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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30760613/anticytomegalovirus-peptides-point-to-new-insights-for-cmv-entry-mechanisms-and-the-limitations-of-in-vitro-screenings
#1
Joseph W Jackson, Trevor J Hancock, Pranay Dogra, Ravi Patel, Ravit Arav-Boger, Angela D Williams, Stephen J Kennel, Jonathan S Wall, Tim E Sparer
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a ubiquitous betaherpesvirus that can cause severe disease following in utero exposure, during primary infection, or latent virus reactivation in immunocompromised populations. These complications lead to a 1- to 2-billion-dollar economic burden, making vaccine development and/or alternative treatments a high priority. Current treatments for HCMV include nucleoside analogues such as ganciclovir (GCV), foscarnet, and cidofovir. Recently, letermovir, a terminase complex inhibitor, was approved for prophylaxis after stem cell transplantation...
February 13, 2019: MSphere
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30734071/a-systematic-review-of-the-clinical-significance-of-nephrostomy-urine-cultures
#2
Deepak Batura, G Gopal Rao
PURPOSE: There are few published reviews that have assessed the clinical utility of renal urine cultures following percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN). In this systematic review, we evaluated the published evidence of the clinical utility of nephrostomy urine cultures in the light of emerging antimicrobial resistance and need for stewardship. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search and review for evidence on the utility and role of nephrostomy urine cultures, using Medline, Embase and PubMed...
February 7, 2019: World Journal of Urology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30681832/detection-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-escherichia-coli-using-infrared-microscopy-and-machine-learning-algorithms
#3
Uraib Sharaha, Eladio Rodriguez-Diaz, Orli Sagi, Klaris Riesenberg, Itshak Lapidot, Yoram Segal, Irving J Bigio, Mahmoud Huleihel, Ahmad Salman
The spread of multidrug resistant bacteria has become a global concern. One of the most important and emergent classes of multidrug-resistant bacteria is extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing bacteria (ESBL-positive = ESBL+ ). Due to widespread and continuous evolution of ESBL-producing bacteria, they become increasingly resistant to many of the commonly used antibiotics, leading to an increase in the mortality associated with resulting infections. Timely detection of ESBL-producing bacteria and rapid determination of their susceptibility to appropriate antibiotics can reduce the spread of these bacteria and the consequent complications...
January 25, 2019: Analytical Chemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30636756/extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-esbl-producing-multi-drug-resistant-mdr-urinary-pathogens-in-a-children-hospital-from-nepal
#4
K R Sharma, P Bhandari, N Adhikari, P Tripathi, S Khanal, B R Tiwari
Background Multidrug resistant in clinical bacterial isolates has increasingly been reported through out the world and is associated with high morbidity, mortality and increased health care costs. It is important to determine the status of multidrug resistance pattern to understand the current resistance trend so that appropriate antibiotics can be used in practice. Objective To determine the antibiotic resistant profile and prevalence of extended spectrum β-lactamase producing multidrug resistant strains in pediatric patients of Kanti Children's Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal...
April 2018: Kathmandu University Medical Journal (KUMJ)
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30630427/common-uropathogens-and-their-antibiotic-susceptibility-pattern-among-diabetic-patients
#5
Hiwot Ketema Woldemariam, Dereje Assefa Geleta, Kassu Desta Tulu, Negga Asamene Aber, Melese Hailu Legese, Genet Molla Fenta, Ibrahim Ali
BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infection (UTIs) is a significant health problem in diabetic patients because of the multiple effects of this disease on the urinary tract and host immune system. Complicated UTIs occur most commonly in patients with abnormal genitourinary tract. Proper investigation and prompt treatment are needed to prevent morbidity and serious life threatening condition associated with UTI and diabetes co-morbidities. OBJECTIVE: To determine common uropathogens and antibiotic susceptibility patterns with associated risk factors among adult diabetic patients attending at St...
January 10, 2019: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30628039/newer-diagnostic-tests-and-their-application-in-pediatric-tb
#6
REVIEW
Chand Wattal, Reena Raveendran
The diagnosis of childhood tuberculosis is a challenge due to the pauci-bacillary nature of infection and the difficulty in obtaining appropriate sample. In the past 2-3 decades, many new tests were introduced for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) and some of them have been evaluated for their application in pediatric tuberculosis as well. There is an attempt to improve smear microscopy by introducing light-emitting diode (LED) fluorescence microscopy and there are also some automated digital microscopy platforms under evaluation...
