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Endocrine metabolism

Ann-Kristin Picke, Graeme Campbell, Nicola Napoli, Lorenz C Hofbauer, Martina Rauner
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing worldwide, especially as a result of our aging society, high caloric intake and sedentary lifestyle. Besides the well-known complications of T2DM on the cardiovascular system, the eyes, kidneys and nerves, bone strength is also impaired in diabetic patients. Patients with T2DM have a 40-70% increased risk for fractures, despite having a normal to increased bone mineral density, suggesting that other factors besides bone quantity must account for increased bone fragility...
March 1, 2019: Endocrine Connections
Abdulkerim Kasim Baltaci, Rasim Mogulkoc, Saltuk Bugra Baltaci
Zinc is essential in the regulation of a variety of physiological and biochemical events in the organism. It plays a critical role in maintaining the cell membrane integrity, protein-carbohydrate-lipid metabolism, immune system, wound injury and in the regulation of a number of other biological processes associated with normal growth and development. Physiological and biochemical levels of many hormones are affected by zinc metabolism. Therefore, growth impairment, hypogonadism, and some endocrine diseases are associated with the deficiency of zinc...
January 2019: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Jinping Gu, Feng Su, PanPan Hong, Quan Zhang, Meirong Zhao
Organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) are frequently found in the environment and could be adversely affecting organisms. In fact, nine OPFRs have been shown to cause endocrine disruptions, but information on the metabolism-perturbing properties of these OPFRs remains unclear. In this study, the 1 H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolomic method was applied to evaluate the metabolic disturbances caused by these nine OPFRs. From the analysis of the metabolic phenotypes, we found that TDBPP, TMPP and TPHP could be clustered into one group; TBOEP, TCIPP, TCEP and TEHP could be clustered into another group; and the residual OPFRs could be clustered into another...
February 4, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Xin Ren, Weitong Wang, Xuesong Zhao, Baixiang Ren, Limin Chang
Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) is a re-emerging environmental contaminant used as a suitable substitute for brominated flame retardants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of TDCIPP on thyroid disruption and growth inhibition in zebrafish (Danio rerio) offspring after chronic parental exposure, and to examine the possible molecular mechanisms involved. When adult zebrafish (4 months old) were exposed to 5.66, 25.55, or 92.8 μg TDCIPP/L for 90 days, bioconcentration of TDCIPP and its metabolic product [bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate, BDCIPP] was observed in 7-day postfertilization (dpf) F1 larvae, which suggests the transfer of this compound from adult fish to their offspring...
February 7, 2019: Aquatic Toxicology
Raluca Grădinaru, Nicoleta Andreescu, Laura Nussbaum, Liana Suciu, Maria Puiu
BACKGROUND: Treatment with atypical antipsychotics is today the election therapy for different types of psychosis, but there is a high incidence of endocrine and metabolic disturbances. One of the major enzymes involved in the metabolism of antipsychotics is CYP2D6. Depending on the existing CYP2D6 alleles, the metabolic capacity of the enzyme may vary from very low to very high, so that patients can be grouped into four phenotypic groups: slow, intermediate, extensive (normal), and fast metabolizers...
February 15, 2019: Irish Journal of Medical Science
Caroline E Geisler, Susma Ghimire, Randy L Bogan, Benjamin Jennings Renquist
Ketosis is a metabolic adaptation to fasting, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and prolonged exercise. β-OH butyrate acts as a transcriptional regulator and at G-protein coupled receptors to modulate cellular signaling pathways in a hormone-like manner. While physiological ketosis is often adaptive, chronic hyperketonemia may contribute to the metabolic dysfunction of NAFLD. To understand how β-OH butyrate signaling affects hepatic metabolism we compared the hepatic fasting response in control and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA Synthase II (HMGCS2) knockdown mice that are unable to elevate β-OH butyrate production...
February 15, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
David H Abbott, Daniel A Dumesic, Jon E Levine
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) diagnosis comprises combinations of female hyperandrogenism, menstrual irregularity and polycystic ovaries. While it is a familial and highly prevalent endocrine disorder, progress towards a cure is hindered by absence of a definitive pathogenic mechanism and lack of an animal model of naturally occurring PCOS. Areas covered: These include an overview of PCOS and its potential etiology, and an examination of insights gained into its pathogenic origins. Animal models derived from experimentally-induced hyperandrogenism during gestation, or from naturally-occurring PCOS-like traits, most reliably demonstrate reproductive, neuroendocrine and metabolic pathogenesis...
