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Sunlight Brain

Mei-Ling Sharon Tai, Sharon Xue Er Yet, Ting Chung Lim, Zhen Yuan Pow, Cheng Beh Goh
In this review, we discussed the types and frequencies of trigger factors of primary headache [migraine and tension-type headache (TTH)] among adult patients. We assessed the influence of geographical location, ethnicity and gender on the various trigger factors of a migraine and a TTH. We also evaluated the trigger factors among the multi-ethnic Southeast Asian adult patients. In a recent study, odor triggered more migrainous headaches compared to the other primary headaches. Odor was observed to be specific of migraines...
February 21, 2019: Current Pain and Headache Reports
Tim-Henning Humberg, Simon G Sprecher
Some animals are attracted by sun light, others are highly repulsed by it. Especially for slowly moving animals, such as Drosophila larvae, direct sunlight may be perceived as noxious stimulus as it increases the risk of desiccation, DNA-damaging by UV-light and exposure to predators. For several reasons, model organisms like Drosophila larvae are well-suited for investigating how light cues are translated into an appropriate behavioral output. First, many of the genetic tools, which were created for use in adult fruit flies, work also in larvae...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Urs Albrecht, Jürgen A Ripperger
The rotation of the Earth around its axis causes periodic exposure of half of its surface to sunlight. This daily recurring event has been internalized in most organisms in the form of cellular circadian clock mechanisms. These cellular clocks are synchronized with each other in various ways to establish circadian networks that build the circadian program in tissues and organs, coordinating physiology and behavior in the entire organism. In the mammalian brain, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) receives light information via the retina and synchronizes its own neuronal clocks to the light signal...
October 2018: Trends in Neurosciences
Hongying Zhu, Ning Wang, Lei Yao, Qi Chen, Ran Zhang, Junchao Qian, Yiwen Hou, Weiwei Guo, Sijia Fan, Siling Liu, Qiaoyun Zhao, Feng Du, Xin Zuo, Yujun Guo, Yan Xu, Jiali Li, Tian Xue, Kai Zhong, Xiaoyuan Song, Guangming Huang, Wei Xiong
Sunlight exposure is known to affect mood, learning, and cognition. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we show that moderate UV exposure elevated blood urocanic acid (UCA), which then crossed the blood-brain barrier. Single-cell mass spectrometry and isotopic labeling revealed a novel intra-neuronal metabolic pathway converting UCA to glutamate (GLU) after UV exposure. This UV-triggered GLU synthesis promoted its packaging into synaptic vesicles and its release at glutamatergic terminals in the motor cortex and hippocampus...
June 14, 2018: Cell
Priscilla Koduah, Friedemann Paul, Jan-Markus Dörr
Vitamin D research has gained increased attention in recent times due to its roles beyond bone health and calcium homeostasis, such as immunomodulation. In some parts of the brain and on immune cells, vitamin D hydroxylating enzymes and its receptors are located. Epidemiological evidence demonstrates that deficiency of Vitamin D is relevant for disease risk and course in multiple sclerosis (MS) and presumably also in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
December 2017: EPMA Journal
Uta Pegel, Keram Pfeiffer, Uwe Homberg
Many insects rely on celestial compass cues such as the polarization pattern of the sky for spatial orientation. In the desert locust, the central complex (CX) houses multiple sets of neurons, sensitive to the oscillation plane of polarized light and thus probably acts as an internal polarization compass. We investigated whether other sky compass cues like direct sunlight or the chromatic gradient of the sky might contribute to this compass. We recorded from polarization-sensitive CX neurons while an unpolarized green or ultraviolet light spot was moved around the head of the animal...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Nataliya L Blatt, Timur I Khaiboullin, Vincent C Lombardi, Albert A Rizvanov, Svetlana F Khaiboullina
Recent discovery of an association of low serum melatonin levels with relapse in multiple sclerosis (MS) opens a new horizon in understanding the pathogenesis of this disease. Skin is the main organ for sensing seasonal changes in duration of sunlight exposure. Level of melatonin production is dependent on light exposure. The molecular mechanisms connecting peripheral (skin) sensing of the light exposure and developing brain inflammation (MS) have not been investigated. We hypothesize that there is a connection between the reaction of skin to seasonal changes in sunlight exposure and the risk of MS and that seasonal changes in light exposure cause peripheral (skin) inflammation, the production of cytokines, and the subsequent inflammation of the brain...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Adam Kravietz, Sofiane Kab, Lucien Wald, Aline Dugravot, Archana Singh-Manoux, Frédéric Moisan, Alexis Elbaz
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D is thought to contribute to brain health, but it is unclear whether low vitamin D levels are associated with increased incidence of Parkinson's disease (PD). Using ultraviolet B (UV-B) as a surrogate for vitamin D levels, we conducted a nationwide ecologic study in France in order to examine the association of UV-B with PD incidence. METHODS: We used French national drug claims databases to identify PD cases using a validated algorithm. UV-B data from the solar radiation database were derived from satellite images...