January 10, 2019: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30623625/age-specific-cutoffs-of-the-sysmex-uf-1000i-automated-urine-analyzer-for-rapid-screening-of-urinary-tract-infections-in-outpatients
#7
Hyunji Kim, Hye Ryoun Kim, Tae Hyoung Kim, Mi Kyung Lee
We investigated the usefulness of age-specific cutoffs for screening of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in Korean outpatients, using the automated urine analyzer UF-1000i (Sysmex, Kobe, Japan). We retrospectively reviewed outpatient medical records. Urine samples of 7,443 outpatients from January 2010 to December 2017 were analyzed using urine culture and UF-1000i. ROC curves were calculated for each UF-1000i parameter based on the culture results. There were 1,398 culture positive samples, 5,774 culture negative samples, and 271 contaminated samples...
May 2019: Annals of Laboratory Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30592257/urinary-tract-infection-in-children
#8
Alexander K C Leung, Alex H C Wong, Amy A M Leung, Kam L Hon
BACKGROUND: Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) is a common infection in children. Prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment are very important to reduce the morbidity associated with this condition. OBJECTIVE: To provide an update on the evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of urinary tract infection in children. METHODS: A PubMed search was completed in clinical queries using the key terms "urinary tract infection", "pyelonephritis" and "cystitis"...
December 28, 2018: Recent Patents on Inflammation & Allergy Drug Discovery
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30588518/educational-intervention-to-reduce-treatment-of-asymptomatic-bacteriuria-in-long-term-care
#9
Christine Lee, Casey Phillips, Jason Robert Vanstone
Objective: To determine if an educational intervention can decrease the inappropriate antibiotic treatment of long-term care (LTC) residents with asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB). Design: Prospective chart audit between May and July 2017. Setting: Seven LTC facilities in Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada. Participants: Chart audits were performed on all LTC residents over 18 years of age with a positive urine culture. Educational sessions and tools were available to all clinical staff at participating LTC facilities...
2018: BMJ Open Quality
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30585736/efficacy-of-intraoperative-renal-stone-culture-in-predicting-post-pcnl-urosepsis-sirs-a-prospective-analytical-study-with-review-of-literature
#10
Iqbal Singh, Shivani Shah, Sanjay Gupta, N P Singh
AIM: To evaluate and study the efficacy of intra-operative renal stone culture (IOSC) in predicting post PCNL urosepsis (PPS) and SIRS. PPS is known to occur in patients despite negative preoperative mid stream urine cultures (MSUC). METHODS: After obtaining institutional ethics committee approval and informed consent 78 selected patients undergoing PCNL were evaluated as per protocol for risk factors for SIRS criteria with MSUC, intra-operative renal pelvic urine culture (RPUC) and IOSC...
December 26, 2018: Journal of Endourology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30584311/an-evaluation-of-community-acquired-urinary-tract-infection-and-appropriateness-of-treatment-in-an-emergency-department-in-saudi-arabia
#11
Menyfah Q Alanazi
Introduction: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a serious health problem affecting millions of people every year. Inappropriate antibiotic prescriptions put patients at risk and lead to bacterial resistance and elevated costs. Aims: Study aims were to assess the prevalence and antibiotic-treatment patterns of community acquired UTIs, prevalence and types of antibiotic-prescribing errors, and the cost of inappropriate antibiotic use. Methods: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study conducted over a 3-month period in an emergency department in Saudi Arabia...
2018: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30576373/ureteral-dilatation-detected-in-magnetic-resonance-imaging-predicts-vesicoureteral-reflux-in-children-with-urinary-tract-infection
#12
Norihiro Murakami, Jun-Ichi Kawada, Azumi Watanabe, Toshinao Arakawa, Takamasa Kano, Takako Suzuki, Ryo Tanaka, Daiei Kojima, Yoshihiko Kawano, Shin Hoshino, Hideki Muramatsu, Yoshiyuki Takahashi, Yoshiaki Sato, Masashi Koyama, Jun Natsume
OBJECTIVE: Urinary tract infection (UTI), one of the most common bacterial infections occurring during infancy and early childhood, is frequently associated with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). Although several guidelines recommend performing ultrasonography as a screening test, its utility is not adequate and appropriate screening tests are strongly desirable. In this study, we evaluate the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a screening test for VUR in children with UTI. METHODS: We prospectively studied 108 patients with suspected UTI between April 2014 and March 2016...
2018: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30558480/genitourinary-melioidosis-a-descriptive-study
#13
Maria Koshy, Prashansa Sadanshiv, Sowmya Sathyendra
Melioidosis is the disease caused by the soil and water bacterium, Burkholderia pseudomallei. Our study aimed to delineate its genitourinary manifestations. Over a 10-year period (2006-2016), 20 adults with culture-confirmed genitourinary melioidosis were identified. The patients were all men with a mean age of 45.3 ± 12.3 years. The common risk factors were diabetes mellitus (65%) and alcoholism (25%); a majority of patients (90%) had chronic melioidosis. Most had disseminated disease (n = 17) and 55% were bacteraemic...
