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Brandon G King, Quinn A Conklin, Anthony P Zanesco, Clifford D Saron
Contemporary investigations of mindfulness and meditation have predominately emphasized the short-term effects of brief inductions or standardized, multi-week interventions in people with little to no prior meditation experience. Considerably less is known about the effects of continued or intensive meditation practice as proficiency and expertise are acquired over time. In this article, we describe the form and function of residential retreats, an understudied class of meditation intervention that holds promise for bridging this gap in the empirical literature...
January 7, 2019: Current Opinion in Psychology
Samar M Alsaleh, Angelica I Aviles-Rivero, James K Hahn
Minimally invasive surgical and diagnostic systems are commonly used in clinical practices. However, the accuracy and robustness of these systems depend heavily on computer based processes such as tracking, detecting or segmenting clinically meaningful regions of interest, which are significantly affected by the inherent specular reflections that appear on the organs' surfaces. Restoration of the acquired data for clinical purposes still presents challenges because of the high texture and color variations across the image...
March 4, 2019: Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics: the Official Journal of the Computerized Medical Imaging Society
Murat Kar, Nuray Bayar Muluk, Sameer Ali Bafaqeeh, Cemal Cingi
OBJECTIVES: Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a symptomatic disorder of the nose induced by allergen exposure, which triggers immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated inflammation of the nasal membranes. Allergic rhinitis is one of the most common health problems and has a major effect on the quality of life. METHODS: In this review, we aimed to provide a consensus for experimental studies on allergic rhinitis in terms of allergic rhinitis models. For this purpose, we searched for experimental studies in the PubMed, Proquest Central, and Google electronic databases over a 20-year period from the current time (1996-2016)...
March 9, 2019: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
V Bodolica, M Spraggon
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this article was twofold. We aimed to both clarify the multidimensional notion of patient empowerment (PE) and conduct a comprehensive survey of PE-related literature in the specific context of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). STUDY DESIGN: The study objectives were achieved by means of a two-phased systematic review of the literature on PE and associated dimensions. METHODS: The first phase consisted in the database search for recent review articles on the construct of PE that were published in the past five years...
March 13, 2019: Public Health
Ran Bi, Chongyu Zhou, Yongfeng Jia, Shaofeng Wang, Ping Li, Elke S Reichwaldt, Wenhua Liu
Water quality is declining worldwide and an increasing number of waterbodies lose their ecological function due to human population growth and climate change. Constructed floating wetlands (CFWs) are a promising ecological engineering tool for restoring waterbodies. The functionality of CFWs has been studied in-situ, in mesocosms and in the laboratory, but a systematic review of the success of in situ applications to improve ecosystem health is missing to date. This review summarises the pollutant dynamics in the presence of CFWs and quantifies removal efficiencies for major pollutants with a focus on in situ applications, including studies that have only been published in the Chinese scientific literature...
March 13, 2019: Journal of Environmental Management
Summer Haddad, Cindy-Lee Dennis, Prakesh S Shah, Robyn Stremler
BACKGROUND: Sleep disruption during the first postpartum year is associated with several negative health outcomes including postpartum depression. Such disruption may be a greater issue for parents of preterm neonates, yet literature on this subject has not been critically reviewed. OBJECTIVE: To synthesize literature on sleep quantity, sleep quality, and factors influencing sleep among parents of preterm infants during infant hospitalization and following discharge...
March 5, 2019: Midwifery
Aurélien Cornil, Jiang Long, Stéphane Rothen, José C Perales, Philippe de Timary, Joël Billieux
Both research and clinical practice acknowledge the importance of craving as a maintenance and relapse factor in gambling disorder. The elaborated intrusion theory (EIT; Kavanagh et al., 2005) of desire has been extensively investigated in relation to psychoactive substance or food cravings but, to date, has scarcely been studied in relation to gambling. In such a context, developing an assessment tool of gambling craving based on the EIT is warranted. To fill this gap in the literature, we aimed to develop and test the psychometric properties of a gambling-adapted version of the Craving Experience Questionnaire (CEQ; May et al...
