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deficient intestinal absorption syndrome

Ursula Seidler, Katerina Nikolovska
SLC26 family members are multifunctional transporters of small anions, including Cl- , HCO3 - , sulfate, oxalate, and formate. Most SLC26 isoforms act as secondary (coupled) anion transporters, while others mediate uncoupled electrogenic transport resembling Cl- channels. Of the 11 described SLC26 isoforms, the SLC26A1,2,3,6,7,9,11 are expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, where they participate in salt and water transport, surface pH-microclimate regulation, affect the microbiome composition, the absorption, and secretion of oxalate and sulfate, and other functions that require further study...
March 15, 2019: Comprehensive Physiology
Luther A Bartelt, David T Bolick, Richard L Guerrant
Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED, syn. environmental enteropathy (EE)) is a subclinical chronic intestinal disorder that is an emerging contributor to early childhood malnutrition. EED is common in resource-limited settings, and is postulated to consist of small intestinal injury, dysfunctional nutrient absorption, and chronic inflammation that results in impaired early child growth attainment. While there is emerging interest in the hypothetical potential for chemical toxins in the environmental 'exposome' to contribute to EED, the propensity of published data, and hence the focus of this review, implicates a critical role of environmental microbes...
January 7, 2019: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Manuel Ruz, Fernando Carrasco, Pamela Rojas, Karen Basfi-Fer, Maria Catalina Hernández, Alvaro Pérez
Zinc (Zn) plays crucial roles in mammalian metabolism. There is increasing interest about the potential beneficial effects of Zn on the prevention or treatment of non-communicable diseases. This review critically analyzes the information related to the role of Zn on the metabolic syndrome (MetS) as well as type 2 diabetes (T2D), and summarizes the biological basis of these potential effects of Zn. There are several mechanisms by which Zn may help to prevent the development or progression of MetS and T2D, respectively...
January 2, 2019: Biological Trace Element Research
Franziska Hanisch, Linda Toresson, Thomas Spillmann
Cobalamin is a member of the B-group of vitamins and a cofactor for metabolic processes like nucleic acid synthesis, amino acid synthesis, and the citric acid cycle. Mammals are unable to synthesize cobalamin and therefore rely on adequate food intake. Cobalamin absorption is a complex process in the stomach, duodenum, and ileum, requiring a functional exocrine pancreas. Thus, a great number of gastrointestinal diseases like chronic enteropathies, intestinal lymphoma, or exocrine pancreatic insufficiency can lead to hypocobalaminemia...
October 2018: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere
Jiajie Zhu, Shan Liu, Yu Guo, Liwei Hou, Xiaolan Su, Yijie Li, Boyu Han, Dengke Liu, Qingguo Wang, Jiande Jd Chen, Wei Wei
Objective: The aim of this study was to examine a new method to create a rat model of diarrhea with spleen-kidney yang deficiency syndrome. Methods: A senna leaf (Folium sennae) decoction was made in 3 concentrations of 1.0, 0.5, and 0.25 g/mL. Rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: the control (C)-, high (H)-, middle (M)-, and low (L)- dose groups. The groups received saline, 1.0, 0.5, or 0.25 g/mL senna leaf decoction, respectively, for 4 weeks. Body weight monitoring, food consumption, water intake, defecation frequency, stool Bristol score, weight-loaded forced swimming test, forelimb grip strength test, D-xylose absorption test, serum cortisone, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), 24 h urine 17-hydroxycorticosteroid (17-OHCS), and histopathological detection were conducted to assess the success of the senna leaf decoction-induced model...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Kenji Yoshida, Yoshihiro Kita, Suzumi M Tokuoka, Fumie Hamano, Maya Yamazaki, Kenji Sakimura, Masanobu Kano, Takao Shimizu
Excess energy intake causes obesity, which leads to insulin resistance and various other complications of metabolic syndrome, including diabetes, atherosclerosis, dyslipidemia, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Although recent studies have depicted altered lipid metabolism as an underlying feature, the detailed mechanisms are still unclear. Here we describe a possible role in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity for monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL), an enzyme that is also known to hydrolyze the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol in brain...
September 28, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Alina Kurolap, Orly Eshach-Adiv, Claudia Gonzaga-Jauregui, Katya Dolnikov, Adi Mory, Tamar Paperna, Tova Hershkovitz, John D Overton, Marielle Kaplan, Fabian Glaser, Yaniv Zohar, Alan R Shuldiner, Gidon Berger, Hagit N Baris
BACKGROUND: Intestinal integrity is essential for proper nutrient absorption and tissue homeostasis, with damage leading to enteric protein loss, that is, protein-losing enteropathy (PLE). Recently, homozygous nonsense variants in the plasmalemma vesicle-associated protein gene ( PLVAP ) were reported in two patients with severe congenital PLE. PLVAP is the building block of endothelial cell (EC) fenestral diaphragms; its importance in barrier function is supported by mouse models of Plvap deficiency...
