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Capillary rarefaction

Heng Zeng, Jian-Xiong Chen
Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is characterized by diastolic dysfunction and is commonly seen in the elderly and diabetic and hypertensive patients. Despite its rising prevalence, the pathophysiology of HFpEF is poorly understood and its optimal treatment remains undefined. Recent clinical studies indicate that coronary microvascular rarefaction (reduced myocardial capillary density) with reduced coronary flow reserve (CFR) is a major contributor to diastolic dysfunction in HFpEF patients...
2019: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
Muti Goloba, Rajendra Raghuraman, Nansi Botros, Uzma Khan, Monique Klein, Amelia Brown, Donovan Duffy, Nick Anim-Nyame, Duolao Wang, Isaac Manyonda, Tarek F Antonios
BACKGROUND: Capillary rarefaction (CR) is an established hallmark of essential hypertension (EH). The aim of this study was to examine early changes in capillary density (CD) and blood pressure (BP) in low birth weight (LBW) infants who are at risk of developing EH in later life. METHODS: We studied 77 LBW infants and 284 normal birth weight (NBW) infants, all born to normotensive mothers in a longitudinal multi-centre study. Intravital capillaroscopy was used to measure functional (BCD) and maximal capillary density (MCD) at birth, 3 months, 6 months and 12 months...
March 1, 2019: American Journal of Hypertension
Jin Zhao, Meixia Meng, Jinhua Zhang, Lili Li, Xiaojing Zhu, Li Zhang, Chang Wang, Ming Gao
Loss of peritubular capillaries is a notable feature of progressive renal interstitial fibrosis. Astaxanthin (ASX) is a natural carotenoid with various biological activities. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of ASX on unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO)‑induced renal fibrosis in mice. For that purpose, mice were randomly divided into five treatment groups: Sham, ASX 100 mg/kg, UUO, UUO + ASX 50 mg/kg and UUO + ASX 100 mg/kg. ASX was administered to the mice for 7 or 14 days following UUO...
February 19, 2019: Molecular Medicine Reports
Xiaomei Teng, Chen Ji, Huiting Zhong, Dong Zheng, Rui Ni, David J Hill, Sidong Xiong, Guo-Chang Fan, Peter A Greer, Zhenya Shen, Tianqing Peng
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The role of non-cardiomyocytes in diabetic cardiomyopathy has not been fully addressed. This study investigated whether endothelial cell calpain plays a role in myocardial endothelial injury and microvascular rarefaction in diabetes, thereby contributing to diabetic cardiomyopathy. METHODS: Endothelial cell-specific Capns1-knockout (KO) mice were generated. Conditions mimicking prediabetes and type 1 and type 2 diabetes were induced in these KO mice and their wild-type littermates...
February 18, 2019: Diabetologia
Cecilie Budolfsen, Julie Faber, Daniela Grimm, Marcus Krüger, Johann Bauer, Markus Wehland, Manfred Infanger, Nils Erik Magnusson
Cancer treatment is an area of continuous improvement. Therapy is becoming more targeted and the use of anti-angiogenic agents in multiple cancers, specifically tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), has demonstrated prolonged survival outcomes compared with previous drugs. Therefore, they have become a well-established part of treatment. Despite good results, there is a broad range of moderate to severe adverse effects associated with treatment. Hypertension (HTN) is one of the most frequent adverse effects and has been associated with favourable outcomes (in terms of cancer treatment) of TKI treatment...
January 30, 2019: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Alessandro R Nascimento, Fabiana Gomes, Marcus V Machado, Cassiano Gonçalves-de-Albuquerque, Pascal Bousquet, Eduardo Tibiriçá
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a new I1 -imidazoline receptor-selective pyrroline compound on the hemodynamic, metabolic and microvascular alterations in a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced model of metabolic syndrome in rats. METHODS: In total, twenty adult male Wistar rats were fed a high-fat diet (HFD, n = 20) for 20 weeks. Thereafter, the rats received a new pyrroline compound selective for I1-imidazoline receptors (LNP599; 10 mg/kg/day) or vehicle (n = 10/group) orally by gavage for 4 weeks...
December 22, 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Sarah Mrejen-Uretsky, Hoang Mai Le, Sylvia Nghiem-Buffet, Sandrine Tabary, Gabriel Quentel, Salomon Y Cohen
PURPOSE: To report a series of eight patients with perifoveal exudative vascular anomalous complex imaged with optical coherence tomography angiography and the results of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy or laser photocoagulation. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of demographic data, imaging including color pictures, spectral domain optical coherence tomography, and optical coherence tomography angiography, and fluorescein angiography, course, and outcome...
