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W P T James, R J Johnson, J R Speakman, D C Wallace, G Frühbeck, P O Iverson, P J Stover
Our understanding of human evolution has improved rapidly over recent decades, facilitated by large-scale cataloguing of genomic variability amongst both modern and archaic humans. It seems clear that the evolution of the ancestors of chimpanzees and hominins separated 7-9 million years ago with some migration out of Africa by the earlier hominins; Homo sapiens slowly emerged as climate change resulted in drier, less forested African conditions. The African populations expanded and evolved in many different conditions with slow mutation and selection rates in the human genome, but with much more rapid mutation occurring in mitochondrial DNA...
February 17, 2019: Journal of Internal Medicine
Glenn Hernández, Gustavo A Ospina-Tascón, Lucas Petri Damiani, Elisa Estenssoro, Arnaldo Dubin, Javier Hurtado, Gilberto Friedman, Ricardo Castro, Leyla Alegría, Jean-Louis Teboul, Maurizio Cecconi, Giorgio Ferri, Manuel Jibaja, Ronald Pairumani, Paula Fernández, Diego Barahona, Vladimir Granda-Luna, Alexandre Biasi Cavalcanti, Jan Bakker
Importance: Abnormal peripheral perfusion after septic shock resuscitation has been associated with organ dysfunction and mortality. The potential role of the clinical assessment of peripheral perfusion as a target during resuscitation in early septic shock has not been established. Objective: To determine if a peripheral perfusion-targeted resuscitation during early septic shock in adults is more effective than a lactate level-targeted resuscitation for reducing mortality...
February 17, 2019: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Cheng Jiayi, Ning Tianyi, Teng Dan, Kang Tingguo, Wang Qingfeng, Zhang Qianqian
To explore the protective effect and mechanism of isorhamnetin against oxidative injury caused by H2 O2 to endothelial cell strain CRL1730 of human umbilical vein. H2 O2 and endothelial cell strain CRL1730 were used, as a model of injured endothelial cell. Three levels of crude drugs areorhamnetin, 22.8μg/ml, 11.4μg/mL and 5.7μg/mL was added to the injured cell strain CRL1730 respectively. The cell injury was measured in terms of necrotic rate, quantities of von Wilebr and factor (vWf) and thrombomodulin (TM), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and intracellular free calcium ions through flow cytometry, ELISA, fluorescent spectrometer and laser scanning confocal microscopy respectively...
January 2019: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Van Khanh Nguyen, Trung Hau Nguyen, Myung-Gyu Ha, Ho Young Kang
A total of three bacteria isolated from activated sludge of a wastewater treatment plant were found to reduce selenite to elemental selenium nanoparticles as both amorphous nanospheres and monoclinic nanocrystals. The three isolated strains, which are potential candidates for bioremediation of selenite-contaminated water sources, were designated as Citrobacter sp. NVK-2, Providencia sp. NVK-2A, and Citrobacter sp. NVK-6 based on 16S rRNA sequencing. Despite belonging to the same genus, the kinetics of selenite reduction by strain NVK-2 (Vmax  = 58...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Environmental Management
Issei Takeuchi, Kimiko Makino
Phosphoester compounds are promising materials with expected biocompatibility; however, little has been reported on the use of phosphoester compounds for micelle formulations. In this study, paclitaxel (PTX)-encapsulated micelles were prepared using four kinds of alkyl di(MePEG-lactate) phosphates. From the results of the determination of critical micelle concentrations and an in vitro stability test, it was shown that a compound to which 1-eicosanol was introduced as a side chain was desirable in the preparation of PTX-encapsulated micelles (PTX-micelles)...
February 8, 2019: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Shao-Hua Tian, De-Jun Yu, Zhi-Yong Li, Wen-Long Zhang
Ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI), a complex phenomenon often encountered in surgery, can lead to local and distant tissue destruction and sometimes even death. microRNA-203 (miR-203) has been reported to negatively regulate ischemia induced microglia activation with a feedback to myeloid differentiation primary-response gene 88 (MYD88). Accordingly, our study is to verify the effect of miR-203 and MYD88 on mice in IRI after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). After establishment of IRI mouse model, heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) in mice were determined...
