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X Yang, Y X Chen, J W Zeng, M G He
Over the past decade, breakthrough has been made on myopia progression control with a lot of evidence from clinical trials, but the effective clinical application of many of them remained immature. Though refraction clinics have been set up in many specialized hospitals offering spectacles to correct refractive error, there was few protocol or standard of treatment for reducing myopia progression. This commentary reviews the latest and essential publications and presents critical advice on applying the research findings to clinical practice...
February 11, 2019: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
Niels J Connell, Riekelt H Houtkooper, Patrick Schrauwen
NAD+ has gone in and out of fashion within the scientific community a number of times since its discovery in the early 1900s. Over the last decade, NAD+ has emerged as a potential target for combatting metabolic disturbances and the mitochondrial dysfunction that is mediated through sirtuin (SIRT) enzymes. The beneficial metabolic effects of the NAD+ /SIRT axis have triggered an increased interest in NAD+ as an enhancer of energy metabolism. As a result, a myriad of publications have focused on NAD+ metabolism, with the majority of the work having been performed using in vitro models, and in vivo work largely consisting of interventions in Caenorhabditis elegans and rodents...
February 16, 2019: Diabetologia
P Comizzoli, W V Holt
Because of higher extinction rates due to human and natural factors, more basic and applied research in reproductive biology is required to preserve wild species and design proper strategies leading to sustainable populations. The objective of the review is to highlight recent, inspiring breakthroughs in wildlife reproduction science that will set directions for future research and lead to more successes in conservation biology. Despite new tools and approaches allowing a better and faster understanding of key mechanisms, we still know little about reproduction in endangered species...
February 17, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Anne Conrad, Mathilde Boccard, Florent Valour, Vincent Alcazer, Aydee-Tamara Tovar Sanchez, Christian Chidiac, Frédéric Laurent, Philippe Vanhems, Gilles Salles, Karen Brengel-Pesce, Boris Meunier, Sophie Trouillet-Assant, Florence Ader
INTRODUCTION: Immune reconstitution after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a complex and dynamic process, varying from a state of nearly complete immunosuppression to an expected full immune recovery. Specific vaccination guidelines recommend reimmunisation after HSCT but data regarding vaccine efficacy in this unique population are scarce. New immune functional assays could enable prediction of vaccine response in the setting of HSCT. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A prospective, longitudinal single-centre cohort study of autologous and allogeneic HSCT recipients was designed in order to determine the vaccine response to five vaccine targets (pneumococcus, hepatitis B virus, Haemophilus Influenzae type b, tetanus and diphtheria) and to correlate it to immune function parameters...
February 15, 2019: BMJ Open
Oriana Ciani, Maria Cucciniello, Francesco Petracca, Giovanni Apolone, Giampaolo Merlini, Silvia Novello, Paolo Pedrazzoli, Nicoletta Zilembo, Chiara Broglia, Enrica Capelletto, Marina Garassino, Elena Nicod, Rosanna Tarricone
INTRODUCTION: Mobile health technologies may enhance patient empowerment and data integration along the whole care continuum. However, these interventions pose relatively new regulatory, organisational and technological challenges that limit appropriate evaluation. Lung Cancer App (LuCApp) is a mobile application developed by researchers and clinicians to promote real-time monitoring and management of patients' symptoms. This protocol illustrates a clinical trial designed to evaluate the usability, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of LuCApp versus standard of care...
February 15, 2019: BMJ Open
Kristina M Kokorelias, Sarah Munce, Kathy S McGilton, Shawna M Cronin, Chen D Wang, Parvin Eftekhar, Darren K Cheng, Shirin Vellani, Susan Jaglal, Nancy M Salbach, Pia Kontos, Tracey J F Colella, Alisa Grigorovich, Jill I Cameron
INTRODUCTION: Although a growing number of frail adults can benefit from rehabilitation services, few are included in rehabilitation services, and reasons for their exclusion are not well understood. To inform research directions in rehabilitation for all adults (aged 18 years and older), we will conduct a scoping review to describe (1) the characteristics of frail adult individuals included in rehabilitation interventions (eg, age range, inclusion and exclusion criteria that are applied), (2) the type of rehabilitation interventions that are used for individuals who are considered frail and (3) the commonly reported outcome measures used for these rehabilitation interventions...