December 17, 2018: Tropical Doctor
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30468425/characteristics-of-the-urethroplasty-and-our-approach-experience-in-patients-with-urethral-stricture
#14
Mehmet Akyüz, Emre Tokuç, Emrah Özsoy, Orhan Koca, Hüseyin Kanberoğlu, Metin Öztürk, Ramazan Topaktaş
OBJECTIVE: Urethral stricture is a common pathology with different etiologic factors in different age groups and societies. In our research, patients who underwent urethroplasty because of urethral stricture were evaluated in terms of etiology, localization, surgical technique and demographic characteristics. MATERIAL AND METHODS: One hundred and sixty-three patients with a mean age of 53.43±16.5 years, operated between January 2008 and May 2016 because of urethral stricture were retrospectively included in the study...
November 21, 2018: Turkish Journal of Urology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30418843/understanding-sepsis
#15
Karen Nagalingam
This article provides information on sepsis, which can be life threatening and is often difficult to identify due to subtle signs and symptoms. It is the body's response to infection resulting in injury to the tissues and organs. Assessment tools can be used to assess risk of sepsis and include considering a source of infection along with a NEWS 2 or qSOFA score. However, it is important to be aware of other subtle changes including cold or clammy skin and changes in the patient's behaviour such as new confusion...
November 8, 2018: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30409188/urothelium-with-barrier-function-differentiated-from-human-urine-derived-stem-cells-for-potential-use-in-urinary-tract-reconstruction
#16
Qian Wan, Geng Xiong, Guihua Liu, Thomas D Shupe, Guanghui Wei, Deying Zhang, Dan Liang, Xiongbing Lu, Anthony Atala, Yuanyuan Zhang
BACKGROUND: Autologous urothelial cells are often obtained via bladder biopsy to generate the bio-engineered urethra or bladder, while urine-derived stem cells (USC) can be obtained by a non-invasive approach. The objective of this study is to develop an optimal strategy for urothelium with permeability barrier properties using human USC which could be used for tissue repair in the urinary tract system. METHODS: USC were harvested from six healthy adult individuals...
November 8, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30407138/feline-histoplasmosis-presenting-with-bone-and-joint-involvement-clinical-and-diagnostic-findings-in-25-cats
#17
Susan E Fielder, James H Meinkoth, Theresa E Rizzi, Andrew S Hanzlicek, Ruth Mackenzie Hallman
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to describe clinical and diagnostic findings in cats with bone and joint disease associated with histoplasmosis. METHODS: Medical records from between 2011 and 2017 were reviewed. Inclusion criteria required: (1) diagnosis of histoplasmosis by cytology, histology, urine or serum Histoplasma antigen testing, or culture; and (2) lameness or joint effusion as a presenting complaint or physical examination finding. RESULTS: Twenty-five cases met the inclusion criteria...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30386381/prevalence-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-bacterial-uropathogens-isolated-from-pediatric-patients-at-yekatit-12-hospital-medical-college-addis-ababa-ethiopia
#18
Yamirot Merga Duffa, Kumera Terfa Kitila, Dereje Mamuye Gebretsadik, Adane Bitew
Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is considered as the most common bacterial infection seen among the pediatric patients. Objective: This study was carried out in order to determine the prevalence of urinary tract infection in pediatric patients, identify bacterial uropathogens responsible for the infection, and study the antibiotic sensitivity patterns of bacterial isolates. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study designed and conducted from January to April 2014...
2018: International Journal of Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30303048/culturing-practices-and-the-care-of-the-urinary-catheter-in-reducing-nhsn-defined-catheter-associated-urinary-tract-infections-the-tale-of-two-teaching-hospitals
#19
Ana Cecilia Bardossy, Takiah Williams, Karen Jones, Susan Szpunar, Marcus Zervos, George Alangaden, Katherine Reyes, Mohamad G Fakih
We compared interventions to improve urinary catheter care and urine culturing in adult intensive care units of 2 teaching hospitals. Compared to hospital A, hospital B had lower catheter utilization, more compliance with appropriate indications and maintenance, but higher urine culture use and more positive urine cultures per 1,000 patient days.
October 10, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30295792/rcpaqap-audit-of-antimicrobial-reporting-in-australian-and-new-zealand-laboratories-opportunities-for-laboratory-contribution-to-antimicrobial-stewardship
#20
Maryza Graham, Debra A Walker, Elizabeth Haremza, Arthur J Morris
Objectives: A 2017 laboratory survey conducted by the Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia Quality Assurance Programs (RCPAQAP) asked participants which antimicrobials they would report for given organisms in either blood or urine cultures in order to identify opportunities for improvement of antimicrobial reporting. Methods: Over-reporting was defined as reporting of broad-spectrum antimicrobials on isolates susceptible to narrow-spectrum antimicrobials...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
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