December 27, 2018: Retina
Sun Ah Nam, Wan-Young Kim, Jin-Won Kim, Min Gyu Kang, Sang Hee Park, Myung-Shik Lee, Hyung Wook Kim, Chul Woo Yang, Jin Kim, Yong Kyun Kim
Renal fibrosis is the final common pathway of various renal injuries and it leads to chronic kidney disease. Recent studies reported that FOXD1-lineage pericyte plays a critical role in tubulointerstitial fibrosis (TIF). However the regulatory mechanisms remain unclear. Autophagy is a cellular process of degradation of damaged cytoplasmic components that regulates cell death and proliferation. To investigate the role of autophagy in FOXD1-lineage pericytes on renal TIF, we generated the FOXD1-lineage stromal cell-specific Atg7 deletion (Atg7△FOXD1 ) mice...
December 10, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Wen-Ching Shen, Yu-Hsiang Chou, Hsiang-Po Huang, Jenn-Feng Sheen, Shih-Chieh Hung, Hsin-Fu Chen
BACKGROUND: Renal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is a major cause of acute kidney injury (AKI), which is associated with high morbidity and mortality. AKI is a serious and costly medical condition. Effective therapy for AKI is an unmet clinical need, and molecular mechanisms underlying the interactions between an injured kidney and distant organs remain unclear. Therefore, novel therapeutic strategies should be developed. METHODS: We directed the differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells into endothelial progenitor cells (iEPCs), which were then applied for treating mouse AKI...
December 10, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Stefan Peter Mortensen, Kamilla Munch Winding, Ulrik Winning Iepsen, Gregers Winding Munch, Niels Marcussen, Ylva Hellsten, Bente Klarlund Pedersen, Oliver Baum
Type 2 diabetes is associated with microvascular dysfunction, but little is known about how capillary ultrastructure is affected by exercise training. To investigate the effect of two types of exercise training on skeletal muscle capillary ultrastructure and capillarization in individuals with type 2 diabetes, 21 individuals with type 2 diabetes were allocated (randomized controlled trial) to 11 weeks of aerobic exercise training consisting of either moderate-intensity endurance training (END; n=10), or low-volume high-intensity interval training (HIIT; n=11)...
November 27, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Achim Lother, Lisa Deng, Michael Huck, David Fürst, Jessica Kowalski, Jennifer Susanne Esser, Martin Moser, Christoph Bode, Lutz Hein
Aldosterone is a key factor in adverse cardiovascular remodeling by acting on the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in different cell types. Endothelial MR activation mediates hypertrophy, inflammation and fibrosis. Cardiovascular remodeling is often accompanied by impaired angiogenesis, which is a risk factor for the development of heart failure. In this study, we evaluated the impact of MR in endothelial cells on angiogenesis. Deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-induced hypertension was associated with capillary rarefaction in the heart of wildtype mice but not of mice with cell type-specific MR deletion in endothelial cells...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
Tao Guan, Ke Huang, Yuanyuan Liu, Shihui Hou, Chengfang Hu, Yi Li, Jingbo Zhang, Jinghong Zhao, Jun Zhang, Rupeng Wang, Yunjian Huang
Robo1/Robo2-NCK1/NCK2 signaling pathway controls endothelial cell sprouting and migration induced by Slit2 or VEGF, but whether it is involved in peritubular capillary (PTC) rarefaction of Aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN) is unclear. In the present study, we evaluated whether AA exerts antiangiogenic effects by targeting this signaling pathways in HUVECs. HUVECs or lentivirus-mediated NCK1-overexpressing HUVECs were stimulated with AA (1, 2 or 3 μg/ml) in the absence or presence of 6 nM Slit2. Our results showed that AAІ (1-3 μg/ml) dose-dependently inhibited the migration and tube formation of HUVECs...
January 2019: Toxicology Letters
Dennis Kannenkeril, Agnes Bosch, Joanna Harazny, Marina Karg, Susanne Jung, Christian Ott, Roland E Schmieder
BACKGROUND: Diabetes converts from a metabolic disorder into a predominantly vascular disease, once its duration extends over several years or/and when additional cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension coexist. In a cross-sectional analysis we analyzed various vascular parameters in the renal, retinal and systemic circulation, with the goal to identify which vascular parameter of early organ damage is the earliest that can be clinically detected. METHODS: In 111 patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) (off any anti-diabetic medication for at least 4 weeks) and 54 subjects without T2DM we compared various parameters of early vascular remodeling in the same patient: urinary albumin creatinine ratio ([UACR], early morning spot urine) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), retinal capillary flow (RCF) and intercapillary distance (ICD) as parameters of capillary rarefaction, wall-to-lumen ratio (WLR) of the retinal arterioles [all assessed by Scanning Laser Doppler Flowmetry], and central systolic pressure (cSBP) and central pulse pressure (cPP) [measured by pulse wave analysis, Syphygmocor] both reflecting vascular stiffness of large arteries...
