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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30782579/absence-status-induced-by-lacosamide-adjunctive-therapy
#1
Charles Ákos Szabó, Lola C Morgan, Suzanne Sonnenberg, Kameel M Karkar
Since lacosamide was approved as an adjuvant agent for the treatment of medically refractory focal epilepsy over ten years ago, it is becoming more widely used for the treatment of idiopathic (genetic) generalized epilepsies. Several studies have demonstrated efficacy in reducing primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS), but efficacy is less well-characterized for myoclonic and absence seizures. A 29-year-old man with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy and medically refractory GTCS on a combination of levetiracetam and topiramate was started on lacosamide adjunctive therapy with the plan to replace topiramate...
February 18, 2019: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30776014/treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease-trazodone-sleep-serotonin-norepinephrine-and-future-directions
#2
John Wesson Ashford
In this issue, an article by La et al. provides evidence that trazodone delayed cognitive decline in 25 participants with Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment, or normal cognition. For participants considered to have AD pathology, trazodone non-users declined at a rate 2.4 times greater than those taking trazodone for sleep over a 4-year period. In the analysis of sleep complaints, the relationship between trazodone, a widely used medication for sleep problems in the elderly, and cognition was associated with subjective improvement of sleep disruption...
2019: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30772694/the-association-between-sleep-and-dual-task-performance-in-preterm-and-full-term-children-an-exploratory-study
#3
Wenke Möhring, Natalie Urfer-Maurer, Serge Brand, Edith Holsboer-Trachsler, Peter Weber, Alexander Grob, Sakari Lemola
OBJECTIVES: The present study explored associations between sleep and children's dual-task performance using cognitive-motor dual tasks (eg, walking and talking). Previous research with older adults indicated correlations between higher gait variability and unfavorable sleep continuity variables. Based on this research, as a first objective, we investigated similar correlations in a sample of children. Second, we explored correlations between dual-task performance and dimensions of sleep architecture...
December 19, 2018: Sleep Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30772272/-continuous-spike-waves-during-slow-wave-sleep-experience-during-20-years
#4
Laura Escobar Fernández, Alejandra Coccolo Góngora, María Vázquez López, Ana Paloma Polo Arrondo, María Concepción Miranda Herrero, Estíbaliz Barredo Valderrama, Pedro Castro de Castro
INTRODUCTION: Continuous spikes and waves during slow sleep (CSWS) is an EEG pattern that appears during childhood, and is often associated with cognitive impairment. It can appear in the course of epileptic syndromes, as well as in benign epilepsy. The aim of this study is to analyse epidemiological and clinical characteristic of patients with CSWS, in order to describe possible predictive factors in their outcome. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted on paediatric patients with CSWS treated in a third-level hospital from November 1997 to November 2017...
February 13, 2019: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30767900/functional-brain-connectivity-in-electrical-status-epilepticus-in-sleep
#5
Steven H Mott, Richard P Morse, Scott A Burroughs, Ashura W Buckley, Cristan A Farmer, Audrey E Thurm, Susan E Swedo, Amara L Krag, Gregory L Holmes
Electrical status epilepticus in sleep (ESES) is an age-related, self-limited epileptic encephalopathy. The syndrome is characterized by cognitive and behavioral abnormalities and a specific EEG pattern of continuous spikes and waves during slow-wave sleep. While spikes and sharp waves are known to result in transient cognitive impairment during learning and memory tasks performed during the waking state, the effect of epileptiform discharges during sleep on cognition and behavior is unclear. There is increasing evidence that abnormalities of coherence, a measure of the consistency of the phase difference between two EEG signals when compared over time, is an important feature of brain oscillations and plays a role in cognition and behavior...