November 2018: Journal of Medical Genetics
Markus Mühlemann, Daniela Zdzieblo, Alexandra Friedrich, Constantin Berger, Christoph Otto, Heike Walles, Hermann Koepsell, Marco Metzger
OBJECTIVES: Glycemic control by medical treatment represents one therapeutic strategy for diabetic patients. The Na+-d-glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) is currently of high interest in this context. SGLT1 is known to mediate glucose absorption and incretin secretion in the small intestine. Recently, inhibition of SGLT1 function was shown to improve postprandial hyperglycemia. In view of the lately demonstrated SGLT1 expression in pancreatic islets, we investigated if loss of SGLT1 affects islet morphology and function...
July 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Ah-Reum Oh, Seonyong Sohn, Junghoon Lee, Jong-Min Park, Ki Taek Nam, Ki-Baik Hahm, Young-Bum Kim, Ho-Jae Lee, Ji-Young Cha
OBJECTIVE: Fructose malabsorption is a common digestive disorder in which absorption of fructose in the small intestine is impaired. An abnormality of the main intestinal fructose transporter proteins has been proposed as a cause for fructose malabsorption. However the underlying molecular mechanism for this remains unclear. In this study, we investigated whether carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP) plays a role in intestinal fructose absorption through the regulation of genes involved in fructose transport and metabolism and ion transport...
August 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Kwai Lam, Lauren Schwartz, Jennifer Batisti, Kishore R Iyer
BACKGROUND: Teduglutide is a glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) analog that has been approved for the treatment of adult short bowel syndrome (SBS)-associated intestinal failure (IF; SBS-IF). Teduglutide increases villus height and crypt depth in the small bowel mucosa, promoting nutrition absorption and enteral independence from parenteral nutrition (PN). We aim to report our single-center experience with teduglutide in adult patients with SBS to provide real-world context to its use. METHOD: We conducted a retrospective analysis on patients managed within our tertiary-level intestinal rehabilitation program to identify patients with SBS-IF treated with teduglutide from 2009-2015...
January 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Gisah Amaral de Carvalho, Gilberto Paz-Filho, Cleo Mesa Junior, Hans Graf
Hypothyroidism is one of the most common hormone deficiencies in adults. Most of the cases, particularly those of overt hypothyroidism, are easily diagnosed and managed, with excellent outcomes if treated adequately. However, minor alterations of thyroid function determine nonspecific manifestations. Primary hypothyroidism due to chronic autoimmune thyroiditis is largely the most common cause of thyroid hormone deficiency. Central hypothyroidism is a rare and heterogeneous disorder characterized by decreased thyroid hormone secretion by an otherwise normal thyroid gland, due to lack of TSH...
June 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
Anne Marie Uwitonze, Mohammed S Razzaque
Nutrients usually act in a coordinated manner in the body. Intestinal absorption and subsequent metabolism of a particular nutrient, to a certain extent, is dependent on the availability of other nutrients. Magnesium and vitamin D are 2 essential nutrients that are necessary for the physiologic functions of various organs. Magnesium assists in the activation of vitamin D, which helps regulate calcium and phosphate homeostasis to influence the growth and maintenance of bones. All of the enzymes that metabolize vitamin D seem to require magnesium, which acts as a cofactor in the enzymatic reactions in the liver and kidneys...
March 1, 2018: Journal of the American Osteopathic Association
Efstathios T Pavlidis, Theodoros E Pavlidis
BACKGROUND: Obstructive jaundice is a common problem in daily clinical practice. Understanding completely the pathophysiological changes in obstructive jaundice remains a challenge for planning current and future management. DATA SOURCES: A PubMed was searched for relevant articles published up to August 2016. The effect of obstructive jaundice on proinflammatory cytokines, coagulation status, hemodynamics and organ functions were evaluated. RESULTS: The effects of obstructive jaundice included biliary tree, the hepatic cell and liver function as well as systemic complications...
