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Neural Correlates

Ayako Sasaki, Yumiko Kishikawa, Reisuke Imaji, Yu Fukushima, Yukiko Nakamura, Yutaka Nishimura, Megumi Yamada, Yoichi Mino, Tetsuo Mitsui, Kiyoshi Hayasaka
BACKGROUND: Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) is caused by the mutation of PHOX2B. Approximately 90% of cases were found to carry polyalanine repeat expansion mutation (PARM), and the remaining 10% had non-PARM (NPARM). In PARMs, the length of the polyalanine expansion correlates with clinical disease severity. Most patients with NPARM present hypoventilation symptoms in the neonatal period and are complicated with Hirschsprung disease, dysregulation of autonomic nervous system, and tumors of neural crest origin...
February 20, 2019: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Andre Chevrier, Mehereen Bhaijiwala, Jonathan Lipszyc, Douglas Cheyne, Simon Graham, Russell Schachar
ADHD is associated with altered dopamine regulated reinforcement learning on prediction errors. Despite evidence of categorically altered error processing in ADHD, neuroimaging advances have largely investigated models of normal reinforcement learning in greater detail. Further, although reinforcement leaning critically relies on ventral striatum exerting error magnitude related thresholding influences on substantia nigra (SN) and dorsal striatum, these thresholding influences have never been identified with neuroimaging...
2019: PloS One
Michael Schantz Klausen, Martin Closter Jespersen, Henrik Nielsen, Kamilla Kjaergaard Jensen, Vanessa Isabell Jurtz, Casper Kaae Sønderby, Morten Otto Alexander Sommer, Ole Winther, Morten Nielsen, Bent Petersen, Paolo Marcatili
The ability to predict local structural features of a protein from the primary sequence is of paramount importance for unravelling its function in absence of experimental structural information. Two main factors affect the utility of potential prediction tools: their accuracy must enable extraction of reliable structural information on the proteins of interest, and their runtime must be low to keep pace with sequencing data being generated at a constantly increasing speed. Here, we present NetSurfP-2.0, a novel tool that can predict the most important local structural features with unprecedented accuracy and runtime...
February 20, 2019: Proteins
István Molnár, Gabriella Hegyi, Zoltán Kovács, Gábor Kapócs, Henrik Szôke
Background and purpose: To assess the extent to which pain therapy can improve chronic pain in a heterogeneous group of patients, its impact on their quality of life and the correlation of the changes with their age and the underlying disease. The investigation has its actuality by its impact on public health. Methods: a prospective, non-randomized, interventional, clinical cohort study was conducted under real-life conditions in a general pain clinic, which lasted for 6 months...
January 30, 2019: Ideggyógyászati Szemle
Ellen Marklund, Iris-Corinna Schwarz, Francisco Lacerda
During the first year of life, infants shift their focus in speech perception from acoustic to linguistic information. This perceptual reorganization is related to exposure, and a direct relation has previously been demonstrated between amount of daily language exposure and mismatch response (MMR) amplitude to a native consonant contrast at around one year of age. The present study investigates the same relation between amount of speech exposure and MMR amplitude to a native vowel contrast at four to eight months of age...
January 31, 2019: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Kit Melissa Larsen, Morten Mørup, Michelle Rosgaard Birknow, Elvira Fischer, Line Olsen, Michael Didriksen, William Frans Christiaan Baaré, Thomas Mears Werge, Marta Isabel Garrido, Hartwig Roman Siebner
One of the most common copy number variants, the 22q11.2 microdeletion, confers an increased risk for schizophrenia. Since schizophrenia has been associated with an aberrant neural response to repeated stimuli through both reduced adaptation and prediction, we here hypothesized that this may also be the case in nonpsychotic individuals with a 22q11.2 deletion. We recorded high-density EEG from 19 individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (12-25 years), as well as 27 healthy volunteers with comparable age and sex distribution, while they listened to a sequence of sounds arranged in a roving oddball paradigm...
February 13, 2019: NeuroImage: Clinical
Sara Poletti, Giovanni Leone, Thomas A Hoogenboezem, Davide Ghiglino, Benedetta Vai, Harm de Wit, Annemarie J M Wijkhuijs, Clara Locatelli, Cristina Colombo, Hemmo A Drexhage, Francesco Benedetti
We tested if peripheral levels of cytokines and chemokines associate to grey matter volumes, cortical thickness and fMRI neural responses to a moral valence decision task in bipolar patients. ICAM1 and CCL4 negatively correlated with cortical thickness in Inferior Temporal Gyrus, and sCD25 in Parahippocampal Gyrus. TNF-α, Interleukine-8, and CCL2 correlated positively with cortical thickness in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex, and with lower BOLD responses to negative stimuli. Markers of immune activation are associated with measures of brain structural and functional integrity in bipolar depression...