April 2017: Environmental Research
José Carlos Pereira, Márcia Pradella Hallinan, Rosana Cardoso Alves
Seasonal affective disorder is defined as recurrent episodes of major depression, mania, or hypomania with seasonal onset and remission. In this class of mood disturbances, a unipolar major depressive disorder known as winter depression is common in populations living in northern latitudes far from the equator. Winter depression repeatedly occurs in the autumn or winter and remits in the spring or summer, and its etiopathogenesis is currently unknown. However, one can surmise that excessive melatonin production during the reduced duration of daily sunlight in the autumn and winter plays a role in its pathophysiology...
January 2017: Medical Hypotheses
Nathan S Hart, Melinda Fitzgerald
Red-near-infrared light has been used for a range of therapeutic purposes. However, clinical trials of near-infrared laser light for treatment of stroke were abandoned after failing interim futility analyses. Lack of efficacy has been attributed to sub-optimal treatment parameters and low penetrance of light to affected brain regions. Here, we assess penetrance of wavelengths from 450-880 nm in human post-mortem samples, and demonstrate that human skin, skull bone and brain transmits therapeutically relevant quantities of light from external sources at wavelengths above 600nm...
September 2016: Discovery Medicine
Lonnele J Ball, Oxana Palesh, Lance J Kriegsfeld
Most physiological processes in the brain and body exhibit daily (circadian) rhythms coordinated by an endogenous master clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus that are essential for normal health and functioning. Exposure to sunlight during the day and darkness at night optimally entrains biological rhythms to promote homeostasis and human health. Unfortunately, a major consequence of the modern lifestyle is increased exposure to sun-free environments during the day and artificial lighting at night...
October 2016: Endocrine Reviews
Mehmet Resid Onen, Ilhan Yilmaz, Leyla Ramazanoglu, Mehmet Dumlu Aydin, Sadullah Keles, Orhan Baykal, Nazan Aydin, Cemal Gundogdu
AIM: To investigate the relationship between neuron density of the superior cervical sympathetic ganglia and pupil diameter in subarachnoid hemorrhage. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was conducted on 22 rabbits; 5 for the baseline control group, 5 for the SHAM group and 12 for the study group. Pupil diameters were measured via sunlight and ocular tomography on day 1 as the control values. Pupil diameters were re-measured after injecting 0.5 cc saline to the SHAM group, and autologous arterial blood into the cisterna magna of the study group...
2018: Turkish Neurosurgery
M Adamczyk-Sowa, P Sowa, J Adamczyk, N Niedziela, H Misiolek, M Owczarek, K Zwirska-Korczala
UNLABELLED: Multiple sclerosis (MS) prevalence is higher in geographic regions with less sunlight exposure. Melatonin participates in the effects of sunlight in healthy individuals and could play a role in MS pathophysiology. Melatonin crosses the blood-brain barrier and exerts antioxidative, immunomodulatory, and anti-inflammatory effects. Chronic fatigue syndrome concerns 80 - 90% MS patients. The pathophysiology of chronic fatigue syndrome is unknown, however activation of immune, inflammatory, oxidative and nitrosative stress mechanisms and plasma lipid peroxide elevation was reported...
