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Thyroid Vitamin D Brain

Jinjiao Wang, Cathy A Maxwell, Fang Yu
The objectives of this literature review were to (1) synthesize biological processes linked to frailty and their corresponding biomarkers and (2) identify potential associations among these processes and biomarkers. In September 2016, PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health, Cochrane Library, and Embase were searched. Studies examining biological processes related to frailty in older adults (≥60 years) were included. Studies were excluded if they did not employ specific measures of frailty, did not report the association between biomarkers and frailty, or focused on nonelderly samples (average age < 60)...
January 2019: Biological Research for Nursing
Andrew Clegg, Zaki Hassan-Smith
Frailty is a condition characterised by loss of biological reserves, failure of homoeostatic mechanisms, and vulnerability to adverse outcomes. The endocrine system is considered particularly important in frailty, because of its complex inter-relationships with the brain, immune system, and skeletal muscle. This Review summarises evidence indicating a key role for the hypothalamic-pituitary axis in the pathogenesis of frailty through aberrant regulation of glucocorticoid secretion, insulin-like growth factor signalling, and androgen production...
September 2018: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
Danni Li, Angela Radulescu, Rupendra T Shrestha, Matthew Root, Amy B Karger, Anthony A Killeen, James S Hodges, Shu-Ling Fan, Angela Ferguson, Uttam Garg, Lori J Sokoll, Lynn A Burmeister
Importance: Biotinylated antibodies and analogues, with their strong binding to streptavidin, are used in many clinical laboratory tests. Excess biotin in blood due to supplemental biotin ingestion may affect biotin-streptavidin binding, leading to potential clinical misinterpretation. However, the degree of interference remains undefined in healthy adults. Objective: To assess performance of specific biotinylated immunoassays after 7 days of ingesting 10 mg/d of biotin, a dose common in over-the-counter supplements for healthy adults...
September 26, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Anas Maatough, G Kerr Whitfield, Lemlem Brook, David Hsieh, Patricia Palade, Jui-Cheng Hsieh
The mammalian hairless protein (HR) is a 130 kDa nuclear transcription factor that is essential for proper skin and hair follicle function. Previous studies have focused on the role of HR in skin maintenance and hair cycling. However, the hairless gene (HR) is also expressed in brain and other tissues, where its role remains poorly understood. HR has been reported to contain functional domains that potentially serve in DNA binding, histone demethylation, nuclear translocation and protein-protein interactions...
January 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
E Di Giacomo, E Benedetti, L Cristiano, A Antonosante, M d'Angelo, A Fidoamore, D Barone, S Moreno, R Ippoliti, M P Cerù, A Giordano, A Cimini
PPARs are a class of ligand-activated transcription factors belonging to the superfamily of receptors for steroid and thyroid hormones, retinoids and vitamin D that control the expression of a large number of genes involved in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism and in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation and death. The role of PPARs in the CNS has been primarily associated with lipid and glucose metabolism; however, these receptors are also implicated in neural cell differentiation and death, as well as neuronal maturation...
January 2, 2017: Cell Cycle
A Adibfar, M Saleem, K L Lanctot, N Herrmann
Depression, the most common mood disorder, is a leading contributor to the global burden of disease affecting more than 120 million individuals worldwide. Various pathophysiological processes underlie depression; this complexity renders it difficult to identify clinically useful diagnostic and prognostic markers, as well as treatment options. The current state of knowledge driving the management and treatment of depression remains incomplete, which underscores the need for further insight into pathways relevant to depression...
2016: Current Molecular Medicine
Jo E Lewis, John M Brameld, Phil Hill, Dana Wilson, Perry Barrett, Francis J P Ebling, Preeti H Jethwa
The Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus) survives winter by decreasing food intake and catabolizing abdominal fat reserves, resulting in a sustained, profound loss of body weight. Hypothalamic tanycytes are pivotal for this process. In these cells, short-winter photoperiods upregulate deiodinase 3, an enzyme that regulates thyroid hormone availability, and downregulate genes encoding components of retinoic acid (RA) uptake and signaling. The aim of the current studies was to identify mechanisms by which seasonal changes in thyroid hormone and RA signaling from tanycytes might ultimately regulate appetite and energy expenditure...
