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Encephalitis herpes virus

Adam Al-Diwani, Adam Handel, Leigh Townsend, Thomas Pollak, M Isabel Leite, Paul J Harrison, Belinda R Lennox, David Okai, Sanjay G Manohar, Sarosh R Irani
BACKGROUND: Early immunotherapy administration improves outcomes in patients with N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-antibody encephalitis. As most patients with NMDAR-antibody encephalitis present to psychiatrists, the psychopathology of NMDAR-antibody encephalitis needs to be clearly defined to encourage accurate clinical identification and prompt treatment. METHODS: For this systematic review, we searched PubMed for all studies published in English between Jan 1, 2005, and Oct 7, 2017, to identify individually reported adult patients (≥18 years) who satisfied consensus criteria for definite NMDAR-antibody encephalitis...
February 11, 2019: Lancet Psychiatry
Audra J Charron, Stephen L Ward, Brian J North, Stacey Ceron, David A Leib
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) cycles between phases of latency in sensory neurons and replication in mucosal sites. HSV-1 encodes two key proteins that antagonize the shutdown of host translation; US11 through preventing PKR activation, and ICP34.5 through mediating eIF2α dephosphorylation. While the profound attenuation of ICP34.5 deletion mutants has been repeatedly demonstrated, a role for US11 in HSV-1 pathogenesis remains unclear. We therefore generated an HSV-1 strain 17 US11 null virus and examined its properties in vitro and in vivo In U373 glioblastoma cells, US11 cooperated with ICP34...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Virology
Coraline Canivet, Olus Uyar, Chantal Rhéaume, Jocelyne Piret, Guy Boivin
The cerebral immune response induced by herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis (HSE) was evaluated in susceptible BALB/c and resistant C57BL/6 mice. BALB/c and C57BL/6 (named C57BL/6-high) mice were respectively infected intranasally with 1 × 103 and 5 × 105 plaque-forming units (PFUs) of HSV-1. C57BL/6 mice (named C57BL/6-low) infected with a low inoculum (1 × 103 PFUs) of HSV-1 were tested in parallel. Mice were monitored for weight loss, sickness signs, and survival for 21 days. The viral load, infectious titers, cytokine/chemokine levels, and peripheral leukocyte infiltration were determined in brain homogenates on days 0 (non-infected), 4, 6, and 8 post-infection (p...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Neurovirology
X J Lin, G F Liu, M Wang, Z X Tao, S T Wang, L Z Song, L Zhang, A Q Xu
Objective: To characterize the etiology and epidemiological characteristics of the acute meningitis and encephalitis syndrome (AMES) in Jinan city in 2013-2016. Methods: The epidemiological data, clinical diagnosis, serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens were collected from 3 577 AMES cases in 6 sentinel hospitals in Jinan city in 2013-2016. Samples of all cases were made sero-diagnosis for Immunoglobulin (Ig) M antibody to Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and negative cases of JEV for enterovirus (EV), mumps virus (MuV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
February 6, 2019: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
Michael J Bradshaw, Arun Venkatesan
Infection of the central nervous system is often a life-threatening emergency. In many cases, the clinician faces an unknown pathogen and must rely upon clinical acumen and a thorough, systematic diagnostic investigation to establish a diagnosis and initiate appropriate treatment. Because patients typically present with a syndrome, such as temporal lobe encephalitis, rather than a known pathogen (e.g., herpes simplex virus 1 encephalitis), we describe diagnostic considerations in the context of their neuroanatomic tropisms and patterns of disease...
February 2019: Seminars in Neurology
Ye Ji, Guo-Mei Ma, Zhi-Lei Kang, Yi Zhang, Jing-Zhe Han, Jin Li, Dan-Dan Wu, Jia Wang
RATIONALE: The coexistence of Ramsay Hunt syndrome (RHS) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) encephalitis is rare. A patient who developed RHS after being infected with VZV, along with a pontine lesion, is reported in the present study. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 41-year-old male patient presented with his mouth askew for 7 days, and dizziness, accompanied by hearing loss for 3 days. DIAGNOSES: The patient was initially diagnosed with RHS. Brainstem encephalitis was confirmed by lumbar puncture and cerebrospinal fluid...
