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Impaired cognition

Tiyasha Sarkar, Nisha Patro, Ishan K Patro
Early life Stress is a worldwide concern linked with development of later life neurological disorder. Early developmental age is sensitive to many prominent environmental insults like malnourishment, immune inflammation, abuse, maternal separation, alcohol and drugs. Hence, an individual during an early age encounters more than one simultaneous stressor that leads to impairment of cognitive and behavioral abilities, a symptom common to most of the neurological disorders. Stressors like malnourishment and immune inflammation are common and encountered by a huge number of populations, contributing enormously to a damaged CNS and in most of the cases they act synergistically in dependency to each other, giving rise to the concept of multi-hit...
February 13, 2019: Brain Research Bulletin
Shikha Raheja, Amit Girdhar, Anjoo Kamboj, Viney Lather, Deepti Pandita
AIMS: Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa (A. marmelos) has been used in Ayurvedic medicine as a brain tonic however its neuroprotective effect against streptozotocin (STZ) induced cognitive impairment and oxidative stress has not been reported yet in vivo. Therefore, the present study was attempted to investigate the neuroprotective potential of ethanolic extract of A. marmelos leaves (AME) on STZ induced memory impairment in male rats. MAIN METHODS: Albino Wistar rats were pre-treated orally with AME at the doses 200 and 400 mg/kg for two weeks, followed by intracerebroventricular (i...
February 13, 2019: Life Sciences
Vinícius Silva Lima, Abraão Tiago Batista Guimarães, Amanda Pereira da Costa Araújo, Fernanda Neves Estrela, Ives Charlie da Silva, Nathalie Ferreira Silva de Melo, Leonardo Fernandes Fraceto, Guilherme Malafaia
The advent of biotechnology provided the synthesis of nanoproducts with diverse applications in the field of medicine, agriculture, food, among others. However, the toxicity of many nanoparticles (NP) currently used, which can penetrate natural systems and impact organisms, is not known. Thus, in this study, we evaluated whether the short exposure (5 days) to low concentrations of chitosan-coated zein nanoparticles (ZNP-CS) (0.2 ng/kg, 40 ng/kg, and 400.00 ng/kg) was capable of causing behavioral alterations compatible with cognitive deficit, as well as anxiety and depression-like behavior in Swiss mice...
February 15, 2019: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Kristin K Clemens, Niamh O'Regan, Jinnie J Rhee
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Older adults often live with chronic disease including diabetes and its complications. In this review, we examine the complexity and heterogeneity of older adults with diabetes and chronic kidney disease, explore the nuances in their diabetes-related monitoring, and discuss their best diabetes management. RECENT FINDINGS: Although there remains an overall lack of studies in older adults with diabetes and chronic kidney disease, recent reports have highlighted their vulnerabilities...
February 15, 2019: Current Diabetes Reports
Nicolai Franzmeier, Anna Rubinski, Julia Neitzel, Yeshin Kim, Alexander Damm, Duk L Na, Hee Jin Kim, Chul Hyoung Lyoo, Hana Cho, Sofia Finsterwalder, Marco Duering, Sang Won Seo, Michael Ewers
In Alzheimer's disease, tau pathology spreads hierarchically from the inferior temporal lobe throughout the cortex, ensuing cognitive decline and dementia. Similarly, circumscribed patterns of pathological tau have been observed in normal ageing and small vessel disease, suggesting a spatially ordered distribution of tau pathology across normal ageing and different diseases. In vitro findings suggest that pathological tau may spread 'prion-like' across neuronal connections in an activity-dependent manner. Supporting this notion, functional brain networks show a spatial correspondence to tau deposition patterns...
February 15, 2019: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Uzoma S Ikonne, Philip H Vann, Jessica M Wong, Michael J Forster, Nathalie Sumien
BACKGROUND: N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) is a thiolic antioxidant that is thought to increase cellular glutathione (GSH) by augmenting the concentration of available cysteine, an essential precursor to GSH production. Manipulating redox status can affect brain function, and NAC intake has been associated with improving brain function in models of neurodegenerative diseases. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to determine if short-term dietary supplementation with NAC could ameliorate functional impairment associated with aging...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Nutrition
Rafi U Haque, Cecelia M Manzanares, Lavonda N Brown, Alvince L Pongos, James J Lah, Gari D Clifford, Allan I Levey
The entorhinal-hippocampal circuit is one of the earliest sites of cortical pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Visuospatial memory paradigms that are mediated by the entorhinal-hippocampal circuit may offer a means to detect memory impairment during the early stages of AD. In this study, we developed a 4-min visuospatial memory paradigm called VisMET (Visuospatial Memory Eye-Tracking Task) that passively assesses memory using eye movements rather than explicit memory judgements. We had 296 control or memory-impaired participants view a set of images followed by a modified version of the images with either an object removed, or a new object added...
