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Neural reflex

Mingmin Zhou, Yu Liu, Liang Xiong, Dajun Quan, Yan He, Yanhong Tang, He Huang, Congxin Huang
BACKGROUND Augmented cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex (CSAR) plays a role in enhanced sympathetic activity. Given that a strategy for abolishing augmented CSAR-induced sympathetic activation may be beneficial for protecting against ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) triggered by acute myocardial infarction (AMI), we investigated whether cardiac sympathetic afferent denervation (CSAD) could protect against VAs by modulating cardiac sympathetic nerve activity in an AMI dog model. MATERIAL AND METHODS Twenty-two anesthetized dogs were assigned to the CSAD group (n=9) and the sham group (n=13) randomly...
March 16, 2019: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Lauren B Burhans, Bernard G Schreurs
For almost 75 years, classical eyeblink conditioning has been an invaluable tool for assessing associative learning processes across many species, thanks to its high translatability and well-defined neural circuitry. Our laboratory has adapted the paradigm to extensively detail associative changes in the rabbit reflexive eyeblink response (unconditioned response, UR), characterized by postconditioning increases in the frequency, size, and latency of the UR when the periorbital shock unconditioned stimulus (US) is presented alone, termed conditioning-specific reflex modification (CRM)...
March 14, 2019: Behavioral Neuroscience
Hari M Bharadwaj, Alexandra R Mai, Jennifer M Simpson, Inyong Choi, Michael G Heinz, Barbara G Shinn-Cunningham
Studies in multiple species, including in post-mortem human tissue, have shown that normal aging and/or acoustic overexposure can lead to a significant loss of afferent synapses innervating the cochlea. Hypothetically, this cochlear synaptopathy can lead to perceptual deficits in challenging environments and can contribute to central neural effects such as tinnitus. However, because cochlear synaptopathy can occur without any measurable changes in audiometric thresholds, synaptopathy can remain hidden from standard clinical diagnostics...
March 7, 2019: Neuroscience
Adam S Lepley, Dustin R Grooms, Julie P Burland, Steven M Davi, Jeffrey M Kinsella-Shaw, Lindsey K Lepley
Quadriceps muscle dysfunction is common following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Data considering the diversity of neural changes, in-concert with morphological adaptations of the quadriceps muscle, are lacking. We investigated bilateral differences in neural and morphological characteristics of the quadriceps muscle in ACLR participants (n = 11, month post-surgery: 69.4 ± 22.4) compared to controls matched by sex, age, height, weight, limb dominance, and activity level. Spinal reflex excitability was assessed using Hoffmann reflexes (H:M); corticospinal excitability was quantified via active motor thresholds (AMT) and motor-evoked potentials (MEP) using transcranial magnetic stimulation...
March 9, 2019: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Khairunnisa Ramli, Aminath Ifasha Gasim, Amir Adham Ahmad, Ohnmar Htwe, Nor Hazla Mohammad Haflah, Zhe Kang Law, Shariful Hassan, Amaramalar Selvi Naicker, Sabarul Afian Mokhtar, Hisam Mohammad Ariffin, Azmi Baharuddin, Geok Chin Tan, Ruszymah Binti Haji Idrus, Shalimar Abdullah, Min Hwei Ng
We investigated the efficacy of a muscle-stuffed vein seeded with neural-transdifferentiated human mesenchymal stem cells as an alternative nerve conduit to repair a 15-mm sciatic nerve defect in athymic rats.Other rats received either muscle-stuffed vein conduit alone, commercial polyglycolic acid conduit (Neurotube®), reverse autograft or were left untreated. Motor and sensory functions as well as nerve conductivity were evaluated for 12 weeks, after which the grafts were harvested for histological analyses...
March 8, 2019: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Matija Milosevic, Yohei Masugi, Atsushi Sasaki, Dimitry G Sayenko, Kimitaka Nakazawa
Transcutaneous and epidural electrical spinal cord stimulation techniques are becoming more valuable as electrophysiological and clinical tools. Recently, remarkable recovery of the upper limb sensorimotor function during cervical spinal stimulation was demonstrated. In the present study, we sought to elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying the effects of transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation (tSCS) of the cervical spine. We hypothesized that cervical tSCS can be used to selectively activate the sensory route entering the spinal cord and transsynaptically converge on upper limb motor pools...
March 6, 2019: Journal of Neurophysiology
Francesco Budini, Daniela Kemper, Monica Christova, Eugen Gallasch, Dietmar Rafolt, Markus Tilp
OBJECTIVES: Corticospinal tract excitability and spinal reflex pathways are transiently affected by short applications of static stretching. However, it remains unclear whether the duration and magnitude of these neurophysiological responses can be increased with a longer duration of the applied stretch. The purpose of this study was to investigate alterations in cortical and spinal excitability following five minutes static stretching. METHODS: Seventeen participants (22...