February 14, 2019: Gene
J Bueso-Ródenas, G Romero, A Navarro, E Pérez, J R Díaz
Recent research into how the pulsation type affects goat milking concluded that alternate pulsation (AP) and simultaneous pulsation (SP) similarly affect the milking efficiency (milking duration and milking fractioning) and teat end condition after milking when both pulsations are employed in short-term experiments. However, the use of SP in high pipeline milking machines led to higher vacuum fluctuations, which, in the long term, may entail a potential risk factor for the mammary gland health status. The aim of this work was to study how AP and SP affect the milk yield, mammary gland health status, and milk composition of goats in the long term, during a complete lactation period, in a high pipeline milking machine...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Dairy Science
C Lee, D L Morris, J E Copelin, J M Hettick, I H Kwon
An experiment was conducted to examine effects of supplemental lysophospholipids (LPL) in dairy cows. Eight ruminally cannulated lactating Holstein cows were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Dietary treatments were (1) a dairy ration [CON; 55% forage and 45% concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis], (2) a positive control diet supplemented with monensin (MON; 16 mg/kg in dietary DM; Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN], (3) a control diet supplemented with low LPL (0.05% of dietary DM; Lipidol Ultra, Easy Bio Inc...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Dairy Science
L N Grinter, M R Campler, J H C Costa
Precision dairy technology is important because of the possibility to continuously and accurately measure behavior, biometrics, and productivity on commercial and research dairy farms by an automated method with minimal human intervention. The behavior-monitoring collar (BMC) used in this study is a commercially available precision dairy technology (MooMonitor+, Dairymaster, Co. Kerry, Ireland), designed to measure rumination, heat detection, feeding, and resting behavior of dairy cows. The study objective was to compare cow behavior measured by the BMC with visual observations...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Dairy Science
N Krattenmacher, G Thaller, J Tetens
The focus of modern dairy cow breeding programs has shifted from being mainly yield based toward balanced goals that increasingly consider functional traits such as fertility, metabolic stability, and longevity. To improve these traits, a less pronounced energy deficit postpartum is considered a key challenge. On the other hand, feed efficiency and methane emissions are gaining importance, possibly leading to conflicts in the design of breeding goals. Dry matter intake (DMI) is one of the major determinants of energy balance (EB), and recently some efforts were undertaken to include DMI in genomic breeding programs...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Dairy Science
B N Shonka-Martin, B J Heins, L B Hansen
Rotational 3-breed crossbred cows of Montbéliarde, Viking Red, and Holstein (CB) were compared with Holstein (HO) cows for alternative measures of feed efficiency as well as income over feed cost (IOFC) and residual feed intake (RFI) during the first 150 d of first, second, and third lactations. Primiparous and multiparous CB (n = 63 and n = 43, respectively) and HO (n = 60 and n = 37, respectively) cows were fed the same total mixed ration twice daily with refusals weighed once daily. Feed was analyzed for dry matter content, net energy for lactation, and crude protein content...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Dairy Science
Zhanjun Ma, Xue Cui, Li Lu, Guohu Chen, Yang Yang, Yan Hu, Yubao Lu, Zhangqi Cao, Yan Wang, Xuexi Wang
BACKGROUND: Exosomes are nanoscale membrane vesicles secreted by both normal and cancer cells, and cancer cell-derived exosomes play an important role in the cross-talk between cancer cells and other cellular components in the tumor microenvironment. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have tropism for tumors and have been used as tumor-tropic vectors for tumor therapy; however, the safety of such therapeutic use of MSCs is unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of glioma cell-derived exosomes in the tumor-like phenotype transformation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) and explored the underlying molecular mechanisms...
February 15, 2019: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
B E Bass, T Tsai, H Yang, V Perez, D Holzgraefe, J Chewning, J W Frank, C V Maxwell
A study was conducted using 3 groups of gestating gilts and sows (n = 98) to determine the effects of Pichia guilliermondii (Pg), a whole cell inactivated yeast product (CitriStim; ADM Alliance Nutrition), on performance and immune parameters of dams and litters. Within 24 h of breeding, gilts and sows were allotted to 1 of 3 treatments consisting of a control (SC) diet or SC diet supplemented with 0.1 (S1) or 0.2% (S2) Pg. Dietary treatments were maintained through lactation. Colostrum and milk (d 14) samples were collected for IgA, IgG, and IgM analysis...
February 16, 2019: Journal of Animal Science
Zerrin Defne Dundar, Sedat Kocak, Abdullah Sadik Girisgin
INTRODUCTION: In this study, we aimed to investigate the prognostic power of the first lactate level measured in the emergency department (ED), National Early Warning Score (NEWS), and NEWS-lactate (NEWS-L) on ED admission in critically ill geriatric patients. METHODS: This retrospective observational study was conducted in the ED of a university hospital. Consecutive patients ≥65 years of age admitted to our ED between July 1, 2017, and December 31, 2017, and transferred to the intensive care unit after the ED follow-up period were included in the study...