February 27, 2019: Addictive Behaviors
E Danae Guerra, Fadi Baakdah, Elias Georges, D Scott Bohle, Marta Cerruti
The malaria parasite, Plasmodium spp., produces hemozoin (Hz) crystals as a by-product of hemoglobin digestion. Purification methods used to remove host or parasite products adsorbed on Hz surface lead to variable and undetermined residues. This compositional variation likely accounts for the assortment of contradictory results in studies of Hz's biomineralization, immunomodulating properties, and the mechanism of action of some antimalarials. In this work, we study the surface of Hz cleaned with two methods, both reported in the literature, one stricter than the other...
February 16, 2019: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
Keith E Stanovich, Maggie E Toplak
Actively open-minded thinking (AOT) is measured by questionnaire items that tap the willingness to consider alternative opinions, the sensitivity to evidence contradictory to current beliefs, the willingness to postpone closure, and reflective thought. AOT has been found to be a strong predictor of performance on heuristics and biases tasks and of the avoidance of reasoning traps such as superstitious thinking and belief in conspiracy theories. Recently, several studies that have employed short forms of the AOT scale have shown startlingly high negative correlations with religiosity (in the range of -0...
March 12, 2019: Cognition
Jimmy K Limdi, Jennifer Farraye, Rachel Cannon, Elisabeth Woodhams, Francis A Farraye
The peak incidence of the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) is between the second and fourth decades of life, which coincides with prime reproductive years. Unplanned or mistimed pregnancies may account for nearly half of all pregnancies and are associated with adverse consequences such as a higher risk of delayed preconceptual care, increased risk of preterm birth, low birth weight, and adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. Increased IBD activity during pregnancy is also associated with adverse pregnancy-related outcomes, such as miscarriage, intrauterine growth retardation, and preterm birth...
March 16, 2019: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Ioanna Katsouri, Loukas Athanasiadis, Evangelos Bekiaris, Magda Tsolaki
AIM: The study describes the driving habits of people with cognitive disorders and previous professional driving experience. A similar study has not been mentioned in the literature. METHOD: From a total of 639 drivers who participated in the research, 153 participants were selected based on their answer on an extensive driving questionnaire. They were asked whether they had a professional driving license. Forty-three participants (28.1%) said "Yes", 110 participants (71...
January 2019: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
Fatemeh Abdolali, Reza Aghaeizadeh Zoroofi, Yoshito Otake, Yoshinobu Sato
PURPOSE: The objective of medical content-based image retrieval (CBIR) is to assist clinicians in decision making by retrieving the most similar cases to a given query image from a large database. Herein, a new method for content-based image retrieval of cone beam CT (CBCT) scans is presented. METHODS: The introduced framework consists of two main phases: training database construction and querying. The goal of the training phase is database construction, which consists of three main steps...
March 14, 2019: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
Luma Succar, Elisabeth M Sulaica, Kevin R Donahue, Matthew A Wanat
Cardiogenic shock is a life-threatening condition that may occur secondary to a variety of cardiac conditions, and may require temporary support with percutaneous ventricular devices like the Impella®. Anticoagulation in patients with Impella® devices can often be complicated due to unpredictable purge flow rates, pre-existing coagulopathy, or heparin allergies. The purpose of this article is to discuss the various options for anticoagulation in the setting of Impella®. The article will also describe recent updates (2014-current) in literature surrounding anticoagulation therapy for Impella® devices...
March 15, 2019: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
Cecilia Rosso, Giovanni Felisati, Antonio Bulfamante, Carlotta Pipolo
Among cephalgias, cluster headache (CH) is the rarest and the most disabling, explaining the appellation of "suicide headache." Up to 20% of chronic CH reveals to be resistant to pharmacological treatments, in which case interventional procedures should be considered. Many reports evaluated invasive approaches and a wide strand of research is dedicated to the sphenopalatine ganglion. Our paper will now be focused on providing an overview on modern applications on the sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG), their outcomes, and their feasibility in terms of risks and benefits...