February 2018: Hepatobiliary & Pancreatic Diseases International: HBPD INT
Ali Saeed, Robin P F Dullaart, Tim C M A Schreuder, Hans Blokzijl, Klaas Nico Faber
Vitamin A is required for important physiological processes, including embryogenesis, vision, cell proliferation and differentiation, immune regulation, and glucose and lipid metabolism. Many of vitamin A's functions are executed through retinoic acids that activate transcriptional networks controlled by retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs).The liver plays a central role in vitamin A metabolism: (1) it produces bile supporting efficient intestinal absorption of fat-soluble nutrients like vitamin A; (2) it produces retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) that distributes vitamin A, as retinol, to peripheral tissues; and (3) it harbors the largest body supply of vitamin A, mostly as retinyl esters, in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs)...
December 29, 2017: Nutrients
Katsumi Iizuka
Many articles have discussed the relationship between fructose consumption and the incidence of obesity and related diseases. Fructose is absorbed in the intestine and metabolized in the liver to glucose, lactate, glycogen, and, to a lesser extent, lipids. Unabsorbed fructose causes bacterial fermentation, resulting in irritable bowl syndrome. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms underlying intestinal and hepatic fructose metabolism is important for the treatment of metabolic syndrome and fructose malabsorption...
February 22, 2017: Nutrients
Lorete Maria da Silva Kotze, Carolina Tabata Costa, Murilo Franco Cavassani, Renato Mitsunori Nisihara
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), including Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), are characterized by chronic inflammation of the intestine that can reduce the absorption of nutrients such as vitamin D and calcium. OBJECTIVE: To investigate bone alterations and serum levels of vitamin D in patients with IBD. METHOD: This was a cross-sectional study based on a review of medical records of patients from a private office in Curitiba, PR, Brazil...
January 1, 2017: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
Richard D Semba, Indi Trehan, Ximin Li, Ruin Moaddel, M Isabel Ordiz, Kenneth M Maleta, Klaus Kraemer, Michelle Shardell, Luigi Ferrucci, Mark Manary
BACKGROUND: Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED), a condition characterized by small intestine inflammation and abnormal gut permeability, is widespread in children in developing countries and a major cause of growth failure. The pathophysiology of EED remains poorly understood. METHODS: We measured serum metabolites using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in 400 children, aged 12-59months, from rural Malawi. Gut permeability was assessed by the dual-sugar absorption test...
March 2017: EBioMedicine
Ewa Łoś-Rycharska, Zuzanna Kieraszewicz, Mieczysława Czerwionka-Szaflarska
Fats constitute the most significant nutritional source of energy. Their proper use by the body conditions a number of complex mechanisms of digestion, absorption, distribution, and metabolism. These mechanisms are facilitated by fats made of medium chain fatty acids; therefore, they are an easy and quick source of energy. Thus, an increased supply of medium chain triglycerides (MCT) is particularly important in patients with disturbances of digestion and absorption such as disturbed bile secretion, classic coeliac disease, short bowel syndrome, inflammatory diseases of the intestines, disturbed outflow of lymph, some metabolic disease, and severe food allergies, as well as in prematurely born neonates...
2016: Przegla̜d Gastroenterologiczny
Miyuki Kinebuchi, Akihiro Matsuura, Tohru Kiyono, Yumiko Nomura, Sachiko Kimura
Copper (Cu) is an indispensable metal for normal development and function of humans, especially in central nervous system (CNS). However, its redox activity requires accurate Cu transport system. ATP7A, a main Cu(2+) transporting-ATPase, is necessary to efflux Cu across the plasma membrane and synthesize cuproenzymes. Menkes disease (MD) is caused by mutations in ATP7A gene. Clinically, MD is Cu deficiency syndrome and is treated with Cu-histidine injections soon after definite diagnosis. But outcome of the most remains poor...
September 15, 2016: Scientific Reports
Valeria Cohran, Elizabeth Managlia, Emily M Bradford, Tatiana Goretsky, Ting Li, Rebecca B Katzman, Paul Cheresh, Jeffrey B Brown, Jennifer Hawkins, Shirley X L Liu, Isabelle G De Plaen, Jörn-Hendrik Weitkamp, Michael Helmrath, Zheng Zhang, Terrence A Barrett
Intestinal adaptation to small-bowel resection (SBR) after necrotizing enterocolitis expands absorptive surface areas and promotes enteral autonomy. Survivin increases proliferation and blunts apoptosis. The current study examines survivin in intestinal epithelial cells after ileocecal resection. Wild-type and epithelial Pik3r1 (p85α)-deficient mice underwent sham surgery or 30% resection. RNA and protein were isolated from small bowel to determine levels of β-catenin target gene expression, activated caspase-3, survivin, p85α, and Trp53...
July 2016: American Journal of Pathology
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