February 2016: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Kenji Moriyama, Hiroyuki Yamamoto, Kumi Futawaka, Asami Atake, Masato Kasahara, Tetsuya Tagami
Thyroid hormone exerts a pleiotropic effect on development, differentiation, and metabolism through thyroid hormone receptor (TR). A novel thyroid hormone receptor β isoform (TRβ4) was cloned using PCR from a human pituitary cDNA library as a template. We report here the characterization of TRβ4 from a molecular basis. Temporal expression of TRβ4 during the fetal period is abundant in the brain and kidney, comparable with the adult pattern. Western blot analysis revealed that TRs are ubiquitination labile proteins, while TRβ1 is potentially stable...
2016: Endocrine Research
Cedric Annweiler, Robert Bartha, Sandy Goncalves, Spyridon N Karras, Pascal Millet, Francois Féron, Olivier Beauchet
OBJECTIVES: Vitamin D is involved in skeletal and brain health. Recently, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentration was found to be inversely correlated with intracranial volume in younger adults. Since hypovitaminosis D is most common in older adults, our objective was to determine whether this inverse correlation between 25OHD concentration and intracranial volume also occurred in older adults. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: One hundred and ten Caucasian older community-dwellers (mean, 71...
March 2015: Maturitas
Eric R Braverman, David Han, Marlene Oscar-Berman, Tatiana Karikh, Courtney Truesdell, Kristina Dushaj, Florian Kreuk, Mona Li, Danielle Stratton, Kenneth Blum
Various studies have demonstrated that increased leptin levels and obesity are inversely related to cognitive decline in menopausal women. It is hypothesized that adiposity is inversely correlated with cognitive decline, as women with increased weight are less vulnerable to diminishing cognition. However, it is increasingly observed that menopausal women, even with increased adiposity, experience significant cognitive decline. Positron emission tomography (PET) has been used to analyze cognitive function and processing in menopausal women...
2014: PloS One
C Annweiler, T Annweiler, R Bartha, F R Herrmann, R Camicioli, O Beauchet
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Morphological brain changes related to hypovitaminosis D have been poorly studied. In particular, the age-related decrease in vitamin D concentrations may explain the onset of white matter abnormalities (WMA) in older adults. Our objectives were (i) to investigate whether there was an association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentration and the grade of WMA in older adults and (ii) to determine whether the location of WMA was associated with 25OHD concentration...
December 2014: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Cristina Resende, Catarina Araújo, Ana Paula Vieira, Filipa Ventura, Celeste Brito
Schimmelpenning syndrome (SS) includes an organoid nevus that follows the lines of Blaschko and defects of brain, eyes, bones, or other systems. We report a case of a 3-month old female infant, who presented with several thin plaques, with irregular borders, yellowish color, which had a verrucous appearance, following the lines of Blaschko, mainly occupying the left side of posterior trunk, the left face, the right side of the anterior trunk, and the right upper limb. These plaques had been present since birth...
October 2013: Dermatology Online Journal
Z Berkani, Y Kitouni, A Belhadj, K Sifi, N Abbadi, C Bellatrache, D Hartani, R Kherroubi
INTRODUCTION: Hyperhomocysteinemia is known to be a risk factor in both retinal artery and retinal vein occlusions. We report the case of a young patient with combined occlusion of the cilioretinal artery and the central retinal vein due to hyperhomocysteinemia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A 23-year-old patient without significant medical history, presented for sudden, painless visual loss in the right eye. Ophthalmologic examination revealed best-corrected visual acuity of the right eye 8/10 P2, and 10/10 P2 on the left...
