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Zhengkun Zhang, Yang Lu, Wenjing Xu, Qian Du, Li Sui, Yu Zhao, Qiyun Li
Beauveria bassiana (B. bassiana) is a broad-spectrum entomopathogenic species of fungi which is a natural enemy of Ostrinia furnacalis (O. furnacalis). Nevertheless, the precise mechanism of pathogenicity difference of B. bassiana strains on O. furnacalis has not been investigated before. In this study, two B. bassiana strains isolated from the infected O. furnacalis and exhibited different pathogenicity were chose to analyze the gene expression using RNA-sequencing analysis. To investigate the significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of these two strains, total RNA was extracted and Cuffdiff software was applied to perform the significance analysis of the microarrays method...
March 13, 2019: Microbial Pathogenesis
China A Hanson, Albert L Müller, Alexander Loy, Clelia Dona, Ramona Appel, Bo Barker Jørgensen, Casey R J Hubert
Selection by the local, contemporary environment plays a prominent role in shaping the biogeography of microbes. However, the importance of historical factors in microbial biogeography is more debatable. Historical factors include past ecological and evolutionary circumstances that may have influenced present-day microbial diversity, such as dispersal and past environmental conditions. Diverse thermophilic sulfate-reducing Desulfotomaculum are present as dormant endospores in marine sediments worldwide where temperatures are too low to support their growth...
2019: Frontiers in Microbiology
Zahra F Islam, Paul R F Cordero, Joanna Feng, Ya-Jou Chen, Sean K Bay, Thanavit Jirapanjawat, Roslyn M Gleadow, Carlo R Carere, Matthew B Stott, Eleonora Chiri, Chris Greening
Most aerobic bacteria exist in dormant states within natural environments. In these states, they endure adverse environmental conditions such as nutrient starvation by decreasing metabolic expenditure and using alternative energy sources. In this study, we investigated the energy sources that support persistence of two aerobic thermophilic strains of the environmentally widespread but understudied phylum Chloroflexi. A transcriptome study revealed that Thermomicrobium roseum (class Chloroflexia) extensively remodels its respiratory chain upon entry into stationary phase due to nutrient limitation...
March 14, 2019: ISME Journal
Antoine Lewin, Gilles Delage, France Bernier, Marc Germain
Background: Banked human milk (BHM) offers potential health benefits to premature babies. BHM is pasteurized to mitigate infectious risks, but pasteurization is ineffective against sporulating bacteria such as Bacillus cereus . Sepsis related to Bacillus cereus in premature infants is severe and can often be fatal. Even if a causal link has never been established, BHM has been suggested as a potential source of infection in premature infants. Objective: Our aim was to estimate the potential risk of Bacillus cereus infection in preterm infants caused by the ingestion of contaminated pasteurized BHM using different post-pasteurization release criteria (i...
2019: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Nathaly González-Quiñónez, Mario Corte-Rodríguez, Roberto Álvarez-Fernández-García, Beatriz Rioseras, María Teresa López-García, Gemma Fernández-García, María Montes-Bayón, Angel Manteca, Paula Yagüe
Streptomycetes are important biotechnological bacteria with complex differentiation. Copper is a well-known positive regulator of differentiation and antibiotic production. However, the specific mechanisms buffering cytosolic copper and the biochemical pathways modulated by copper remain poorly understood. Here, we developed a new methodology to quantify cytosolic copper in single spores which allowed us to propose that cytosolic copper modulates asynchrony of germination. We also characterised the SCO2730/2731 copper chaperone/P-type ATPase export system...
March 12, 2019: Scientific Reports
Adrianne N Edwards, Brandon R Anjuwon-Foster, Shonna M McBride
Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is a toxin-mediated diarrheal disease. Several factors have been identified that influence the production of the two major C. difficile toxins, TcdA and TcdB, but prior published evidence suggested that additional unknown factors were involved in toxin regulation. Previously, we identified a C. difficile regulator, RstA, that promotes sporulation and represses motility and toxin production. We observed that the predicted DNA-binding domain of RstA was required for RstA-dependent repression of toxin genes, motility genes, and rstA transcription...
March 12, 2019: MBio
Ru Li, Shan Bai, Yuanyuan He, Qi Chen, Yanping Yao, Jinzi Wang, Baoshan Chen
The vacuolar H+-ATPases (V-ATPases) are conserved ATP-dependent proton pumps that acidify intracellular compartments in eukaryotic cells. The role of Cpvma1, a V-ATPase catalytic subunit A of Cryphonectria parasitica, was investigated by generating cpvma1-overexpressing and cpvma1-silenced strains. The mutant strains were evaluated for phenotypic characteristics, V-ATPase activity, response to elevated pH and Ca2+ in the medium, virulence on chestnut and the accumulation of hypovirus RNA in the cells. Compared with the wild-type stain, cpvma1-overexpressing strains showed no significant difference in phenotype; however, cpvma1-silenced strains exhibited a phenotype of reduced growth rate, lower level of sporulation, a marked decrease in V-ATPase activity and virulence...
