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Medium chain fatty acids

Cai-Xia Lei, Jing-Jing Tian, Wen Zhang, Yu-Ping Li, Hong Ji, Er-Meng Yu, Wang-Bao Gong, Zhi-Fei Li, Kai Zhang, Guang-Jun Wang, De-Guang Yu, Jun Xie
Lipid droplets (LDs) are increasingly being recognized as important immune modulators in mammals, in additional to their function of lipid ester deposition. However, the role of LDs in fish immunity remains poorly understood. In this study, the function of LDs in the innate immune response of Ctenopharyngodon idella kidney (CIK) cells, which are the equivalent of myeloid cells in vertebrates, was investigated. LD number and TG content significantly increased in the CIK cells following exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), peptidoglycan (PGN), and polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid (Poly [I: C]) for 24 h, accompanied by increases in the relative expression of several innate immune genes...
March 16, 2019: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Zhen-Lian Han, Min Yang, Xiao-Dan Fu, Meng Chen, Qian Su, Yuan-Hui Zhao, Hai-Jin Mou
Alginate oligosaccharides (AlgO), agarose oligosaccharides (AO), and κ-carrageenan oligosaccharides (KCO) were obtained by specific enzymatic hydrolysis method. The molecular weight distributions of the three oligosaccharides were 1.0⁻5.0 kDa, 0.4⁻1.4 kDa, and 1.0⁻7.0 kDa, respectively. The culture medium was supplemented with the three oligosaccharides and fermented by pig fecal microbiota in vitro, for 24 h. Each oligosaccharide was capable of increasing the concentration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), especially butyric acid, and altering the microbiota composition...
March 18, 2019: Marine Drugs
Cai-Lin Kong, Ai-Hua Li, Guo-Jie Jin, Xiao-Lin Zhu, Yong-Sheng Tao
The dynamic pattern of volatiles during Pinot Noir winemaking in monsoon climate with yeast extracellular extract (EE) treatment was analyzed. EE from selected Pichia fermentans and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa strains, and almond β-glucosidase were added after 12-h alcohol fermentation, and the volatiles were determined every 24 h by GC-MS. After 6-month storage, wine aroma was evaluated instrumentally as well as by well-trained panelists. Results showed that enzyme treatments improved the contents of both varietal and fermentative volatiles...
May 2019: Food Research International
Jin Luo, Tapio Lehtinen, Elena Efimova, Ville Santala, Suvi Santala
BACKGROUND: Integration of synthetic metabolic pathways to catabolically diverse chassis provides new opportunities for sustainable production. One attractive scenario is the use of abundant waste material to produce a readily collectable product, which can reduce the production costs. Towards that end, we established a cellular platform for the production of semivolatile medium-chain α-olefins from lignin-derived molecules: we constructed 1-undecene synthesis pathway in Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1 using ferulate, a lignin-derived model compound, as the sole carbon source for both cell growth and product synthesis...
March 11, 2019: Microbial Cell Factories
Tingting Zhang, Pan Chen, Charles A Stanley, Toshinori Hoshi, Changhong Li
A potentiating effect of medium-chain triglycerides on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) has been observed since the 1960s. Subsequent observations identified octanoic acid (OA), the main component of medium-chain triglyceride, as the potentiator of GSIS, but the mechanism was unclear. We used wild-type (WT), short-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase knockout (Hadh-/- ), and sulfonylurea receptor 1 knockout (Sur1-/- ) mouse islets to define the mechanism of OA potentiation of insulin secretion. Application of OA alone induced a 2- to 3- fold increase of insulin secretion with an apparent threshold of 3 mM in WT mouse islets, suggesting that OA itself is a weak insulin secretagogue...
March 8, 2019: Islets
Xi Xu, Xiao-Peng Zhu, Jin-Yun Bai, Pu Xia, Yu Li, Yan Lu, Xiao-Ying Li, Xin Gao
Berberine (BBR) shows promising effects in the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) by influencing various metabolic aspects. Inhibition of mitochondrial β-oxidation (β-OX) participates in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Silent mating-type information regulation 2 homolog 3 (SIRT3) has been reported to regulate mitochondrial β-OX by deacetylating its substrate, long-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (LCAD). This study aimed to explore whether BBR can promote mitochondrial β-OX and the role of SIRT3 as well as the mechanisms underlying the effects of BBR on hepatic lipid metabolism in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD)...
March 8, 2019: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Tohru Dairi, Shohei Hayashi, Mai Naka, Kenshin Ikeuchi, Makoto Ohtsuka, Kota Kobayashi, Yasuharu Satoh, Yasushi Ogasawara, Chitose Maruyama, Yoshimitsu Hamano, Tetsuro Ujihara
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) are essential fatty acids for humans. Microalgae and some marine bacteria synthesize these PUFAs with PUFA synthase from acetyl units. The PUFA synthases are composed of three to four subunits and each create a specific PUFA without undesirable byproducts even though the multiple catalytic domains in each huge subunit are very similar. However, detailed biosynthetic mechanisms for controlling final product profiles have been obscure...