January 29, 2019: Psychiatry research. Neuroimaging
Dubreucq J, Franck N
Stigma and self-stigma are major issues for people with Serious Mental Illness (SMI). This review's aims were to determine the cognitive and neural processes underlying the effects of stigma and social rejection in people with SMI. A stepwise systematic literature review (PRISMA) was conducted by searching PubMed, Medline and Web of Science using the following keywords: "cyberball" OR "stereotype threat" OR "implicit association test" AND "mental illness". The articles included met the following criteria: (a) reporting on social rejection, stigma or self-stigma (b) diagnosis of SMI (c) available data on the underlying mechanisms...
February 11, 2019: Psychiatry Research
Minyan Ge, Huina Song, Hua Li, Ranran Li, Xiaoqing Tao, Xu Zhan, Nana Yu, Ning Sun, Youming Lu, Yangling Mu
Retroactive interference (RI) occurs when new incoming information impairs an existing memory, which is one of the primary sources of forgetting. Although long-term potentiation (LTP) reversal shows promise as the underlying neural correlate, the key molecules that control the sensitivity of memory circuits to RI are unknown, and the developmental trajectory of RI effects is unclear. Here we found that depotentiation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) depends on GluN2A-containing NMDA receptors (NMDARs)...
February 19, 2019: Cell Reports
Andy Jeesu Kim, Brian A Anderson
Our attention is strongly influenced by reward learning. Stimuli previously associated with monetary reward have been shown to automatically capture attention in both behavioral and neurophysiological studies. Stimuli previously associated with positive social feedback similarly capture attention; however, it is unknown whether such social facilitation of attention relies on similar or dissociable neural systems. Here, we used the value-driven attentional capture paradigm in an fMRI study to identify the neural correlates of attention to stimuli previously associated with social reward...
February 20, 2019: Cognitive Neuroscience
Nicolas Langer, Christopher Benjamin, Bryce L C Becker, Nadine Gaab
Reading disabilities (RD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are two of the most common developmental disorders. RD and ADHD frequently co-occur, which raises questions about how the disorders interact and to what extent they can be differentiated. To date, the underlying neural mechanisms leading to RD-ADHD comorbidity (COM) are not understood. In this study, structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) were combined with comprehensive behavioral testing in order to characterize the behavior, brain structure, and neural correlates of executive function, phonological processing and reading fluency in 60 children with clinical diagnoses of RD, ADHD, or COM, and controls...
February 19, 2019: Human Brain Mapping
Zeinab Ghaedrahmat, Mehdi Vosoughi, Yaser Tahmasebi Birgani, Abdolkazem Neisi, Gholamreza Goudarzi, Afshin Takdastan
In recent years, concerns over the issue of air pollution have increased as one of the significant environmental and health problems. Air pollutants can be toxic or harmful to the life of plants, animals, and humans. Contrast to primary pollutants, ozone is a secondary pollutant that is produced by the reaction between primary precursors in the atmosphere. The average of air pollutant data was compiled for the purpose of analyzing their correlation with the pulmonary function of students and the FENO biomarker from the air pollutants of the Environmental Protection Agency...
February 20, 2019: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Ronaldo V Nunes, Marcelo B Reyes, Raphael Y de Camargo
The flow of information between different regions of the cortex is fundamental for brain function. Researchers use causality detection techniques, such as Granger causality, to infer connectivity among brain areas from time series. Generalized partial directed coherence (GPDC) is a frequency domain linear method based on vector autoregressive model, which has been applied in electroencephalography, local field potential, and blood oxygenation level-dependent signals. Despite its widespread usage, previous attempts to validate GPDC use oversimplified simulated data, which do not reflect the nonlinearities and network couplings present in biological signals...
February 19, 2019: Biological Cybernetics
Mary J Donahue, Attila Kaszas, Gergely F Turi, Balázs Rózsa, Andrea Slézia, Ivo Vanzetta, Gergely Katona, Christophe Bernard, George G Malliaras, Adam Williamson
Transparent and flexible materials are attractive for a wide range of emerging bioelectronic applications. These include neural interfacing devices for both recording and stimulation, where low electrochemical electrode impedance is valuable. Here the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) is used to fabricate electrodes that are small enough to allow unencumbered optical access for imaging a large cell population with two-photon (2P) microscopy, yet provide low impedance for simultaneous high quality recordings of neural activity in vivo ...