March 12, 2019: Phytopathology
J P Dubey, Kimberley J Evason, Zenta Walther
Cystoisospora (Isospora) belli is a coccidian parasite of humans. It can cause serious digestive disorders involving infection of intestines, biliary tract and gallbladder, especially in those with depressed immunity. It has a direct fecal-oral transmission cycle. After ingestion of sporulated oocysts, the parasite multiplies asexually and sexually within host epithelial cells, resulting in unsporulated oocysts that are excreted in feces. The details of asexual and sexual stages are not known and certain inclusions in epithelial cells in biopsy samples have been erroneously identified recently as C...
March 12, 2019: Parasitology
Imrich Barák, Katarína Muchová, Naďa Labajová
Bacillus subtilis is a rod-shaped bacterium which divides precisely at mid-cell during vegetative growth. Unlike Escherichia coli, another model organism used for studying cell division, B. subtilis can also divide asymmetrically during sporulation, the simplest cell differentiation process. The asymmetrically positioned sporulation septum serves as a morphological foundation for establishing differential gene expression in the smaller forespore and larger mother cell. Both vegetative and sporulation septation events are fine-tuned with cell cycle, and placement of both septa are highly precise...
March 11, 2019: Future Microbiology
Wuyun Lv, Jinjin Wu, Zhe Xu, Han Dai, Zhonghua Ma, Zhengyi Wang
The target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling pathway plays critical roles in regulating vegetative development and virulence in Fusarium graminearum. Previously, we have demonstrated that the putative type 2A phosphatase FgPpg1, a downstream component of the pathway, is important for hyphal growth, sporulation, DON biosynthesis and virulence. Here, we report the identification of FgHLTF1 putatively encoding a histone-like transcription factor by the transcriptome analysis of an ΔFgppg1 mutant. The FgHLTF1 expression was significantly down-regulated by the deletion of FgPPG1 or treatment with rapamycin...
March 9, 2019: Current Genetics
Hojun Lee, Murray T Brown, Soyeon Choi, Lalit K Pandey, Jonas De Saeger, Kisik Shin, Jang K Kim, Stephen Depuydt, Taejun Han, Jihae Park
This study was aimed to develop an objective way of quantifying the reproductive status of the green macroalga, Ulva pertusa using a vital stain and programmed automated analysis (by Image J program). The EC50 values (with 95% CI), the concentrations of toxicants inducing a reduction of 50% in sporulation after 96 h exposure, from the newly developed method were similar to those obtained by the conventional method: 0.651 (0.598-0.705) mg l-1 for Cd, 0.144 (0.110-0.162) mg l-1 for Cu, 0.180 (0.165-0.195) mg l-1 for atrazine, 0...
December 21, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Fernando Meza-Gutierrez, Deniz Simsek, David Paul Toczyski
Ubiquitin has seven lysines, all of which are used to generate polyubiquitin chains in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. While the biology associated with chains formed through lysines 48 and 63 is well studied, other chain types are more poorly characterized. We outline a methodology for using synthetic genetic analysis to examine ubiquitin mutants. Ubiquitin is encoded by four loci, necessitating several alterations to standard protocols, including the use of the SK1 strain background, which sporulates with very high efficiency...
2019: Methods in Enzymology
Scott McAuley, Stephen Vadia, Charul Jani, Alan Huynh, Zhizhou Yang, Petra Anne Levin, Justin R Nodwell
Bacteria exhibit complex responses to biologically active small molecules. These responses include reductions in transcriptional and translational efficiency, alterations in metabolic flux, and in some cases, dramatic changes in growth and morphology. Here, we describe Min-1, a novel small molecule that inhibits growth of Gram-positive bacteria by targeting the cell envelope. Sub-inhibitory levels of Min-1 leads to sporulation inhibition in Streptomyces venezuelae and reductions in growth rate and cell length in Bacillus subtilis...
March 8, 2019: ACS Chemical Biology
Ravindra Bansal, Mala Mukherjee, Benjamin A Horwitz, Prasun K Mukherjee
Trichoderma spp. are widely used as commercial biofungicides, and most commercial formulations are conidia based. Identification of genes that regulate conidiation would thus be of help in genetic reprogramming of these species to optimize sporulation. In this study, we constructed an SSH (suppression subtractive hybridization) library from RNA samples of the wild type strain and a non-conidiating mutant, M7, grown under constant illumination for 2 days. We identified several genes that are underexpressed in the mutant...