March 2019: Learning & Memory
Marios K Georgakis, Marco Duering, Joanna M Wardlaw, Martin Dichgans
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between baseline white matter hyperintensities (WMH) in patients with ischemic stroke and long-term risk of dementia, functional impairment, recurrent stroke, and mortality. METHODS: Following the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines (PROSPERO protocol: CRD42018092857), we systematically searched Medline and Scopus for cohort studies of ischemic stroke patients examining whether MRI- or CT-assessed WMH at baseline are associated with dementia, functional impairment, recurrent stroke, and mortality at 3 months or later poststroke...
February 15, 2019: Neurology
Joan Gené-Badia, Pierre Comice, Adriyanov Belchín, María Ángeles Erdozain, Leticia Cáliz, Susana Torres, Rocío Rodríguez
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of loneliness and social isolation in a population over 65 cared by a urban primary health team and to identify its main characteristics. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study by a telephone survey. SETTING: Basic health area of Barcelona. PARTICIPANTS: Random sample of assigned population of 65 or more years old. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: UCLA Loneliness Scale and Lubben Social Network Scale...
February 12, 2019: Atencion Primaria
T Yang, G Xu, P T Newton, A S Chagin, S Mkrtchian, M Carlström, X-M Zhang, R A Harris, M Cooter, M Berger, K R Maddipati, K Akassoglou, N Terrando
BACKGROUND: Resolution of inflammation is an active and dynamic process after surgery. Maresin 1 (MaR1) is one of a growing number of specialised pro-resolving lipids biosynthesised by macrophages that regulates acute inflammation. We investigated the effects of MaR1 on postoperative neuroinflammation, macrophage activity, and cognitive function in mice. METHODS: Adult male C57BL/6 (n=111) and Ccr2RFP/+ Cx3cr1GFP/+ (n=54) mice were treated with MaR1 before undergoing anaesthesia and orthopaedic surgery...
March 2019: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Manar Abu Diab, Rachel Eiges
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common heritable form of cognitive impairment. It results from a deficiency in the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) due to a CGG repeat expansion in the 5'-UTR of the X-linked FMR1 gene. When CGGs expand beyond 200 copies, they lead to epigenetic gene silencing of the gene. In addition, the greater the allele size, the more likely it will become unstable and exhibit mosaicism for expansion size between and within tissues in affected individuals. The timing and mechanisms of FMR1 epigenetic gene silencing and repeat instability are far from being understood given the lack of appropriate cellular and animal models that can fully recapitulate the molecular features characteristic of the disease pathogenesis in humans...
February 15, 2019: Brain Sciences
Anna Scandurra, Alessandra Alterisio, Anna Di Cosmo, Antonio D'Ambrosio, Biagio D'Aniello
Recent studies have underlined the effect of ovariectomy on the spatial cognition of female dogs, with ovariectomized dogs showing a clear preference for an egocentric rather than an allocentric navigation strategy whereas intact females did not show preferences. Intact females had better performances than gonadectomized females in solving a learning task in a maze. Ovariectomy also affects socio-cognitive abilities, reducing the dog's level of attention on the owner. We tested dogs ( Canis lupus familiaris ) in the object choice task paradigm to assess whether an ovariectomy could impair females' ability to follow human signals...
February 14, 2019: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Juri D Kropotov, Marina V Pronina, Valery A Ponomarev, Yury I Poliakov, Irina V Plotnikova, Andreas Mueller
OBJECTIVE: The main goal was to assess common and specific deficits of cognitive control in (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) ADHD and schizophrenia (SZ) using event-related potentials (ERPs). METHOD: Behavioral and EEG data in cued GO/NOGO task were recorded in 132 healthy controls (HC) and age, gender and education matched 63 ADHD adults, and 68 SZ patients. RESULTS: N2d wave in NOGO-GO contrast of ERPs did not differ between the groups while the P3d wave discriminated SZ group from two other groups...
February 10, 2019: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Mitra Ansari Dezfouli, Maryam Zahmatkesh, Maryam Farahmandfar, Fariba Khodagholi
Melatonin has a potential therapeutic value in Alzheimer's disease (AD), a disease that is associated with a dramatic decline in memory and cognitive abilities. The aggregation of the amyloid β (Aβ) peptide, a hallmark of AD, deactivates mitochondrial biogenesis and antioxidant defenses. Melatonin as an endogenous antioxidant, decreases in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of AD patients. Even though several experimental studies have demonstrated the melatonin neuroprotection in AD, clinical trials of melatonin therapy have not yet confirmed outstanding results in AD patients...