November 2018: ENeuro
Joe Bathelt, Amy Johnson, Mengya Zhang, Duncan E Astle
The canonical approach to exploring brain-behaviour relationships is to group individuals according to a phenotype of interest, and then explore the neural correlates of this grouping. A limitation of this approach is that multiple aetiological pathways could result in a similar phenotype, so the role of any one brain mechanism may be substantially underestimated. Building on advances in network analysis, we used a data-driven community-clustering algorithm to identify robust subgroups based on white-matter microstructure in childhood and adolescence (total N = 313, mean age: 11...
February 19, 2019: Scientific Reports
Yasuyoshi Shimada, Masakazu Kobayashi, Kenji Yoshida, Kazunori Terasaki, Shunrou Fujiwara, Yoshitaka Kubo, Takaaki Beppu, Kuniaki Ogasawara
BACKGROUND: Hypoxic but viable neural tissue is seen on 1-(2-18F-fluoro-1-[hydroxymethyl]ethoxy) methyl-2-nitroimidazole (18F-FRP170) positron emission tomography (PET) in patients with chronic cerebral ischemia with a combination of misery perfusion and moderately reduced oxygen metabolism. Cognitive function sometimes improves after revascularization surgery in patients with chronic cerebral ischemia. OBJECTIVES: We used brain perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and 18F-FRP170 PET to determine whether hypoxic tissue was reduced following the restoration of cerebral perfusion after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) in patients with severe stenosis of the cervical internal carotid artery (ICA) and whether the reduction in hypoxic tissue was associated with cognitive improvement...
February 15, 2019: Cerebrovascular Diseases
Sagar Shelke, Baris Aksanli
Convergence of Machine Learning, Internet of Things, and computationally powerful single-board computers has boosted research and implementation of smart spaces. Smart spaces make predictions based on historical data to enhance user experience. In this paper, we present a low-cost, low-energy smart space implementation to detect static and dynamic human activities that require simple motions. We use low-resolution (4 × 16) and non-intrusive thermal sensors to collect data. We train six machine learning algorithms, namely logistic regression, naive Bayes, support vector machine, decision tree, random forest and artificial neural network (vanilla feed-forward) on the dataset collected in our lab...
February 16, 2019: Sensors
Lauren A Demers, Melinda Westlund Schreiner, Ruskin H Hunt, Bryon A Mueller, Bonnie Klimes-Dougan, Kathleen M Thomas, Kathryn R Cullen
BACKGROUND: Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a major, trans-diagnostic mental health problem among adolescents. Alexithymia has been identified as a developmental risk factor for NSSI. Research on how alexithymia relates to the neurobiology of automatic emotion processing is only beginning to emerge. This study evaluates the relationship between alexithymic features and neural responses to automatic processing of emotional content in adolescents with NSSI. METHODS: 25 female adolescents (ages 13-21) with a history of repeated engagement in NSSI completed the Toronto Alexithymia Scale and the Difficulties with Emotion Regulation Scale and underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a task in which participants were exposed to masked emotions...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Affective Disorders
Anya Topiwala, Sana Suri, Charlotte Allan, Vyara Valkanova, Nicola Filippini, Claire E Sexton, Verena Heise, Enikő Zsoldos, Abda Mahmood, Archana Singh-Manoux, Clare E Mackay, Mika Kivimäki, Klaus P Ebmeier
BACKGROUND: There is significant heterogeneity in the clinical expression of structural brain abnormalities, including Alzheimer's disease biomarkers. Some individuals preserve their memory despite the presence of risk factors or pathological brain changes, indicating resilience. We aimed to test whether resilient individuals could be distinguished from those who develop cognitive impairment, using sociodemographic variables and neuroimaging. METHODS: We included 550 older adults participating in the Whitehall II study with longitudinal data, cognitive test results, and multi-modal MRI...
2019: PloS One
Guoxin Zhang, Zhen Dong, Briana C Prager, Leo J Y Kim, Qiulian Wu, Ryan C Gimple, Xiuxing Wang, Shideng Bao, Petra Hamerlik, Jeremy N Rich
Glioblastoma represent universally lethal cancers, containing stem cell-like glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs). While neural stem cells (NSCs) are usually quiescent, single-cell studies suggest that proliferating glioblastoma cells reside in the GSC population. Interrogating in silico glioma databases for epigenetic regulators that correlate with cell cycle regulation, we identified the chromatin remodeler, HELLS, as a potential target in glioblastoma. GSCs preferentially expressed HELLS compared to their differentiated tumor progeny and non-malignant brain cells...
February 19, 2019: JCI Insight
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