January 31, 2019: Expert Review of Endocrinology & Metabolism
Kelsey T Laird, Beatrix Krause, Cynthia Funes, Helen Lavretsky
In contrast to traditional perspectives of resilience as a stable, trait-like characteristic, resilience is now recognized as a multidimentional, dynamic capacity influenced by life-long interactions between internal and environmental resources. We review psychosocial and neurobiological factors associated with resilience to late-life depression (LLD). Recent research has identified both psychosocial characteristics associated with elevated LLD risk (e.g., insecure attachment, neuroticism) and psychosocial processes that may be useful intervention targets (e...
February 14, 2019: Translational Psychiatry
Jeffrey I Mechanick, Alan J Garber, George Grunberger, Yehuda Handelsman, W Timothy Garvey
The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) has created a dysglycemia-based chronic disease (DBCD) multimorbidity care model consisting of four distinct stages along the insulin resistance-prediabetes-type 2 diabetes (T2D) spectrum that are actionable in a preventive care paradigm to reduce the potential impact of T2D, cardiometabolic risk, and cardiovascular events. The controversy of whether there is value, cost-effectiveness, or clinical benefit of diagnosing and/or managing the prediabetes state is resolved by regarding the problem, not in isolation, but as an intermediate stage in the continuum of a progressive chronic disease with opportunities for multiple concurrent prevention strategies...
November 2018: Endocrine Practice
Calum D Moulton, Polychronis Pavlidis, Christine Norton, Sam Norton, Carmine Pariante, Bu Hayee, Nick Powell
Depressive symptoms are reported by more than 20% of people with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), whilst sleep difficulties and fatigue are even more common. Comorbid depressive symptoms predict a poor IBD course, including increased risk of relapse and surgery, which is inconsistently improved by psychological treatments. Rather than being distinct systems, there is compelling evidence for bidirectional communication between gut and brain, driven by neural, metabolic, endocrine and inflammatory mediators...
February 14, 2019: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Xiaobin Xu, Shijun Fan, Yuanqiao Guo, Ruei Tan, Junyu Zhang, Wenhua Zhang, Bing-Xing Pan, Nobumasa Kato
INTRODUCTION: Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disruptor widely used to manufacture consumer goods. Although the thyroid hormone (TH) disrupting potential of BPA has been thought to be responsible for the neuropsychiatric deficits in the animals that experienced perinatal BPA exposure, the TH availability change at the level of specific brain structures has not been subject to systematic investigation. METHODS: In the present study the impacts of perinatal BPA exposure (0...
February 13, 2019: Brain and Behavior
Jong Han Lee, Hee-Sook Jun
Loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength has recently become a hot research topic with the extension of life span and an increasingly sedentary lifestyle in modern society. Maintenance of skeletal muscle mass is considered an essential determinant of muscle strength and function. Myokines are cytokines synthesized and released by myocytes during muscular contractions. They are implicated in autocrine regulation of metabolism in the muscle as well as in the paracrine/endocrine regulation of other tissues and organs including adipose tissue, the liver, and the brain through their receptors...
2019: Frontiers in Physiology
Magdalena Blaszkiewicz, Jake W Willows, Cory P Johnson, Kristy L Townsend
Brown and white adipose tissues are essential for maintenance of proper energy balance and metabolic health. In order to function efficiently, these tissues require both endocrine and neural communication with the brain. Brown adipose tissue (BAT), as well as the inducible brown adipocytes that appear in white adipose tissue (WAT) after simulation, are thermogenic and energy expending. This uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-mediated process requires input from sympathetic nerves releasing norepinephrine. In addition to sympathetic noradrenergic signaling, adipose tissue contains sensory nerves that may be important for relaying fuel status to the brain...
February 12, 2019: Biology
M I Mahbub, A B Kamrul-Hasan, S Selim, A S Mir, M Saifuddin, M F Pathan
Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common complication of diabetes mellitus. But it is frequently under diagnosed and may result in poor quality of life. Previous studies have shown a high frequency of ED in diabetic men. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the frequency of ED and explore its risk factors in type 2 diabetic (T2DM) men in Bangladesh. During August 2013 to July 2014, 508 diabetic men aged 30-69 years were interviewed at the outpatient and inpatient departments of Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolic Disorder (BIRDEM), Dhaka, Bangladesh...