March 1, 2019: Journal of Musculoskeletal & Neuronal Interactions
Nan Liang, Gary A Iwamoto, Ryan M Downey, Jere H Mitchell, Scott A Smith, Masaki Mizuno
Central command (CC) and the exercise pressor reflex (EPR) regulate blood pressure during exercise. We previously demonstrated that experimental stimulation of the CC and EPR pathways independently contribute to the exaggerated pressor response to exercise in hypertension. It is known that CC and EPR modify one another functionally. Whether their interactive relationship is altered in hypertension, contributing to the generation of this potentiated blood pressure response, remains unknown. To address this issue, the pressor response to activation of the CC pathway with and without concurrent stimulation of the EPR pathway, and vice versa, was examined in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats...
2019: Frontiers in Physiology
Andrea Stofkova, Daisuke Kamimura, Takuto Ohki, Mitsutoshi Ota, Yasunobu Arima, Masaaki Murakami
We have reported the gateway reflex, which describes specific neural activations that regulate immune cell gateways at specific blood vessels in the central nervous system (CNS). Four types of gateway reflexes exist, all of which induce alterations in endothelial cells at specific vessels of the blood-brain barrier followed by inflammation in the CNS in the presence of CNS-autoreactive T cells. Here we report a new gateway reflex that suppresses the development of retinal inflammation by using an autoreactive T cell-mediated ocular inflammation model...
February 20, 2019: Scientific Reports
Thomas Guiho, Christine Azevedo-Coste, David Guiraud, Claire Delleci, Grégoire Capon, Natalia Delgado-Piccoli, Luc Bauchet, Jean-Rodolphe Vignes
OBJECTIVESpinal cord injuries (SCIs) result in loss of movement and sensory feedback, but also organ dysfunction. Nearly all patients with complete SCI lose bladder control and are prone to kidney failure if intermittent catheterization is not performed. Electrical stimulation of sacral spinal roots was initially considered to be a promising approach for restoring continence and micturition control, but many patients are discouraged by the need for surgical deafferentation as it could lead to a loss of sensory functions and reflexes...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
Stuart B Mazzone, Michael J Farrell
Cough is an important protective mechanism for clearing the airways but becomes a troublesome, and often difficult to treat, symptom in respiratory disease. Although cough can be produced as a reflex in response to the presence of irritants within the airways, emerging research demonstrates an unappreciated complexity in the peripheral and central neural systems that regulate cough. This complexity includes multiple primary sensory neurons that can induce or facilitate reflex coughing, different ascending central circuits in the brain that contribute to cough sensory discrimination and the perception of the urge-to-cough, and several descending brain systems for inducing, facilitating and inhibiting cough responses...
February 11, 2019: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Shriya S Srinivasan, Maurizio Diaz, Matthew Carty, Hugh M Herr
While amputation has traditionally been viewed as a failure of therapy, recent developments in amputation surgery and neural interfacing demonstrate improved functionality and bidirectional communication with prosthetic devices. The agonist antagonist myoneural interface (AMI) is one such bi-directional neural communication model comprised of two muscles, an agonist and an antagonist, surgically connected in series within the amputated residuum such that contraction of one muscle stretches the other. By preserving agonist-antagonist muscle dynamics, the AMI allows proprioceptive signals from mechanoreceptors within both muscles to be communicated to the central nervous system...
February 13, 2019: Scientific Reports
Nadja F Bednarczuk, Angela Bonsu, Marta Casanovas Ortega, Anne-Sophie Fluri, John Chan, Heiko Rust, Fabiano de Melo, Mishaal Sharif, Barry M Seemungal, John F Golding, Diego Kaski, Adolfo M Bronstein, Qadeer Arshad
Vestibular migraine is among the commonest causes of episodic vertigo. Chronically, patients with vestibular migraine develop abnormal responsiveness to both vestibular and visual stimuli characterized by heightened self-motion sensitivity and visually-induced dizziness. Yet, the neural mechanisms mediating such symptoms remain unknown. We postulate that such symptoms are attributable to impaired visuo-vestibular cortical interactions, which in turn disrupts normal vestibular function. To assess this, we investigated whether prolonged, full-field visual motion exposure, which has been previously shown to modulate visual cortical excitability in both healthy individuals and avestibular patients, could disrupt vestibular ocular reflex and vestibular-perceptual thresholds of self-motion during rotations...