March 6, 2019: Current Genetics
Yulong Wang, Zhangxun Wang, Wenjing Yang, Xiangyun Xie, Haiyan Cheng, Li Qin, Guiliang Tang, Bo Huang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been recognized as sequence-specific regulators of the genome, transcriptome, and proteome in eukaryotes. However, functions and working mechanisms of hundreds of fungal miRNA-like (miR-like) RNAs are obscure. Here, we report that a short tandem target mimic (STTM) triggered the degradation of several fungal miR-like RNAs in two different fungal species, Metarhizium robertsii and Aspergillus flavus , and that small RNA degrading nucleases (SDNs) were indispensable for such degradation...
March 1, 2019: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Shohei Ebe, Tatsuya Ohike, Tetsuya Matsukawa, Masahiro Okanami, Shin'ichiro Kajiyama, Takashi Ano
The purpose of this study is to isolate the beneficial microorganisms whose growth is promoted in the presence of charcoal materials. We successfully isolated strain IA, whose growth is promoted on an agar plate with charcoal materials, and identified it as a novel strain of the Bacillus sp. The growth of strain IA in the liquid medium was promoted by the addition of both activated charcoal (AC) and rice husk biochar (RHB). Moreover, the sporulation of strain IA in the RHB medium and the antifungal activity of the culture supernatant of the RHB medium were much higher than those with AC...
February 20, 2019: Journal of Pesticide Science
Desislava S Makeeva, Andrey S Lando, Aleksandra Anisimova, Artyom A Egorov, Maria D Logacheva, Alexey A Penin, Dmitry E Andreev, Pavel G Sinitcyn, Ilya M Terenin, Ivan N Shatsky, Ivan V Kulakovskiy, Sergey E Dmitriev
TMA20 (MCT-1), TMA22 (DENR) and TMA64 (eIF2D) are eukaryotic translation factors involved in ribosome recycling and re-initiation. They operate with P-site bound tRNA in post-termination or (re-)initiation translation complexes, thus participating in the removal of 40S ribosomal subunit from mRNA stop codons after termination and controlling translation re-initiation on mRNAs with upstream open reading frames (uORFs), as well as de novo initiation on some specific mRNAs. Here we report ribosomal profiling data of S...
April 2019: Data in Brief
Wen-Chin Yang, Cheng-Ying Yang, Yu-Chuan Liang, Chu-Wen Yang, Wei-Qun Li, Chih-Yao Chung, Meng-Ting Yang, Tien-Fen Kuo, Chuen-Fu Lin, Chih-Lung Liang, Cicero Lee-Tian Chang
Avian coccidiosis is an economically important disease in the poultry industry. In view of the disadvantages of anti-coccidial drugs in chickens, edible plants and their compounds are re-emerging as an alternative strategy to combat this disease. A previous publication reported that the edible plant B. pilosa showed promise for use against coccidiosis. Here, we first investigated into the anti-coccidial effects of B. pilosa. We found that B. pilosa at 100 ppm or more significantly suppressed E. tenella as evidenced by reduction in mortality rate, oocyst excretion and gut pathological severity in chickens and its minimum prophylactic duration was 3 days...
February 27, 2019: Scientific Reports
Marija Mojicevic, Paul M D'Agostino, Jasmina Nikodinovic-Runic, Branka Vasiljevic, Tobias A M Gulder, Sandra Vojnovic
The objective of the present study was to isolate Actinobacteria, preferably Streptomyces spp. from the rhizosphere soils of three ethno-medicinal plants collected in Serbia (Papaver rhoeas, Matricaria chamomilla, and Urtica dioica) and to screen their antifungal activity against Candida spp. Overall, 103 sporulating isolates were collected from rhizosphere soil samples and determined as Streptomyces spp. Two different media and two extraction procedures were used to facilitate identification of antifungals...
January 9, 2019: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
J P Dubey, Camila K Cerqueira-Cézar, Fernando H A Murata, J D Mowery, D Scott, A Rosypal von Dohlen, David S Lindsay
Here, we report confirmation of sarcocysts of Sarcocystis jamaicensis in an experimental intermediate host, IFN-γ gene knockout (KO) mice orally inoculated sporocysts from its natural definitive host, a red-tailed hawk ( Buteo jamaicensis) (RTH). A RTH submitted to the Carolina Raptor Center, Huntersville, North Carolina, was euthanized because it could not be rehabilitated and released. Fully sporulated sporocysts from intestinal scrapings of the RTH were orally fed to 2 laboratory-reared outbred Swiss Webster mice (SW; Mus musculus) and to 2 KO mice...
February 2019: Journal of Parasitology
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