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Secondary traumatic stress

Ty Lees, Jaymen L Elliott, Simon Gunning, Phillip J Newton, Tapan Rai, Sara Lal
Law enforcement is inherently stressful, and police officers are particularly vulnerable to mental and physical disorders. As such, researchers are currently assessing intervention strategies that may combat or manage these psychological, physical and mental issues. To review most recent information regarding anxiety, PTSD, and sleepiness and fatigue and identify the interventions and treatments proposed to overcome work related stressors and associated mental illnesses inflicting law enforcement officers. The EMBASE, OVID MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases were canvassed for articles investigating anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, sleepiness, and fatigue...
February 13, 2019: Industrial Health
Jessica A Chen, John C Fortney, Hannah E Bergman, Kendall C Browne, Kathleen M Grubbs, Teresa J Hudson, Patrick J Raue
Trauma-focused psychotherapies for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are not widely utilized. Clinicians report concerns that direct discussion of traumatic experiences could undermine the therapeutic alliance, which may negatively impact retention and outcome. Studies among adolescents with PTSD found no difference in alliance between trauma-focused and non-trauma-focused psychotherapies, but this has not been tested among adults. The present study is a secondary analysis of a randomized trial of collaborative care, also known as care management, for PTSD...
February 11, 2019: Psychological Services
G Turrini, M Purgato, C Acarturk, M Anttila, T Au, F Ballette, M Bird, K Carswell, R Churchill, P Cuijpers, J Hall, L J Hansen, M Kösters, T Lantta, M Nosè, G Ostuzzi, M Sijbrandij, F Tedeschi, M Valimaki, J Wancata, R White, M van Ommeren, C Barbui
AimsIn the past few years, there has been an unprecedented increase in the number of forcibly displaced migrants worldwide, of which a substantial proportion is refugees and asylum seekers. Refugees and asylum seekers may experience high levels of psychological distress, and show high rates of mental health conditions. It is therefore timely and particularly relevant to assess whether current evidence supports the provision of psychosocial interventions for this population. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the efficacy and acceptability of psychosocial interventions compared with control conditions (treatment as usual/no treatment, waiting list, psychological placebo) aimed at reducing mental health problems in distressed refugees and asylum seekers...
February 11, 2019: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
Aleksandra Jasielska, Michał Ziarko
BACKGROUND: Due to the nature of their work, paramedics face an increased risk of developing a post-traumatic stress disorder. The main goal of this research project was to point out specific correlates of post-traumatic stress. The authors decided to approach that issue from the perspective of emotional-cognitive deficits and resources, such as alexithymia, rumination and coping with stress. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The authors conducted 3 independent research projects in the first half of the year 2017 in the Wielkopolskie voivodship, that included paramedics...
January 31, 2019: Medycyna Pracy
Julee La Mott, Luci A Martin
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the moderating effects of self-care on various compassion outcomes among mental health providers. METHOD: Mental health providers (n = 371; 94.1% female; mean age = 47.12) were surveyed regarding their level of self-care, history of adverse childhood experiences, and the degree of burnout, secondary traumatic stress, and compassion satisfaction experienced. RESULTS: Results indicated that providers who endorsed a history of adverse childhood experiences (82...
February 5, 2019: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Anja Greinacher, Cassandra Derezza-Greeven, Wolfgang Herzog, Christoph Nikendei
Background : Finding precise definitions of secondary traumatic stress, vicarious traumatization, and compassion fatigue is not easy. While some researchers define these terms differentially, others use them interchangeably. In the present review, we refer to all three phenomena as secondary traumatization. Objectives : This systematic review aims to provide an overview of prevalence rates of secondary traumatization in first responders and to shed light on corresponding resilience and risk factors. Methods : After identifying 219 studies within the searched databases and 2192 references via hand searching, 31 studies were included in this review...