September 19, 2018: Cardiovascular Diabetology
Amaal E Abdulle, Gilles F H Diercks, Martin Feelisch, Douwe J Mulder, Harry van Goor
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a rare connective tissue disease characterized by autoimmunity, vasculopathy, and progressive fibrosis typically affecting multiple organs including the skin. SSc often is a lethal disorder, because effective disease-modifying treatment still remains unavailable. Vasculopathy with endothelial dysfunction, perivascular infiltration of mononuclear cells, vascular wall remodeling and rarefaction of capillaries is the hallmark of the disease. Most patients present with vasospastic attacks of the digital arteries referred to as 'Raynaud's phenomenon,' which is often an indication of an underlying widespread vasculopathy...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Vanessa Estato, Joice Stipursky, Fabiana Gomes, Tally C Mergener, Edwards Frazão-Teixeira, Silvana Allodi, Eduardo Tibiriçá, Helene S Barbosa, Daniel Adesse
Toxoplasmosis is one of the leading parasitic diseases worldwide. Some data suggest that chronic acquired toxoplasmosis could be linked to behavioral alterations in humans. The parasite infects neurons, forming immunologically silent cysts. Cerebral microcirculation homeostasis is determinant to brain functions, and pathologic states can alter capillarity or blood perfusion, leading to neurodegeneration and cognitive deficits. Albino mice were infected with Toxoplasma gondii (ME49 strain) and analyzed after 10, 40, and 180 days...
November 2018: American Journal of Pathology
Jacqueline Chua, Calvin Woon Loong Chin, Jimmy Hong, Miao Li Chee, Thu-Thao Le, Daniel Shu Wei Ting, Tien Yin Wong, Leopold Schmetterer
OBJECTIVE: Reduction in capillary density or rarefaction is a hallmark of essential hypertension. We measured the retinal capillary density using noninvasive optical coherence tomographic angiography (OCT-A) in adults with treated systemic hypertension and determined possible correlations with ambulatory blood pressure (BP) and renal parameters. METHODS: This observational cross-sectional study consisted of 153 normal eyes from 77 nondiabetic hypertensive adults [mean (SD) age, 58 (9) years; 49% women; 23% poorly controlled BP]...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Hypertension
Alessandro Arrigo, Emanuela Aragona, Luigi Capone, Luisa Pierro, Francesco Romano, Francesco Bandello, Maurizio Battaglia Parodi
PURPOSE: To analyze optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) quantitative features in patients affected by new-onset choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in 1 eye and early/intermediate age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in the fellow eye. DESIGN: Case-control study. METHODS: Setting: Clinical practice. STUDY POPULATION: Thirty patients and 30 age-matched controls. OBSERVATION PROCEDURES: Both cohorts underwent complete ophthalmologic examination, including best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) measurement, biomicroscopy, fluorescein angiography (FA) and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) examination, optical coherence tomography, and OCTA scans...
November 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Lei Ye, Liping Su, Chenxu Wang, Szejie Loo, Guizhen Tee, Shihua Tan, Sandar Win Khin, Shijie Ko, Boyang Su, Stuart A Cook
Titin (TTN) Truncating variants (TTNtv) in the A-band of TTN predispose the mouse heart to systolic dysfunction when subjected to pressure-loading. However, the effects of TTNtv of the Z-disc are largely unexplored. A rat model of pressure-loaded heart is developed by trans-aortic constriction (TAC). Rats with TTNtv of the Z-disc were randomly assigned to TAC (Z-TAC) or sham-surgery (Z-Sham) and wildtype (WT) littermates served as controls (WT-TAC or WT-Sham). Left ventricular (LV) function was assessed by echocardiography...
2018: PloS One
Yifan Zhang, Daisuke Nakano, Yu Guan, Hirofumi Hitomi, Akiyoshi Uemura, Tsutomu Masaki, Hideki Kobara, Takeshi Sugaya, Akira Nishiyama
Multiple large clinical trials have shown that sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 2 inhibitors reduce the risk of renal events. However, the mechanism responsible for this outcome remains unknown. Here we investigated the effects of the SGLT2 inhibitor luseogliflozin on the development of renal fibrosis after renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in non-diabetic mice. Luseogliflozin significantly suppressed development of renal fibrosis, prevented peritubular capillary congestion/hemorrhage, attenuated CD31-positive cell loss, suppressed hypoxia, and increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A expression in the kidney after ischemia/reperfusion injury...
September 2018: Kidney International
Diana A Papazova, Merle M Krebber, Nynke R Oosterhuis, Hendrik Gremmels, Arjan D van Zuilen, Jaap A Joles, Marianne C Verhaar
Kidney transplantation (Tx) is considered the only definite treatment for end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) patients. The increasing prevalence of ESKD has necessitated the introduction of transplantation with kidneys from suboptimal donors. There is, however, still a lack of fundamental and longitudinal research on suboptimal kidney transplants. Specifically, there is a demand for accurate pre-Tx predictors of donor kidney function and injury to predict post-Tx outcome. In the present study, we combine rat models of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and renal Tx to dissect the effects of healthy and CKD renal grafts on healthy and CKD recipients...
July 17, 2018: Disease Models & Mechanisms
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