February 15, 2019: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30753924/an-increase-in-sleep-slow-waves-predicts-better-working-memory-performance-in-healthy-individuals
#6
Fabio Ferrarelli, Rachel Kaskie, Srinivas Laxminarayan, Sridhar Ramakrishnan, Jaques Reifman, Anne Germain
Sleep is imperative for brain health and well-being, and restorative sleep is associated with better cognitive functioning. Increasing evidence indicates that electrophysiological measures of sleep, especially slow wave activity (SWA), regulate the consolidation of motor and perceptual procedural memory. In contrast, the role of sleep EEG and SWA in modulating executive functions, including working memory (WM), has been far less characterized. Here, we investigated across-night changes in sleep EEG that may ameliorate WM performance...
February 9, 2019: NeuroImage
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30753650/strengthening-sleep-autonomic-interaction-via-acoustic-enhancement-of-slow-oscillations
#7
D Grimaldi, N A Papalambros, K J Reid, S M Abbott, R G Malkani, M Gendy, M Iwanaszko, R I Braun, D J Sanchez, K A Paller, P C Zee
Slow-wave sleep (SWS) is important for overall health since it affects many physiological processes including cardio-metabolic function. Sleep and autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity are closely coupled at anatomical and physiological levels. Sleep-related changes in autonomic function are likely the main pathway through which SWS affects many systems within the body. There are characteristic changes in ANS activity across sleep stages. Notably, in Non-Rapid Eye-Movement sleep, the progression into SWS is characterized by increased parasympathetic activity, an important measure of cardiovascular health...
February 6, 2019: Sleep
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30746049/exposure-to-video-games-effects-on-sleep-and-on-post-sleep-cognitive-abilities-a-sistematic-review-of-experimental-evidences
#8
REVIEW
Sara Peracchia, Giuseppe Curcio
The public opinion is ever more interested and worried about possible effects of exposure to VGs (video games) on human life and well-being. Scientific literature shows several evidences highlighting negative outcomes on behavioural, emotive, cognitive and physical health spheres. All these aspects are intrinsically linked to sleep quality and quantity and to date very few studies directly investigated the effects of videogame (VG) exposure on sleep and post-sleep cognitive status. The aim of the present systematic review is to examine the impact that the exposure to VGs can produce on sleep pattern and the consequent post-sleep cognitive abilities...
July 2018: Sleep Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30740838/use-of-targeted-memory-reactivation-enhances-skill-performance-during-a-nap-and-enhances-declarative-memory-during-wake-in-healthy-young-adults
#9
Brian P Johnson, Steven M Scharf, Avelino C Verceles, Kelly P Westlake
Sleep is an important component of motor memory consolidation and learning, providing a critical tool to enhance training and rehabilitation. Following initial skill acquisition, memory consolidation is largely a result of non-rapid eye movement sleep over either a full night or a nap. Targeted memory reactivation is one method used to enhance this critical process, which involves the pairing of an external cue with task performance at the time of initial motor skill acquisition, followed by replay of the same cue during sleep...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Sleep Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30740070/psychosocial-stress-before-a-nap-increases-sleep-latency-and-decreases-early-slow-wave-activity
#10
Sandra Ackermann, Maren Cordi, Roberto La Marca, Erich Seifritz, Björn Rasch
Sleep disturbances are an important risk factor for stress-related diseases such as burnout or depression. In particular, slow-wave activity (SWA) during sleep might be eminently relevant for optimal maintenance of mental health and cognitive functioning. In spite of the clinical importance and the pertinence of stress-related processes in everyday life, the physiological mechanisms of the association between stress, sleep, and cognition are not well-understood. In the present study, we carefully mapped the time course of the influence of a psychosocial stressor on sleep architecture and sleep-related oscillations during a midday nap...