February 2019: Medicine (Baltimore)
Jenny Linnoila, Benjamin Pulli, Thaís Armangué, Jesús Planagumà, Radha Narsimhan, Stefan Schob, Matthias W G Zeller, Josep Dalmau, John Chen
Objective: To develop an endogenous rodent model of postinfectious anti-NMDA receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis. Methods: Six mice were inoculated intranasally with herpes simplex virus (HSV) 1 and subsequently treated with acyclovir for 2 weeks. Serum was collected at 3, 6, and 8 weeks postinoculation and tested for NMDAR antibodies through a cell-based assay. Eight weeks postinoculation, mice were killed and their brains were sectioned and immunostained with antibodies to postsynaptic density (PSD)-95 and NMDARs...
March 2019: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
Larissa Hauer, Slaven Pikija, Eva C Schulte, Laszlo K Sztriha, Raffaele Nardone, Johann Sellner
BACKGROUND: Intracerebral hemorrhage and ischemic stroke are increasingly recognized complications of central nervous system (CNS) infection by herpes simplex virus (HSV). AIM OF THE STUDY: To analyze clinical, imaging, and laboratory findings and outcomes of cerebrovascular manifestations of HSV infection. METHODS: Systematic literature review from January 2000 to July 2018. RESULTS: We identified 38 patients (median age 45 years, range 1-73) comprising 27 cases of intracerebral hemorrhage, 10 of ischemic stroke, and 1 with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis...
January 29, 2019: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Stefanie Kar Yan Hung, Fu Liong Hiew, Shanthi Viswanathan
Multiple co-infections can predispose a patient to autoimmune encephalitis. Out of thirty cases of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis seen at a single tertiary referral center, only two cases of co-infection with NMDAR encephalitis were identified. One of these cases was highly interesting due to the presence of more than one co-infections along with the presence of cortical dysfunction, seizures, and orofacial dyskinesias at the onset in a male in the absence of tumors, which was refractory to initial treatment...
January 2019: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
Amy K Slenker, Tricia L Royer, Tibisay Villalobos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 28, 2019: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Marvyn T Koning, Tessa Brik, Rogier Hagenbeek, Ido van den Wijngaard
A 21-year-old female presented with headache, nausea and vomiting, dysarthria, difficulty finding words, vertigo, episodical diplopia and an abnormal gait since 2 days. Additionally, we found marked ataxia and disturbed liver chemistry whilst her infection parameters were low. Her head CT scan was unremarkable, but her MRI scan showed leptomeningeal enhancement along the cerebellar folia. A lumbar punction revealed mononuclear leucocytosis and increased protein in her cerebrospinal fluid. She was admitted on a working diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis...
January 22, 2019: Journal of Neurovirology
Nicole L Sullivan, Christiane S Eberhardt, Andreas Wieland, Rama S Akondy, Jumi Yi, Anita K McElroy, Rafi Ahmed
An immunocompetent adult received corticosteroids for chest pain, which later was clinically found to be herpes zoster (HZ). She developed severe disease and rapid viral dissemination that elicited an exceptionally strong varicella zoster virus-specific B-cell and CD8 T-cell response. Clinicians should consider atypical HZ presentation prior to corticosteroid administration.
January 19, 2019: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Alexander Arnold, Michael D Parkins, Leslie E Hamilton, Walter Hader, Paolo Federico
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 22, 2019: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
Stacey Cerón, Brian J North, Sean A Taylor, David A Leib
Herpes simplex virus (HSV)- 1 is the most common cause of sporadic viral encephalitis and accounts for 5-10% of cases worldwide. A key factor in host control of viral infection is the initiation of the interferon (IFN) response, mediated in part by the stimulator of interferon genes (STING) pathway. In these studies, we examined the ability of 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (DMXAA), a STING agonist, to protect against HSV-1 infection. DMXAA reduced viral replication through increased production of type I IFN in vitro...
January 6, 2019: Virology
Vasanthapuram Ravi, Shafeeq Keeran Shahul Hameed, Anita Desai, Reeta Subramaniam Mani, Vijayalakshmi Reddy, Anoop Velayudhan, Ravi Yadav, Amita Jain, Lahari Saikia, A K Borthakur, Daiji Gogoi Mohan, Bhaswati Bhandopadhyay, Nemai Bhattacharya, Akshay Chandra Dhariwal, Prafulla Kumar Sen, Srinivasan Venkatesh, Jagdish Prasad, Kayla Laserson, Padmini Srikantiah
BACKGROUND: Acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) surveillance in India has indicated that Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) accounts for 5-35% of AES cases annually; the etiology remains unknown in the remaining cases. We implemented comprehensive AES surveillance to identify other etiological agents of AES, with emphasis on dengue virus. METHODS: Serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens were collected from patients enrolled prospectively in AES surveillance from 2014-2017 at selected sites of three high burden states of India...
