.
March 2019: Journal of Family Practice
Durdica Marosevic, Anne Belting, Katharina Schönberger, Anja Carl, Jürgen J Wenzel, Roland Brey
Hepatitis A (HAV) is a viral infection causing a range of symptoms, sudden onset of fever, malaise, diarrhea, and jaundice. It is mostly transmitted fecal-oral through contaminated food, with immediate household and sexual contacts having a higher risk of infection. Since 2016 an increased number of HAV infections, mostly affecting men who have sex with men (MSM) have been noticed worldwide, with three main genotypes circulating. We report here on the first spillover outbreak of the MSM-associated HAV genotype RIVM-HAV16-090 in the German general population in November 2017-February 2018...
March 13, 2019: Food and Environmental Virology
Gulzar Ahmad, Muhammad Adnan Khan, Sagheer Abbas, Atifa Athar, Bilal Shoaib Khan, Muhammad Shoukat Aslam
In this research, a new multilayered mamdani fuzzy inference system (Ml-MFIS) is proposed to diagnose hepatitis B. The proposed automated diagnosis of hepatitis B using multilayer mamdani fuzzy inference system (ADHB-ML-MFIS) expert system can classify the different stages of hepatitis B such as no hepatitis, acute HBV, or chronic HBV. The expert system has two input variables at layer I and seven input variables at layer II. At layer I, input variables are ALT and AST that detect the output condition of the liver to be normal or to have hepatitis or infection and/or other problems...
2019: Journal of Healthcare Engineering
Maria Ganczak, Katarzyna Topczewska, Maria Budnik-Szymoniuk, Marcin Korzeń
BACKGROUND: Due to numerous blood exposures hospital staff are at risk of acquiring hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections. This study aimed at estimating prevalence of HBV, associated risk factors and HBV vaccination among Polish health care workers (HCWs). METHODS: A cross-sectional sero-survey was conducted (October 2016-January 2018) in 10 randomly selected hospitals from two provinces: of low and high incidence of HBV, with the use of an anonymous, self- administered questionnaire...
March 12, 2019: BMC Public Health
Leslie W Miles, Nathalia Williams, Karlen E Luthy, Lacey Eden
BACKGROUND: Adults who suffer with severe and persistent mental illness (SPMI) rarely access medical care to receive preventive vaccines. AIMS: To increase the rate of vaccines among the SPMI population in an outpatient community mental health center (CMHC). METHODS: A review of the literature identified a gap between the general population and SPMI clients in receiving preventive vaccinations. An initial mixed-method convenience survey of SPMI clients ( n = 392) provided information on current vaccination status, demographics, beliefs, and interest in receiving vaccines...
March 13, 2019: Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association
Karin Neukam, Marcial Delgado Fernández, José Hernández Quero, Antonio Rivero-Juárez, Silvia Llaves-Flores, Francisco Jiménez Oñate, Alicia Gutiérrez-Valencia, Nuria Espinosa, Pompeyo Viciana, Luis F López-Cortés
BACKGROUND: Various recent outbreaks of hepatitis A virus (HAV) have been described in men who have sex with men (MSM) despite the availability of an effective vaccine. This study aimed to determine the current rates of seroconversion after receiving HAV vaccine (HAV-V) in HIV-infected patients under real-life conditions. SETTING: Patients were selected from a Southern Spanish multicentric cohort of HIV-infected subjects. METHODS: Restrospective analysis of all patients who received two doses (standard scheme) from April 2008 to May 2016 or, from June 2016 to February 2018 facing an HAV outbreak with shortage of HAV-V, one single dose of HAV-V...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Bing-Yu Yan, Jing-Jing Lv, Jia-Ye Liu, Yi Feng, Wen-Long Wu, Ai-Qiang Xu, Li Zhang
OBJECTIVES: Hepatitis A vaccine (HepA) has been involved in national Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) in China since 2008. The present study evaluated the dynamics change in seroepidemiology of hepatitis A virus (HAV) before and after the introduction of the program. METHODS: The trends in the seroepidemiology of anti-HAV antibodies were examined in Shandong Province, China, drawing on the two population-based samples from persons aged 1-59 years conducted in 2006 (n=6682) and 2014 (n=5095), respectively...
March 9, 2019: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Marijn Thijssen, Philippe Lemey, Samad Amini-Bavil-Olyaee, Simon Dellicour, Seyed Moayed Alavian, Frank Tacke, Chris Verslype, Frederik Nevens, Mahmoud Reza Pourkarim
People from low-to-middle income countries have been migrating to western Europe on a large scale in recent years. Data indicate that the number of first-time asylum applications by non-EU members increased from 290 000 in 2011 to more than 1·3 million in 2015. During the peak period of migration, The Global Health Sector Strategy on Viral Hepatitis was adopted by WHO. Viral hepatitis, and particularly hepatitis B virus (HBV), is an important disease because of its high prevalence and associated mortality...
April 2019: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
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