February 15, 2019: BMJ Open
Marcelina G Perez, Magali Fassiotto, Jonathan Altamirano, Gloria L Hwang, Yvonne Maldonado, Shellie Josephs, Daniel Y Sze, Nishita Kothary
PURPOSE: To investigate the current state of gender diversity among invited coordinators at the Society of Interventional Radiology (SIR) Annual Scientific Meeting and to compare the academic productivity of female interventional radiologists to that of invited male coordinators. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Faculty rosters for the SIR Annual Scientific Meetings from 2015 to 2017 were stratified by gender to quantify female representation among those asked to lead and coordinate podium sessions...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology: JVIR
Cristina Zurique Sánchez, Miguel Oswaldo Cadena Sanabria, Marina Zurique Sánchez, Paul Anthony Camacho López, Marina Sánchez Sanabria, Santiago Hernández Hernández, Karen Velásquez Vanegas, Andrea Ustate Valera
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Dementia is a growing public health problem. It involves the impairment of several cognitive functions, generating mental and physical disability, and therefore greater functional dependence. There is limited epidemiological information which reveals an approximate prevalence in older adults from Latin America. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of dementia in the older adult population of Latin America, and its distribution according to geographic area and gender...
February 13, 2019: Revista Española de Geriatría y Gerontología
C Jacobs, C Beninger, G S Hazlewood, K Orsel, H W Barkema
Digital dermatitis (DD) is an infectious bacterial disease affecting cattle feet. Footbaths are a common herd-level control method for DD; however, variations in product, concentration, and frequency of use complicate comparisons between protocols. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate all walk-through footbath protocols reported that determined efficacy for prevention and treatment of DD lesions in dairy cattle. An extensive literature search was conducted, including electronic databases and gray literature updated until March 2018...
March 1, 2019: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
S Gandini, M Lazzeroni, F A Peccatori, B Bendinelli, C Saieva, D Palli, G Masala, S Caini
We conducted a meta-analysis of studies reporting on the risk of extra-ovarian malignancies among women with endometriosis. Summary relative risk (SRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated through random effect models. We explored causes of between-studies heterogeneity and assessed the presence of publication bias. We included 32 studies published between 1989 and 2018. We found an increased risk of endometrial (SRR 1.38, 95%CI 1.10-1.74) and thyroid cancer (SRR 1.38, 95%CI 1.17-1.63), and inverse association with cervical cancer (SRR 0...
February 2019: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
James C Hurley
PURPOSE: The objective here is to define the extent and possible reasons for geographic variation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa associated with Ventilator Associated Pneumonia (VAP). METHODS: A random effects meta-regression model of Pseudomonas associated VAP incidence within the published literature was undertaken incorporating group level factors such trauma admission, year of publication and use of bronchoscopic sampling towards VAP diagnosis. RESULTS: Pseudomonas associated VAP incidence was reported in 162 studies from seven worldwide regions published over 30 years...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Critical Care
David G Leach, Simon Young, Jeffrey D Hartgerink
Macroscale biomaterials, such as preformed implantable scaffolds and injectable soft materials, possess powerful synergies with anti-cancer immunotherapies. Immunotherapies on their own typically have poor delivery properties, and often require repeated high-dose injections that result in serious off-tumor effects and/or limited efficacy. Rationally designed biomaterials allow for discrete localization and controlled release of immunotherapeutic agents, and have been shown in a large number of applications to improve outcomes in the treatment of cancers via immunotherapy...
February 13, 2019: Acta Biomaterialia
Vojtěch Brlík, Jaroslav Koleček, Malcolm Burgess, Steffen Hahn, Diana Humple, Miloš Krist, Janne Ouwehand, Emily L Weiser, Peter Adamík, José A Alves, Debora Arlt, Sanja Barišić, Detlef Becker, Eduardo J Belda, Václav Beran, Christiaan Both, Susana P Bravo, Martins Briedis, Bohumír Chutný, Davor Ćiković, Nathan W Cooper, Joana S Costa, Víctor R Cueto, Tamara Emmenegger, Kevin Fraser, Olivier Gilg, Marina Guerrero, Michael T Hallworth, Chris Hewson, Frédéric Jiguet, James A Johnson, Tosha Kelly, Dmitry Kishkinev, Michel Leconte, Terje Lislevand, Simeon Lisovski, Cosme López, Kent P McFarland, Peter P Marra, Steven M Matsuoka, Piotr Matyjasiak, Christoph M Meier, Benjamin Metzger, Juan S Monrós, Roland Neumann, Amy Newman, Ryan Norris, Tomas Pärt, Václav Pavel, Noah Perlut, Markus Piha, Jeroen Reneerkens, Christopher C Rimmer, Amélie Roberto-Charron, Chiara Scandolara, Natalia Sokolova, Makiko Takenaka, Dirk Tolkmitt, Herman van Oosten, Arndt H J Wellbrock, Hazel Wheeler, Jan van der Winden, Klaudia Witte, Brad Woodworth, Petr Procházka
Currently, the deployment of tracking devices is one of the most frequently used approaches to study movement ecology of birds. Recent miniaturisation of light-level geolocators enabled studying small bird species whose migratory patterns were widely unknown. However, geolocators may reduce vital rates in tagged birds and may bias obtained movement data. There is a need for a thorough assessment of the potential tag effects on small birds, as previous meta-analyses did not evaluate unpublished data and impact of multiple life-history traits, focused mainly on large species and the number of published studies tagging small birds has increased substantially...