April 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
Gabriela Hollmann, Rafael Linden, Angela Giangrande, Silvana Allodi
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation can produce biological damage, leading the cell to apoptosis by the p53 pathway. This study evaluated some molecular markers of the apoptosis pathway induced by UVA, UVB and UVA+ UVB (Solar Simulator, SIM) in environmental doses, during five consecutive days of exposure, in the brain of the crab Ucides cordatus. We evaluated the central nervous system (CNS) by immunoblotting the content of proteins p53, p21, phosphorylated AKT, BDNF, GDNF, activated caspase-3 (C3) and phosphohistone H3 (PH3); and by immunohistochemical tests of the cells labeled for PH3 and C3...
April 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Mathew Chiang, Radhika Natarajan, Xiaoduo Fan
Vitamin D (vitD) is known for its essential role in calcium homeostasis and bone health. VitD is made endogenously in the skin from UVB radiation from sunlight. VitD is now considered as a potent neurosteroid hormone, critical to brain development and normal brain function, and is known for its anti-inflammatory property affecting various aspects of human health. VitD ligand-receptor, a receptor that mediates much of vitD's biological actions, has been found throughout the body including the central nervous system...
February 2016: Evidence-based Mental Health
Olayinka O Goodman, Omolara A Kehinde, Babatunde A Odugbemi, Toriola T Femi-Adebayo, Olumuyiwa O Odusanya
BACKGROUND: A community-based survey was conducted amongst mothers aged 15-49 years living in Mosan-Okunola, Lagos, Nigeria to determine the knowledge of, attitudes to, preventive and treatment practices towards neonatal jaundice (NNJ). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The mothers were selected using a multi-stage sampling technique. A pre-tested interviewer-administered structured questionnaire was used to obtain data. The knowledge of the mothers was scored and scores lower than 50% were graded as poor, 50-74% as fair and ≥75% as good...
July 2015: Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal
Randall S Johnson, Jens Titze, Richard Weller
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Textbook theory holds that blood pressure (BP) is regulated by the brain, by blood vessels, or by the kidney. Recent evidence suggests that BP could be regulated in the skin. RECENT FINDINGS: The skin holds a complex capillary counter current system, which controls body temperature, skin perfusion, and apparently systemic BP. Epidemiological data suggest that sunlight exposure plays a role in controlling BP. Ultraviolet A radiation produces vasodilation and a fall in BP...
January 2016: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
Laleh Afshari, Reza Amani, Farhad Soltani, Mohammad Hossein Haghighizadeh, Mohammad Reza Afsharmanesh
BACKGROUND: Stroke is the second cause of death among elderly people. Oxidative stress plays an important role in brain damage after stroke. Currently, Vitamin D has been shown as an antioxidant. The aim of this study was to evaluate the status of Vitamin D, antioxidant enzymes, and the relation between them in ischemic stroke patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This case-control study was carried out on 36 patients with ischemic stroke patients and 36 matched subjects as controls...
2015: Advanced Biomedical Research
Basil el Jundi, Eric J Warrant, Marcus J Byrne, Lana Khaldy, Emily Baird, Jochen Smolka, Marie Dacke
Diurnal and nocturnal African dung beetles use celestial cues, such as the sun, the moon, and the polarization pattern, to roll dung balls along straight paths across the savanna. Although nocturnal beetles move in the same manner through the same environment as their diurnal relatives, they do so when light conditions are at least 1 million-fold dimmer. Here, we show, for the first time to our knowledge, that the celestial cue preference differs between nocturnal and diurnal beetles in a manner that reflects their contrasting visual ecologies...
September 8, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Lucio Tonello, Massimo Cocchi, Fabio Gabrielli, Jack A Tuszynski
Cell membrane's fatty acids (FAs) have been carefully investigated in neurons and platelets in order to study a possible connection to psychopathologies. An important link between the FA distribution and membrane dynamics appears to emerge with the cytoskeleton dynamics. Microtubules (MTs) in particular have been implicated in some recent quantum consciousness models and analyses. The recently proposed quantum model of Craddock et al. (2014) states that MTs possess structural and functional characteristics that are consistent with collective quantum coherent excitations in the aromatic groups of their tryptophan residues...
September 2015: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
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