January 11, 2019: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Yuta Iwai, Kazutaka Nishimura, Takeshi Fukushima, Takashi Ito, Yoshiyuki Watanabe, Masahiro Noro, Satoshi Kuwabara
Brain granuloma occurs under certain conditions. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) causes granulomatous encephalitis in children; however, it has been rarely reported in adults. A 74-year-old man with a history of herpes simplex encephalitis suffered recurrent seizures. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass lesion and resection was performed. A polymerase chain reaction using a brain biopsy specimen was positive for HSV DNA; thus, the patient was diagnosed with HSV-associated granulomatous encephalitis...
January 10, 2019: Internal Medicine
Maoqiang Tian, Juan Li, Wenting Lei, Xiaomei Shu
Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis (anti-NMDARe) was originally described as a paraneoplastic disease with more than 50% cases involving a tumor. However, tumor incidence in anti-NMDARe in children is much lower. Herpes simplex virus-induced anti-NMDARe has been well-described; however, findings on Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV)-induced anti-NMDARe are scarce. Here, we describe a 7-year-old boy who presented with fever and headache that progressed to seizures and disturbance of consciousness...
January 8, 2019: Neuropediatrics
Terri G Edwards, David C Bloom
Lund human mesencephalic (LUHMES) cells are human embryonic neuronal precursor cells that can be maintained as proliferating cells due to the expression of a tetracycline-regulatable (Tet-Off) v-myc transgene. They can be differentiated to post-mitotic neurons by the addition of tetracycline, GDNF and dibutyryl cAMP. We demonstrate that these cells can be infected with HSV-1 at a MOI of 3 with the majority of cells surviving. By 6 days post infection, there is a loss of lytic gene transcription and an increase in numbers of neurons that express the latency associated transcripts (LATs)...
January 2, 2019: Journal of Virology
Nicole Brenner, Alexander J Mentzer, Julia Butt, Angelika Michel, Kristina Prager, Johannes Brozy, Benedikt Weißbrich, Allison E Aiello, Helen C S Meier, Judy Breuer, Rachael Almond, Naomi Allen, Michael Pawlita, Tim Waterboer
Human herpesviruses (HHV) cause a variety of clinically relevant conditions upon primary infection of typically young and immunocompetent hosts. Both primary infection and reactivation after latency can lead to more severe disease, such as encephalitis, congenital defects and cancer. Infections with HHV are also associated with cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disease. However, most of the associations are based on retrospective case-control analyses and well-powered prospective cohort studies are needed for assessing temporality and causality...
2018: PloS One
Darma Imran, Riwanti Estiasari, Kartika Maharani, Sucipto, Delly Chipta Lestari, Reyhan Eddy Yunus, Evy Yunihastuti, Teguh Haryono Karyadi, Diana Oei, Ina S Timan, Dewi Wulandari, Retno Wahyuningsih, Robiatul Adawiyah, Agnes Kurniawan, Rahmad Mulyadi, Anis Karuniawati, Ungke Anton Jaya, Dodi Safari, Arjan van Laarhoven, Bachti Alisjahbana, Sofiati Dian, Lidya Chaidir, Ahmad Rizal Ganiem, Diatri Nari Lastri, Khin Saw Aye Myint, Reinout van Crevel
Background: Little detailed knowledge is available regarding the etiology and outcome of CNS infection, particularly in HIV-infected individuals, in low-resource settings. Methods: From January 2015 to April 2016, we prospectively included all adults with suspected CNS infection in a referral hospital in Jakarta, Indonesia. Systematic screening included HIV testing, CSF examination, and neuroimaging. Results: A total of 274 patients with suspected CNS infection (median age 26 years) presented after a median of 14 days with headache (77%), fever (78%), seizures (27%), or loss of consciousness (71%)...
October 2018: Neurology. Clinical Practice
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