2019: Frontiers in Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30737310/regional-delta-waves-in-human-rapid-eye-movement-sleep
#11
Giulio Bernardi, Monica Betta, Emiliano Ricciardi, Pietro Pietrini, Giulio Tononi, Francesca Siclari
Although the EEG slow wave of sleep is typically considered to be a hallmark of Non Rapid Eye Movement (NREM) sleep, recent work in mice has shown that slow waves can also occur in REM sleep. Here we investigated the presence and cortical distribution of negative delta (1-4 Hz) waves in human REM sleep by analyzing high-density EEG sleep recordings obtained in 28 healthy subjects. We identified two clusters of delta waves with distinctive properties: 1) a fronto-central cluster characterized by ∼2.5-3.0 Hz, relatively large, notched delta waves (so-called 'sawtooth waves') that tended to occur in bursts, were associated with increased gamma activity and rapid eye movements, and upon source modeling, displayed an occipito-temporal and a fronto-central component; and 2) a medial-occipital cluster characterized by more isolated, slower (<2 Hz) and smaller waves that were not associated with rapid eye movements, displayed a negative correlation with gamma activity and were also found in NREM sleep...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30724408/a-longitudinal-study-of-polysomnographic-variables-in-patients-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-converting-to-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Luca Carnicelli, Michelangelo Maestri, Elisa Di Coscio, Gloria Tognoni, Monica Fabbrini, Alessandro Schirru, Filippo S Giorgi, Gabriele Siciliano, Ubaldo Bonuccelli, Enrica Bonanni
The main condition at increased risk of dementia is considered to be mild cognitive impairment. Mild cognitive impairment has been defined as a transitional state between normal aging and dementia, of which it may represent a prodrome. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether sleep variables (both conventional and microstructural ones) in subjects with mild cognitive impairment correlate with conversion to dementia. Nineteen subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (mean age 68.5 ± 7.0 years) and 11 cognitively intact healthy elderly individuals (mean age 69...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Sleep Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30722054/cortical-zeta-inhibitory-peptide-injection-reduces-local-sleep-need
#13
C Carroll, H Hsiang, S Snyder, J Forsberg, M B Dash
Local sleep need within cortical circuits exhibits extensive interregional variability and appears to increase following learning during preceding waking. Although the biological mechanisms responsible for generating sleep need are unclear, this local variability could arise as a consequence of wake-dependent synaptic plasticity. To test whether cortical synaptic strength is a proximate driver of sleep homeostasis we developed a novel experimental approach to alter local sleep need. One hour prior to light onset, we injected zeta-inhibitory peptide (ZIP), a pharmacological antagonist of protein kinase Mζ, which can produce pronounced synaptic depotentiation, into the right motor cortex of freely-behaving rats...
February 5, 2019: Sleep
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30713104/implicit-vocabulary-learning-during-sleep-is-bound-to-slow-wave-peaks
#14
Marc Alain Züst, Simon Ruch, Roland Wiest, Katharina Henke
Learning while asleep is a dream of mankind, but is often deemed impossible because sleep lacks the conscious awareness and neurochemical milieu thought to be necessary for learning. Current evidence for sleep learning in humans is inconclusive. To explore conditions under which verbal learning might occur, we hypothesized that peaks of slow waves would be conducive to verbal learning because the peaks define periods of neural excitability. While in slow-wave sleep during a nap, a series of word pairs comprising pseudowords, e...
January 15, 2019: Current Biology: CB
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30712997/strong-relationship-between-nrem-sleep-epilepsy-and-plastic-functions-a-conceptual-review-on-the-neurophysiology-background
#15
REVIEW
Péter Halász, Róbert Bódizs, Przemysla Péter Ujma, Dániel Fabó, Anna Szűcs
The aim of this review is to summarize and discuss the strong bond between NREM sleep and epilepsy underlain by the shared link and effect on brain plasticity. Beyond the seizure occurrence rate, sleep relatedness may manifest in the enhancement of interictal epileptic discharges (spikes and pathological ripples). The number of the discharges as well as their propagation increase during NREM sleep, unmasking the epileptic network that is hidden during wakefulness. The interictal epileptic discharges associate with different sleep constituents (sleep slow waves, spindling and high frequency oscillations); known to play essential role in memory and learning...