2019: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Elizabeth A Penix, Deborah L Whitmer, Jeffrey L Thomas, Joshua E Wilk, Amy B Adler
OBJECTIVE To compare symptoms of compromised behavioral health (BH symptoms) and factors protecting against those symptoms (protective factors) in military veterinary and nonveterinary health-care personnel deployed to Afghanistan. DESIGN Cross-sectional survey. SAMPLE 237 deployed military health-care personnel (21 veterinary and 216 nonveterinary). PROCEDURES Surveys were administered to participants during combat deployment in Afghanistan in 2013 to collect information on BH symptoms and protective factors...
February 15, 2019: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Kristen R Choi, Julian D Ford, Ernestine C Briggs, Michelle L Munro-Kramer, Sandra A Graham-Bermann, Julia S Seng
The purpose of this study was to explore relationships between maltreatment, posttraumatic stress disorder, and the dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder among adolescents. This descriptive study used secondary data from the National Child Traumatic Stress Network Core Data Set. A clinical sample of adolescents exposed to potentially traumatizing events ages 12 to 16 was selected (N = 3081) to explore associations between trauma history characteristics, sociodemographic factors, posttraumatic stress disorder, and the dissociative subtype of PTSD which includes depersonalization and derealization...
February 4, 2019: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
Oliver Glass, Mark Dreusicke, John Evans, Elizabeth Bechard, Ruth Q Wolever
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Trauma is highly prevalent, with estimates that up to 90% of the U.S. population have been exposed to a traumatic event. The adverse health consequences of trauma exposure are diverse and often long-lasting. While expressive writing has been shown to improve emotional and physical health in numerous populations, the feasibility and potential effectiveness of a novel expressive writing program provided in a clinical setting to improve resilience is unknown. Our objective was to determine the feasibility and potential effectiveness of a 6-week expressive writing course provided in a clinical setting to improve resilience in individuals with a history of trauma...
February 2019: Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice
Katharine M Mark, Dominic Murphy, Sharon A M Stevelink, Nicola T Fear
Little is known about ex-serving military personnel who access secondary mental health care. This narrative review focuses on studies that quantitatively measure secondary mental health care utilisation in ex-serving personnel from the United States. The review aimed to identify rates of mental health care utilisation, as well as the factors associated with it. The electronic bibliographic databases OVID Medline, PsycInfo, PsycArticles, and Embase were searched for studies published between January 2001 and September 2018...
January 28, 2019: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
Olivier Laverdière, John S Ogrodniczuk, David Kealy
Psychotherapists can experience emotional drain as a result of their work with distressed and traumatized patients. It has been suggested that psychotherapists' empathy, which is central to clinical work, may be an important risk factor in the development of burnout or secondary traumatic stress. This apparent contradiction is thought provoking, especially given the complexity of empathic response. The current study aimed to explore the relationship of empathy to compassion satisfaction, burnout, and secondary traumatic stress, while also considering the influence of important work conditions...
January 21, 2019: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Sergei A Novgorodov, Joshua R Voltin, Wenxue Wang, Stephen Tomlinson, Christopher L Riley, Tatyana I Gudz
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of disability worldwide and a prominent risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases. The expansion of nervous tissue damage after the initial trauma involves a multifactorial cascade of events including excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, inflammation and deregulation of sphingolipid metabolism that further mitochondrial dysfunction and secondary brain damage. Here, we show a post-transcriptional activation of an acid sphingomyelinase (ASM), a key enzyme of the sphingolipid recycling pathway, resulted in a selective increase of sphingosine in mitochondria during the first week post-TBI that was accompanied by reduced activity of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase and activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome...
January 20, 2019: Journal of Lipid Research
Melanie G Jones, Simon M Rice, Susan M Cotton
INTRODUCTION: As interest in Animal-Assisted Interventions (AAI) grows, there is increasing need to differentiate informal activities from formal and professionally directed therapies, including mental health focussed Canine-Assisted Psychotherapy (CAP). There have been no reviews focusing exclusively on CAP and the distinct developmental period of adolescence. The aims of this study were to identify the characteristics of CAP interventions, their impacts and their acceptability, tolerability and feasibility for adolescents with mental health disorders...