February 16, 2019: Journal of Animal Ecology
Volkan Tuncay, Peter M A van Ooijen
BACKGROUND: Current developments showed a fast-increasing implementation and use of three-dimensional (3D) printing in medical applications. Our aim was to review the literature regarding the application of 3D printing to cardiac valve disease. METHODS: A PubMed search for publications in English with the terms "3D printing" AND "cardiac valve", performed in January 2018, resulted in 64 items. After the analysis of the abstract and text, 27 remained related to the topic...
February 15, 2019: European radiology experimental
Alisha Bhanot, Alyson Huntley, Matthew J Ridd
Atopic dermatitis/eczema is a chronic inflammatory skin condition, and emollients are the first-line treatment. Despite their widespread use, there is uncertainty about the frequency and type of adverse events associated with different emollients. We conducted a restricted review of published data on adverse events associated with emollient use in eczema. Medline (Ovid) was searched from inception (1946) to June 2018. All types of studies, with the exception of reviews, were included. Eligibility was assessed using a two-stage screening process against inclusion and exclusion criteria...
February 15, 2019: Dermatology and Therapy
T Zhang, J Li, F Yin, B Lin, Z Wang, J Xu, H Wang, D Zuo, G Wang, Y Hua, Z Cai
Since the publication of this paper, the authors have noticed that the article contains an error in Figure 3e (TSN, 50 nM). As a result of the misfiling of the data, the incorrect image was inadvertently inserted in Figure 3e during figure preparation. The corrected image is shown in this correction.
February 15, 2019: Oncogene
Teresa Druck, Douglas G Cheung, Dongju Park, Francesco Trapasso, Flavia Pichiorri, Marco Gaspari, Tiziana Palumbo, Rami I Aqeilan, Eugenio Gaudio, Hiroshi Okumura, Rodolfo Iuliano, Cinzia Raso, Kari Green, Kay Huebner, Carlo M Croce
Fhit protein is lost in cancers of most, perhaps all, cancer types; when restored, it can induce apoptosis and suppress tumorigenicity, as shown in vitro and in mouse tumor models in vivo. Following protein cross-linking and proteomics analyses, we characterized a Fhit protein complex involved in triggering Fhit-mediated apoptosis. The complex includes the heat-shock chaperonin pair, HSP60/10, which is likely involved in importing Fhit into the mitochondria, where it interacts with ferredoxin reductase, responsible for transferring electrons from NADPH to cytochrome P450 via ferredoxin, in electron transport chain complex III...
February 15, 2019: Cell Death & Disease
X Teng, W Li, C Cornaby, L Morel
Immune metabolism is a rapidly moving field. While most of the research has been conducted to define the metabolism of healthy immune cells in the mouse, it is recognized that the overactive immune system that drives autoimmune diseases presents metabolic abnormalities that provide therapeutic opportunities, as well as a means to better understand the fundamental mechanisms of autoimmune activation. Here, we review recent publications that have reported how the major metabolic pathways are affected in autoimmune diseases, with a focus on rheumatic diseases...
February 15, 2019: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
James P Agalloco
Steam sterilization is widely used across the healthcare industry, and among the most documented and standardized. Despite its broad application, there is considerable confusion regarding the different process control consideration and sterilizer designs necessary for its successful use. The methods and equipment used for porous (equipment, components and tools) loads are established to address air removal and steam penetration as these are critical to process efficacy. Sterilizing processes and equipment for non-porous loads (sealed aqueous containers) seek to minimize variations across the load, and minimizing over-processing...
February 15, 2019: PDA Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology
Marios K Georgakis, Marco Duering, Joanna M Wardlaw, Martin Dichgans
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between baseline white matter hyperintensities (WMH) in patients with ischemic stroke and long-term risk of dementia, functional impairment, recurrent stroke, and mortality. METHODS: Following the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines (PROSPERO protocol: CRD42018092857), we systematically searched Medline and Scopus for cohort studies of ischemic stroke patients examining whether MRI- or CT-assessed WMH at baseline are associated with dementia, functional impairment, recurrent stroke, and mortality at 3 months or later poststroke...
February 15, 2019: Neurology
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