January 2019: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
T R Khan, N Afroze, M R Islam, M M Rahman, A M Sadeque, E R Khan
This cross sectional study was carried out in the Department of Radiology & Imaging, Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders (BIRDEM), Dhaka, Bangladesh from July 2010 to June 2011 with a view to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of refractory shadowing on transabdominal pelvic sonography for leiomyomas and in differentiating them from other pelvic masses. Histopathological examination of the surgically resected masses was taken as the standard diagnostic tool...
January 2019: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
A Begum, S R Irfan, M R Hoque, S H Habib, S Parvin, R Malek, S Akhter, S Sattar, S Sarkar
Diabetes mellitus is one of the leading non-communicable diseases all over the world including Bangladesh. Diabetes is characterized by chronic hyperglycemia and disturbances of carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level of ≥6.5% has been included as a criterion for diagnosis of diabetes. Impaired lipid profile is commonly present in type 2 diabetes. Aim of the study was to investigate the association between serum lipid profile and blood glucose. And hypothesizing that early detection of lipid abnormalities and treatment can minimize the risk for atherogenic cardiovascular disorder and cerebrovascular calamity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)...
January 2019: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
O F Miah, R M Hossain, A Latif, U Sarkar, S K Paul, R S Paul, T Ahammod, M S Islam, F A Dowel, M A Mahmud, M K Podder, A S Bhuiyan, U W Chowdhury
The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Bangladesh is increasing. Chronic kidney disease refers to an irreversible deterioration in renal function which classically develops over a period of years. Initially, it manifest's only as a biochemical abnormality. Eventually loss of excretory, metabolic and endocrine functions of the kidneys leads to clinical symptoms and signs of renal failure, which are referred to as uraemia. In our country the number of CKD patient is increasing day by day, probably due to having uncontrolled DM, GN(Glumerulonephritis), uncontrolled hypertension, interstitial nephritis in addition to indiscriminate drugs & using of chemicals in fruits and foods...
January 2019: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
Angelo Cignarelli, Valentina Annamaria Genchi, Sebastio Perrini, Annalisa Natalicchio, Luigi Laviola, Francesco Giorgino
Insulin is a major endocrine hormone also involved in the regulation of energy and lipid metabolism via the activation of an intracellular signaling cascade involving the insulin receptor (INSR), insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins, phosphoinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase B (AKT). Specifically, insulin regulates several aspects of the development and function of adipose tissue and stimulates the differentiation program of adipose cells. Insulin can activate its responses in adipose tissue through two INSR splicing variants: INSR-A, which is predominantly expressed in mesenchymal and less-differentiated cells and mainly linked to cell proliferation, and INSR-B, which is more expressed in terminally differentiated cells and coupled to metabolic effects...
February 11, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Paolo Cocci, Gilberto Mosconi, Francesco Alessandro Palermo
Metabolism disrupting chemicals (MDCs) belong to the group of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and are known to affect endocrine and metabolic functions of liver. There is growing evidence that MDCs may also act modulating the expression levels of micro ribonucleic acids (miRNAs) and thus affecting post-transcriptional expression of hundreds of target genes. Herein, we used a gilthead sea bream in vitro hepatocyte model for analyzing the effects of an exposure to phthalates (i.e. DiDP) or flame retardants (i...
February 4, 2019: Aquatic Toxicology
Enyan Zong, Shanling Yan, Meiwei Wang, Lanmei Yin, Qiye Wang, Jia Yin, Jianzhong Li, Yali Li, Xueqin Ding, Pengfei Huang, Shanping He, Huansheng Yang, Yulong Yin
Bile acid, a cholesterol metabolite, promotes gastrointestinal tract digestion and absorption of cholesterol, lipids, and fat-soluble vitamins. It is a signaling regulatory molecule that influences a variety of endocrinal and metabolic activities. This study investigated the effects hyodeoxycholic acid (HDCA) as a dietary supplement on endocrine cell differentiation and function and weaned piglet serum biochemical indices. Sixteen piglets (Duroc × [Landrace × Yorkshire]) were individually housed and weaned at 21 days of age (body weight of 6...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Animal Science
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