September 2013: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
Nancy L Morse
UNLABELLED: Scientific literature is increasingly reporting on dietary deficiencies in many populations of some nutrients critical for foetal and infant brain development and function. PURPOSE: To highlight the potential benefits of maternal supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and other important complimentary nutrients, including vitamin D, folic acid and iodine during pregnancy and/or breast feeding for foetal and/or infant brain development and/or function...
July 2012: Nutrients
Ling Qu, Tingting Zhang, Yiming Mu
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical characteristics, diagnosis and treatment of pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP). METHODS: The clinical data of 15 patients with pseudohypoparathyroidism (including 9 male and 6 female patients) admitted in our hospital between January, 1990 and July, 2011 were reviewed. RESULTS: The disease course of the patients ranged from 3 days to 21 years, and such symptoms of tetany and fatigue were found in all the patients...
May 2012: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
Walter E Stumpf
For cell and tissue localization of drugs, receptor microscopic autoradiography is reviewed, including its development history, multiple testing, extensive applications and significant discoveries. This sensitive high-resolution imaging method is based on the use of radiolabeled compounds (esp. tagged with (3)H or (125)I), preservation through freezing of in vivo localization of tissue constituents, cutting thin frozen sections, and close contact with the recording nuclear emulsion. After extensive testing of the utility of this method, the distribution of radiolabeled compounds has been identified and characterized for estradiol, progestagens, adrenal steroids, thyroid hormone, ecdysteroids, vitamin D, retinoic acid, metabolic indicators glucose and 2-deoxyglucose, as well as extracellular space indicators...
March 2012: Progress in Histochemistry and Cytochemistry
William B Grant
BACKGROUND/AIM: This paper reviews ecological studies of the ultraviolet-B (UVB)-vitamin D-cancer hypothesis based on geographical variation of cancer incidence and/or mortality rates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The review is based largely on three ecological studies of cancer rates from the United States; one each from Australia, China, France, Japan, and Spain; and eight multicountry, multifactorial studies of cancer incidence rates from more than 100 countries. RESULTS: This review consistently found strong inverse correlations with solar UVB for 15 types of cancer: bladder, breast, cervical, colon, endometrial, esophageal, gastric, lung, ovarian, pancreatic, rectal, renal, and vulvar cancer; and Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma...
January 2012: Anticancer Research
Zudin Puthucheary, James R A Skipworth, Jai Rawal, Mike Loosemore, Ken Van Someren, Hugh E Montgomery
The common inheritance of approximately 20 000 genes defines each of us as human. However, substantial variation exists between individual human genomes, including 'replication' of gene sequences (copy number variation, tandem repeats), or changes in individual base pairs (mutations if <1% frequency and single nucleotide polymorphisms if >1% frequency). A vast array of human phenotypes (e.g. muscle strength, skeletal structure, tendon elasticity, and heart and lung size) influences sports performance, each itself the result of a complex interaction between a myriad of anatomical, biochemical and physiological systems...
October 1, 2011: Sports Medicine
Lauren R Harms, Thomas H J Burne, Darryl W Eyles, John J McGrath
Vitamin D is a member of the superfamily of nuclear steroid transcription regulators and as such, exerts transcriptional control over a large number of genes. Several other steroids, such as thyroid hormones, vitamin A, androgens and the glucocorticoids, are known as 'neurosteroids' and their role in brain development and function is well defined. It has only been in the last decade or so that vitamin D has been thought to function as a neurosteroid. In this review we have collated a diverse array of data describing the presence of vitamin D metabolites and the receptor in the brain, the evidence that vitamin D may be an important modulator of brain development, and the potential role of vitamin D in neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders...
August 2011: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
Annemieke Verstuyf, Geert Carmeliet, Roger Bouillon, Chantal Mathieu
The secosteroid hormone 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)) is the natural ligand for the vitamin D receptor, a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. Upon binding of the ligand, the vitamin D receptor heterodimerizes with the retinoid X receptor and binds to vitamin D response elements in the promoter region of target genes to induce/repress their expression. The target genes that have been identified so far are heterogeneous in nature and reflect the great spectrum of biological activities of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3)...
July 2010: Kidney International
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