March 7, 2019: Angewandte Chemie
Maizatul Azrina Yaakob, Radin Maya Saphira Radin Mohamed, Adel Al-Gheethi, Athirah Tiey, Amir Hashim Mohd Kassim
Production of Scenedesmus sp. biomass in chicken slaughterhouse wastewater (CSWW) is a promising alternative technique for commercial culture medium due to the high nutritional content of the generated biomass to be used as fish feeds. The current work deals with optimising of biomass production in CSWW using response surface methodology (RSM) as a function of two independent variables, namely temperature (10-30 °C) and photoperiod (6-24 h). The potential application of biomass yield as fish feeds was evaluated based on carbohydrate, protein and lipid contents...
March 2, 2019: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Nisha Panth, Cintia B Dias, Katie Wynne, Harjinder Singh, Manohar L Garg
Epidemiological and interventional studies have linked saturated fatty acids (SFA) with elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and increased CVD risk. However, the effects of the SFA chain length on postprandial lipemia in humans are not well elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of short, medium and long-chain SFA on postprandial blood lipids in healthy volunteers. Sixteen healthy volunteers consumed test biscuits containing 40 g of either butter (BB), coconut oil (CB) or lard (LB) in a single-blinded, randomized crossover design...
February 16, 2019: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Nina Iszatt, Stefan Janssen, Virissa Lenters, Cecilie Dahl, Hein Stigum, Rob Knight, Siddhartha Mandal, Shyamal Peddada, Antonio González, Tore Midtvedt, Merete Eggesbø
BACKGROUND: Early disruption of the microbial community may influence life-long health. Environmental toxicants can contaminate breast milk and the developing infant gut microbiome is directly exposed. We investigated whether environmental toxicants in breastmilk affect the composition and function of the infant gut microbiome at 1 month. We measured environmental toxicants in breastmilk, fecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and gut microbial composition from 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing using samples from 267 mother-child pairs in the Norwegian Microbiota Cohort (NoMIC)...
February 27, 2019: Microbiome
Aleksandar Božić, Robin C Anderson, Claudio Arzola-Alvarez, Oscar Ruiz-Barrera, Agustín Corral-Luna, Yamicela Castillo-Castillo, Alejandro Arzola-Rubio, Toni L Poole, Roger B Harvey, Michael E Hume, Ross C Beier, David J Nisbet
AIMS: Determine the antimicrobial effects of 5 μmol ml-1 sodium chlorate, 9 μmol ml-1 nitroethane or 2-nitropropanol as well as lauric acid, myristic acid and the glycerol ester of lauric acid Lauricidin® , each at 5 mg ml-1 , against representative methicillin-resistant staphylococci, important mastitis- and opportunistic dermal-pathogens of humans and livestock. METHODS AND RESULTS: Three methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and two methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci were cultured at 39°C in 5 μmol ml-1 nitrate-supplemented half-strength Brain Heart Infusion broth treated without or with the potential inhibitors...
February 25, 2019: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Hifzulrahman, M Abdullah, M U Akhtar, T N Pasha, J A Bhatti, Z Ali, M Saadullah, M N Haque
The effects of feeding rumen-inert fat sources on production responses of lactating dairy cows have been well reported but less thoroughly described in lactating dairy buffalo. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of oil and 2 different rumen-inert fat sources on dry matter intake, milk yield, milk composition, and milk fatty acid (FA) profile in Nili Ravi buffalo. Twelve multiparous mid-lactating Nili Ravi buffaloes received 4 treatments in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with a period length of 21 d...
February 21, 2019: Journal of Dairy Science
Saki Goto, Ayaka Hokamura, Hideki Shiratsuchi, Seiichi Taguchi, Ken'ichiro Matsumoto, Hideki Abe, Kenji Tanaka, Hiromi Matsusaki
Novel lactate (LA)-based polymers containing medium-chain-length 3-hydroxyalkanoates (MCL-3HA) were produced in fadR-deficient Escherichia coli strains from glucose as the sole carbon source. The genes encoding LA and 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) monomers supplying enzymes [propionyl-CoA transferase (PCT), d-lactate dehydrogenase (D-LDH), β-ketothiolase (PhaA), and NADPH-dependent acetoacetyl-CoA reductase (PhaB)], MCL-3HA monomers supplying enzymes [(R)-3-hydroxyacyl-ACP thioesterase (PhaG) and (R)-3-hydroxyacyl (3HA)-CoA ligase] via fatty acid biosynthesis pathway, and modified polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase [PhaC1(STQK)] of Pseudomonas sp...