January 31, 2019: Epilepsy Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30709577/subjective-and-objective-assessments-of-sleep-problems-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-the-effects-of-methylphenidate-treatment
#16
Wei-Chih Chin, Yu-Shu Huang, Ya-Hsin Chou, Chih-Huan Wang, Kuang-Tai Chen, Jen Fu Hsu, Shih-Chieh Hsu
BACKGROUND: to investigate the sleep problems in children with different ADHD presentations and effects of methylphenidate (MPH) on the sleep problems of children with ADHD by both subjective and objective measurements. METHODS: 71 children with ADHD and 30 controls were included. 35 had ADHD with predominantly inattentive presentation (ADHD-I) and 36 with predominantly hyperactive/impulsive or combined presentation (ADHD-C). We used the pediatric sleep questionnaire (PSQ) and a nocturnal polysomnography (PSG) to assess the sleep problems in children with ADHD before and 6 months after being treated with methylphenidate (0...
December 2018: Biomedical Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30702083/interaction-between-the-thalamic-nucleus-and-preoptic-area-neurons
#17
I Bilanishvili, M Barbakadze, N Khizanishvili, T Gaikharashvili, Z Nanobashvili
The thalamic reticular nucleus which is known to delineate the dorsal thalamus stipulates development of inhibitory processes in the thalamo-cortical neurons that is necessary for generating slow (8-12 Hz), high-amplitude electric activity in this system. It was demonstrated that majority of preoptic area neurons get activated during slow-wave sleep. Activation of neurons in the anterior hypothalamus and preoptic area during slow-wave sleep and synchronization of the brain electric activity was demonstrated...
December 2018: Georgian Medical News
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30698667/brain-white-matter-damage-and-its-association-with-neuronal-synchrony-during-sleep
#18
Erlan Sanchez, Héjar El-Khatib, Caroline Arbour, Christophe Bedetti, Hélène Blais, Karine Marcotte, Andrée-Ann Baril, Maxime Descoteaux, Danielle Gilbert, Julie Carrier, Nadia Gosselin
The restorative function of sleep partly relies on its ability to deeply synchronize cerebral networks to create large slow oscillations observable with EEG. However, whether a brain can properly synchronize and produce a restorative sleep when it undergoes massive and widespread white matter damage is unknown. Here, we answer this question by testing 23 patients with various levels of white matter damage secondary to moderate to severe traumatic brain injuries (ages 18-56; 17 males, six females, 11-39 months post-injury) and compared them to 27 healthy subjects of similar age and sex...
January 28, 2019: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30690114/extracellular-adenosine-and-slow-wave-sleep-are-increased-after-ablation-of-nucleus-accumbens-core-astrocytes-and-neurons-in-mice
#19
Xuzhao Zhou, Yo Oishi, Yoan Cherasse, Mustafa Korkutata, Shinya Fujii, Chia-Ying Lee, Michael Lazarus
Sleep and wakefulness are controlled by a wide range of neuronal populations in the mammalian brain. Activation of adenosine A2A receptor (A2A R)-expressing neurons in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) core promotes slow-wave sleep (SWS). The neuronal mechanism by which activation of NAc A2A R neurons induces SWS, however, is unknown. We hypothesized that the ability of NAc activation to induce sleep is mediated by the classic somnogen adenosine, which can be formed by various processes in all types of cells. Here, to investigate whether astrocytes are involved in the ability of the NAc to regulate SWS, we ablated glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive cells in the NAc core of mice by virus-mediated expression of diphtheria toxin (DT) receptors and intraperitoneal administration of DT...
January 25, 2019: Neurochemistry International
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30689583/long-term-trazodone-use-and-cognition-a-potential-therapeutic-role-for-slow-wave-sleep-enhancers
#20
Alice L La, Christine M Walsh, Thomas C Neylan, Keith A Vossel, Kristine Yaffe, Andrew D Krystal, Bruce L Miller, Elissaios Karageorgiou
BACKGROUND: Recent studies reveal an association between slow-wave sleep (SWS), amyloid-β aggregation, and cognition. OBJECTIVE: This retrospective study examines whether long-term use of trazodone, an SWS enhancer, is associated with delayed cognitive decline. METHODS: We identified 25 regular trazodone users (mean age 75.4±7.5; 9 women, 16 men) who carried a diagnosis of Alzheimer's dementia, mild cognitive impairment, or normal cognition, and 25 propensity-matched trazodone non-users (mean age 74...
January 22, 2019: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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