February 12, 2019: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Zoran Josipovic
I introduce arguments toward a non-representational reflexivity theory of consciousness-as-such to address one of the key issues in the science of consciousness today: lack of understanding of the nature of consciousness itself. An expanded map of consciousness is outlined, which includes, in addition to the well-known contents of awareness and levels of arousal, the indeterminate substrate and consciousness-as-such or nondual awareness. The central idea presented is that consciousness-as-such is a non-conceptual nondual awareness, whose essential property is non-representational reflexivity...
2019: Progress in Brain Research
Masayuki Watanabe, Ken-Ichi Okada, Yuta Hamasaki, Mari Funamoto, Yasushi Kobayashi, Michael MacAskill, Tim Anderson
Human cognitive behavior is predictive rather than reflexive because of volitional action preparation. Recent studies have shown that the covert process of volitional action preparation can be decoded from overt fixational eye movements of fixational/microsaccades and pupil dilation. Ocular drift, the slowest fixational eye movements, is also under the active neural control, but its relationship with cognitive behavior is unknown. Here, we examined whether ocular drift also reflects volitional action preparation...
February 5, 2019: European Journal of Neuroscience
Taylena Maria Teófilo, Gloria Pinto Duarte, Rosivaldo Dos Santos Borges, Armênio Dos Santos Aguiar, Pedro Jorge Caldas Magalhães, Saad Lahlou
Previously, we showed that the synthetic nitroderivative trans-4-methyl-β-nitrostyrene (T4MeN) induced vasorelaxant effects in rat isolated aortic rings. Here, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the cardiovascular effects of T4MeN in normotensive rats. In pentobarbital-anesthetized rats, intravenous (i.v.) injection of T4MeN (0.03-0.5mg/kg) induced a rapid (onset time of 1-2s) and dose-dependent bradycardia and hypotension. These cardiovascular responses to T4MeN were abolished by bilateral cervical vagotomy or selective blockade of neural conduction of vagal C-fibre afferents by perineural treatment of both cervical vagus nerves with capsaicin...
February 1, 2019: European Journal of Pharmacology
Yu Ding, Na Xu, Yayue Gao, Zhemeng Wu, Liang Li
Prepulse inhibition (PPI) is the suppression of the startle reflex, when a weaker non-startling sensory stimulus (the prepulse) precedes the intense startling stimulus. Although the basic PPI neural circuitry resides in the brainstem, PPI can be enhanced by selective attention to the prepulse, indicating that this sensorimotor-gating process is influenced by higher-order perceptual/cognitive processes. Along with the auditory cortex, the brain structures involved in attentional modulations of PPI include both the lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA), which contributes to the fear-conditioning modulation, and the posterior parietal cortex (PPC), which contributes to the spatially attentional modulation...
January 29, 2019: Behavioural Brain Research
David Weise, Clemens Pargac, Johann Otto Pelz, Jost-Julian Rumpf, Christopher Fricke, Joseph Classen
OBJECTIVE: Degeneration of nuclei of the brainstem, especially parts of the vagal nuclei complex and the reticular formation, in Parkinson's disease (PD) may in part be responsible for nonmotor signs like obstipation, cardiac dysfunction and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD). The aim of the study was to establish a new blink reflex (BR) variant involving the vagal nuclei complex and the reticular formation and to investigate BR comprehensively using 3 different afferent routes in PD...
January 19, 2019: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Silvana da Silva Pacheco, Tatiane Araujo Rondini, Jackson Cioni Bittencourt, Carol Fuzeti Elias
The periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) is a brainstem site involved in distinct autonomic and behavioral responses. Among them, the motor control of female sexual behavior, including lordosis, is well described. Lordosis reflex is highly dependent on increasing levels of estradiol that occur in the afternoon of the proestrus day in normally cycling females. This effect is thought to be mediated primarily via actions in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH). By binding to estrogen receptor α (ERα), estradiol changes the activity of VMH neurons that project to the PAG...
January 28, 2019: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Ming-Yue Xu, Yang-Fan Wang, Peng-Ju Wei, Yan-Qin Gao, Wen-Ting Zhang
AIMS: Neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (H/I) results in gray and white matter injury, characterized by neuronal loss, failure of neural network formation, retarded myelin formation, and abnormal accumulation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). These changes lead to severe neurological deficits and mortality. Sublethal hypoxic preconditioning (HPC) can protect the developing brain against H/I. However, limited evidence is available concerning its effect on white matter injury. METHODS: In this study, P6 neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to normoxic (21% O2 ) or HPC (7...
January 28, 2019: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
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