February 22, 2019: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Wei Wei, Qingzhe Jin, Xingguo Wang
The first commercial infant formula, invented in 1867, contained lipids mainly from cow's milk. We now know that human milk fat differs from the milk fat of other mammals and even more from vegetable oils. Human milk fat is one of the most complex natural lipid mixtures with a unique fatty acid composition, distribution, and numerous complex lipids. Therefore, to mimic human milk fat, human milk fat substitutes (HMFSs) have been produced through the enzymatic/chemical modification of natural lipids. Researchers have become increasingly interested in use of HMFSs as functional lipids due to their nutritional effects on the growth and development of formula-fed infants...
February 20, 2019: Progress in Lipid Research
Shangfu Li, Dan Gao, Yuyang Jiang
Acylcarnitines play an essential role in regulating the balance of intracellular sugar and lipid metabolism. They serve as carriers to transport activated long-chain fatty acids into mitochondria for β-oxidation as a major source of energy for cell activities. The liver is the most important organ for endogenous carnitine synthesis and metabolism. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a primary malignancy of the live with poor prognosis, may strongly influence the level of acylcarnitines. In this paper, the function, detection and alteration of acylcarnitine metabolism in HCC were briefly reviewed...
February 21, 2019: Metabolites
Tao Li, Jin Xu, Houbo Wu, Peiliang Jiang, Zishuo Chen, Wenzhou Xiang
Microalgae of the genus Porphyridium show great potential for large-scale commercial cultivation, as they accumulate large quantities of B-phycoerythrin (B-PE), long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) and exopolysaccharide (EPS). The present study aimed to adjust culture nitrogen concentrations to produce Porphyridium biomass rich in B-PE, LC-PUFAs and EPS. Porphyridium purpureum SCS-02 was cultured in ASW culture medium with low nitrogen supply (LN, 3.5 mM), medium nitrogen supply (MN, 5.9 mM) or high nitrogen supply (HN, 17...
February 20, 2019: Marine Drugs
Kailey Roberts Lee, Yasmeen Midgette, Rachana Shah
Context: The NRLP3 inflammasome is a multiprotein danger-sensing complex that serves as a critical link between obesity-related adipose inflammation and insulin resistance and has been shown in animal models to be inhibited by fish oil-derived long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ( n -3 PUFA). Objective: We conducted a clinical trial and in vitro experiments to test our hypothesis that n -3 PUFA suppress NLRP3 inflammasome in human obesity through downregulation of inflammasome gene expression in adipocytes and macrophages...
March 1, 2019: Journal of the Endocrine Society
Danial Efendy Goon, Siti Hamimah Sheikh Abdul Kadir, Normala Ab Latip, Sharaniza Ab Rahim, Musalmah Mazlan
Palm oil is natural oil packed with important compounds and fatty acids ready to be exploited in lipid-based formulations and drug delivery. Palm oil and palm kernel oil contain long-chain and medium-chain triglycerides, respectively, including phytonutrients such as tocotrienol, tocopherol and carotenes. The exploitation of these compounds in a lipid-based formulation would be able to address hydrophobicity, lipophilicity, poor bioavailability and low water-solubility of many current drugs. The utilisation of palm oil as part of the drug delivery system seemed to improve the bioavailability and solubility of the drug, stabilising emulsification of formulation between emulsifier and surfactant, promoting enhanced drug permeability and performance, as well as extending the shelf-life of the drug...
February 13, 2019: Biomolecules
Jessica R Craig, Frank R Dunshea, Jeremy J Cottrell, Erin M Ford, Udani A Wijesiriwardana, John R Pluske
Feeding conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) or medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) to dams has been shown to improve progeny growth and survival, and hence may be particularly advantageous to gilt progeny. Primiparous ( n = 129) and multiparous sows ( n = 123; parities 3 and 4) were fed one of four diets from day 107 of gestation (107.3 ± 0.1 days) until weaning (day 27.2 ± 0.1 of lactation): (i) control diet; (ii) 0.5% CLA diet; (iii) 0.1% MCFA diet; and (iv) equal parts of (ii) and (iii). Progeny performance data were collected and, from a subset of sows ( n = 78) and their piglets ( n = 144), a colostrum (day 0), milk (day 21), and piglet serum sample (day 3) were analyzed for immunoglobulin G and several selected metabolites...
February 15, 2019: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Xiuli Zeng, Xuxuan Gao, Yu Peng, Qiheng Wu, Jiajia Zhu, Chuhong Tan, Genghong Xia, Chao You, Ruoting Xu, Suyue Pan, Hongwei Zhou, Yan He, Jia Yin
Objective: Gut microbiota is a newly identified risk factor for stroke, and there are no large prospective studies linking the baseline gut microbiome to long-term risk of stroke. We present here the correlation between the gut microbiota and stroke risk in people with no prior stroke history. Methods: A total of 141 participants aged ≥60 years without prior history of stroke were recruited and divided into low-risk, medium-risk, and high-risk groups based on known risk factors and whether they were suffering from chronic diseases...
2019: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
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