February 7, 2019: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Kamila Dias, Sergio Garcia, Mohammed Rafiq Islam, Cameron Clark
(1) Background: Pasture varies in its chemical composition from the top of the sward to the base and cattle prefer to eat the leaf fraction. In pasture-based dairy systems, cattle predominantly walk back to pasture voluntarily after each milking, with the first cattle arriving to pasture hours before the last. Here we study the impact of pasture composition according to milking order on milk yield and milk composition for dairy cattle offered grazed ryegrass pasture. (2) Methods: In the first experiment, individual cow milk yield data were recorded on six farms over 8 months...
February 14, 2019: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Maria Silvia Cona, Mara Lecchi, Sara Cresta, Silvia Damian, Michele Del Vecchio, Andrea Necchi, Marta Maria Poggi, Daniele Raggi, Giovanni Randon, Raffaele Ratta, Diego Signorelli, Claudio Vernieri, Filippo de Braud, Paolo Verderio, Massimo Di Nicola
Predictive biomarkers of response to immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are an urgent clinical need. The aim of this study is to identify manageable parameters to use in clinical practice to select patients with higher probability of response to ICIs. Two-hundred-and-seventy-one consecutive metastatic solid tumor patients, treated from 2013 until 2017 with anti- Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1)/programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) ICIs, were evaluated for baseline lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) serum level, performance status (PS), age, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, type of immunotherapy, number of metastatic sites, histology, and sex...
February 14, 2019: Cancers
Bowen Yan, Faizan A Sadiq, Yijie Cai, Daming Fan, Hao Zhang, Jianxin Zhao, Wei Chen
Untargeted metabolomics is a valuable tool to analyze metabolite profiles or aroma fingerprints of different food products. However, less attention has been paid to determining the aroma characteristics of Chinese steamed breads (CSBs) by using this approach. The aim of this work was to evaluate the key aroma compounds and their potential generation pathway in Chinese steamed bread produced with type I sourdough by a metabolomics approach. Based on the aroma characteristics analysis, CSBs produced with type I sourdough and baker's yeast were clearly distinguishable by principal component analysis (PCA) scores plot...
February 14, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Yawen Chen, Ting Xu, Xinyue Yang, Wenhai Chu, Shuangqing Hu, Daqiang Yin
Disinfection byproducts (DBPs) are inevitably generated during drinking water disinfection processes, and their hazards have not been well characterized. Because they plausibly cause toxicological and pathological damage to human kidney, we selected the human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cell, instead of the commonly used CHO cell, as a model to investigate the toxic potential and target of 10 DBPs, including 3 haloacetamides, 2 trihaloacetaldehydes and 5 iodomethanes. Based on the chronic toxicity parameter EC10 of the cell viability test, we obtained a toxic rank of the tested DBPs different from previous studies and calculated their risk quotients by combining their actual concentrations in drinking water systems...
January 29, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Naseer Ahmad, Priyanka Kushwaha, Anirudha Karvande, Ashish Kumar Tripathi, Priyanka Kothari, Sulekha Adhikary, Vikram Khedgikar, Vijay Kumar Mishra, Ritu Trivedi
Post-menopausal condition augments the biological aging process, characterized by multiple metabolic disorders in which bone loss is the most prevalent outcome and usually coupled with sarcopenia. Coexistence of such associated pathogenesis have much worse health outcomes, compared to individuals with osteoporosis only. Pre- and post-natal bone development demands calcium from mother to fetus during pregnancy and lactation leading to a significant maternal skeletal loss. It follows an anabolic phase around weaning during which there is a notable recovery of the maternal skeleton...
January 10, 2019: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
Bethaney D Fehrenkamp, Robert D Miller
Milk provides mammalian neonates with nutritional support and passive immunity. This is particularly true in marsupials where young are born highly altricial and lacking many components of a fully functional adaptive immune system. Here we investigated the T cell populations in the mammaries of a lactating marsupial, the gray short-tailed opossum Monodelphis domestica. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of T cells within the opossum mammaries throughout lactation. Results of quantifying transcript abundance for lymphocyte markers are consistent with γδ T cells being the most common T cell type within lactating mammaries...
February 12, 2019: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
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