February 12, 2019: Physiology & Behavior
Can Sun, Jian Fu, Zhenzhen Qu, Dongxiao Li, Peipei Si, Qi Qiao, Wenlin Zhang, Yan Xue, Junli Zhen, Weiping Wang
Cognitive impairment is one of the most common and disabling co-morbidities of epilepsy. It is therefore imperative to find novel treatment approaches to rescue cognitive function among epilepsy patients. Adult neurogenesis is strongly implicated in cognitive function, and mild hypoxia is known to promote the proliferation and differentiation of both embryonic and adult neural stem cells (NSCs). In the present study, we investigated the effect of mild hypoxia on cognitive function and hippocampal neurogenesis of rats with pilocarpine-induced chronic epilepsy...
February 12, 2019: Brain Research
Hongnan Zheng, Yuting Su, Yang Sun, Tianle Tang, Di Zhang, Xuefeng He, Jianbo Wang
Acute hypobaric hypoxia (HH) gives rise to persistent cognitive impairment, influencing memory function specifically. Echinacoside (ECH), one of the phenylethanoids isolated from the stems of Cistanche salsa, has been reported to prevent ischemia induced by neuronal injury traditionally. This study then tried to investigate whether ECH could alleviate HH-induced memory deficit. Ten C57 mice were used as control, and 50 were exposed to HH equivalent to 6,100 m for 7 days in a decompression chamber and were given ECH daily (50, 75, or 100 mg/kg) through gavage during the period of exposure...
February 15, 2019: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Steven H Mott, Richard P Morse, Scott A Burroughs, Ashura W Buckley, Cristan A Farmer, Audrey E Thurm, Susan E Swedo, Amara L Krag, Gregory L Holmes
Electrical status epilepticus in sleep (ESES) is an age-related, self-limited epileptic encephalopathy. The syndrome is characterized by cognitive and behavioral abnormalities and a specific EEG pattern of continuous spikes and waves during slow-wave sleep. While spikes and sharp waves are known to result in transient cognitive impairment during learning and memory tasks performed during the waking state, the effect of epileptiform discharges during sleep on cognition and behavior is unclear. There is increasing evidence that abnormalities of coherence, a measure of the consistency of the phase difference between two EEG signals when compared over time, is an important feature of brain oscillations and plays a role in cognition and behavior...
February 15, 2019: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
Domenico Serino, Chiara Davico, Nicola Specchio, Carlo Efisio Marras, Franco Fioretto
Berardinelli-Seip syndrome, or congenital generalized lipodystrophy type 2 (CGL2), is characterized by a lack of subcutaneous adipose tissue and precocious metabolic syndrome with insulin resistance, resulting in diabetes, dyslipidaemia, hepatic steatosis, cardiomyopathy, and acanthosis nigricans. Most reported mutations are associated with mild, non-progressive neurological impairment. We describe the clinical and EEG data of a patient with progressive myoclonus epilepsy (PME), CGL2, and progressive neurological impairment, carrying a homozygous BSCL2 nonsense mutation...
February 15, 2019: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
Kimberley M Kendall, Matthew Bracher-Smith, Harry Fitzpatrick, Amy Lynham, Elliott Rees, Valentina Escott-Price, Michael J Owen, Michael C O'Donovan, James T R Walters, George Kirov
BACKGROUND: Rare copy number variants (CNVs) are associated with risk of neurodevelopmental disorders characterised by varying degrees of cognitive impairment, including schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability. However, the effects of many individual CNVs in carriers without neurodevelopmental disorders are not yet fully understood, and little is known about the effects of reciprocal copy number changes of known pathogenic loci.AimsWe aimed to analyse the effect of CNV carrier status on cognitive performance and measures of occupational and social outcomes in unaffected individuals from the UK Biobank...
February 15, 2019: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Katherine Osborne-Crowley, Sophie C Andrews, Izelle Labuschagne, Akshay Nair, Rachael Scahill, David Craufurd, Sarah J Tabrizi, Julie C Stout
OBJECTIVES: Previous research has demonstrated an association between emotion recognition and apathy in several neurological conditions involving fronto-striatal pathology, including Parkinson's disease and brain injury. In line with these findings, we aimed to determine whether apathetic participants with early Huntington's disease (HD) were more impaired on an emotion recognition task compared to non-apathetic participants and healthy controls. METHODS: We included 43 participants from the TRACK-HD study who reported apathy on the Problem Behaviours Assessment - short version (PBA-S), 67 participants who reported no apathy, and 107 controls matched for age, sex, and level of education...
February 15, 2019: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
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