2019: PloS One
Priya Santhanam, Steffanie H Wilson, Terrence R Oakes, Lindell K Weaver
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are common outcomes for service members. Abnormal connectivity within neural networks has been reported in the resting brain of mTBI and PTSD patients, respectively; however, the potential role of PTSD in changes to neural networks following injury has not been studied in detail. Using a data-driven approach, the present analysis aimed to elucidate resting state functional connectivity in the default mode network (DMN) in those with mTBI only and those with comorbid mTBI and PTSD...
January 11, 2019: Brain Research
Lisa A Cross
The purpose of this review was to define compassion fatigue in the context of palliative care nursing. Compassion fatigue was first introduced as a description for nursing burnout; however, it was not fully described. An initial concept analysis within nursing placed it in terms of a psychological model for secondary traumatic stress disorder, with continual revisions of this application. Palliative care nurses are routinely exposed to pain, trauma, and the suffering they witness by nature of ongoing symptom management and end-of-life care delivery; however, the focus of care is on healthy end-of-life management rather than preservation of life...
February 2019: Journal of Hospice and Palliative Nursing: JHPN
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Jennifer Wild, Shama El-Salahi, Gabriella Tyson, Hjördis Lorenz, Carmine M Pariante, Andrea Danese, Apostolos Tsiachristas, Edward Watkins, Benita Middleton, Amanda Blaber, Anke Ehlers
INTRODUCTION: Emergency workers dedicate their lives to promoting public health and safety, yet suffer higher rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression (MD) compared with the general population. They also suffer an associated increased risk for physical health problems, which may be linked to specific immunological and endocrine markers or changes in relevant markers. Poor physical and mental health is costly to organisations, the National Health Service and society...
December 31, 2018: BMJ Open
Marni B Kellogg, Jacqueline S Dowling, Margaret Knight, Sybil L Crawford
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Secondary traumatic stress is a state of mental distress resulting from indirect exposure to the traumatic situation of another individual. The literature indicates that secondary traumatic stress is a problem in some areas of nursing and may cause nurses to leave the profession. This article examines the psychometrics of the Secondary Traumatic Stress Scale (STSS) with a sample of pediatric nurses. METHODS: The STSS was completed by a random sample of 350 Certified Pediatric Nurses...
December 2018: Journal of Nursing Measurement
Allison B J Tobey, Raymond C Maguire
INTRODUCTION: Paradoxical vocal fold movement dysfunction (PVFMD) is a disorder in which the vocal folds involuntarily adduct during inspiration resulting in stridor, cough, dysphonia and dyspnea. Diagnosis of PVFMD is difficult given the episodic nature of the disorder and the often-normal laryngeal exam in between episodes. Moreover, additional sources of obstruction have been identified as sources of Periodic Occurrence of Laryngeal Obstruction (POLO). Treatments can vary with site of obstruction...
December 2, 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
O K Napryeyenko, K M Loganovsky, N Yu Napryeyenko, T K Loganovskaja, M V Gresko, N A Zdanevich
The relevance of work is conditioned by the considerable prevalence of depressive disorders and alcohol abuseamong people who participated in combat operations (combatants) and affected by a radiation emergency, whichneeds to be optimized for providing them with a comprehensive social, psychological-psychiatric, medication andsomato-neurological help on the basis of a biopsychosocial paradigm.The objective of the study was to increase the level of medical care to combatants of the Antiterrorist Operation /Joint Forces Operation (ATO/JFO) and person affected by the catastrophe at the Chornobyl NPP (ChNPP) with depres-sion associated with alcohol abuse through theoretical substantiation, development and implementation in theinstitutions of public health and other agencies involved of new principles and algorithms for diagnosis, treatmentand prevention...
December 2018: Problemy Radiat︠s︡iĭnoï Medyt︠s︡yny Ta Radiobiolohiï
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