March 16, 2019: Neurological Sciences
Quan Zhang, Shan Qiao, Xueying Yang, Xiaoming Li
This review aims to validate hair antiretroviral concentration (HAC) as a measure for antiretroviral medication adherence. This review included 31 studies that analyzed a total of 11 ARV drugs in four different drug classes. The associations between HAC and non-pharmacokinetic measures were generally lower than the association between HAC and other pharmacokinetic measures: the correlation coefficients (r) ranged from - 0.20 to 0.38 for self-report or pill counts and 0.20 to 0.85 for electronic drug monitoring; HAC and other pharmacokinetic measures were positively correlated with the correlation coefficients (r) ranging from 0...
March 15, 2019: AIDS and Behavior
Iwona Zwolak
Arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) are elements arousing major public health concerns associated with environmental pollution, high toxicity potential, and carcinogenic nature. However, selenium (Se) at low doses and incorporated into enzymes and proteins has antioxidant properties and protects animals and humans from the risk of various diseases. It also has an exceptionally narrow range between necessary and toxic concentrations, which is a well-known hindrance in its use as a dietary supplement. The present article aims to update and expand the role of Se in As and Cd toxicity discussed in our earlier paper...
March 15, 2019: Biological Trace Element Research
Nuwan Dharmawardana, Eng Hooi Ooi, Charmaine Woods, Damian Hussey
Circulating microRNAs have been described as head and neck cancer biomarkers in multiple anatomical subsites including the oral cavity, nasopharynx, larynx, salivary glands and the skin. While there is an expanding volume of published literature showing the significance of individual or panels of microRNAs, the clinical validation of candidate biomarkers is lacking. The various methods used to collect, store, process and interpret these microRNAs are likely introducing bias and contributing to the inconsistent results...
March 14, 2019: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
Polyzois Makras, Athanasios D Anastasilakis, George Antypas, Efstathios Chronopoulos, Evangelia G Kaskani, Aikaterini Matsouka, Dimos K Patrikos, Konstantinos D Stathopoulos, Symeon Tournis, George Trovas, Christos Kosmidis
We report the updated guidelines for the management of osteoporosis in Greece, which include guidance on fracture risk assessment, diagnosis-pharmacological treatment-follow-up of osteoporosis based on updated information, and national evidence from Greek clinical practice and the healthcare setting. PURPOSE: The purpose of this report was to update the Guidelines for the Management of Osteoporosis in Greece that was published in 2011. METHODS: In line with the GRADE system, the working group initially defined the main clinical questions that should be addressed when dealing with the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis in clinical practice in Greece...
March 15, 2019: Archives of Osteoporosis
Janelle E Letzen, Jeff Boissoneault, Landrew S Sevel, Michael E Robinson
Depressive symptoms are common among individuals with chronic pain. Previous work suggests that chronic pain patients have difficulty regulating emotional responses, which is a risk factor for the development of major depressive disorder (MDD). Function of the mesocorticolimbic system, a neural network associated with reward processing, contributes to emotion regulation. This network's dysfunction has been described in chronic pain and MDD research and potentially underlies the relationship among emotion dysregulation, chronic pain, and MDD development...
March 15, 2019: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Yali Qu, Mou Li, Gavin Hamilton, Yingzhen N Zhang, Bin Song
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of hepatic magnetic resonance imaging-proton density fat fraction (MRI-PDFF) for the assessment of liver steatosis (LS) with histology as reference standard. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed to identify pertinent studies. Quality analyses were conducted by Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2. Diagnostic data were extracted and inconsistency index was calculated for LS≥G1, LS≥G2, and LS=G3, respectively...
March 15, 2019: European Radiology
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