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Regional Anesthesia in the Pediatric Emergency Department

Brett Burstein, Adam Bretholz
BACKGROUND: Distal forearm fractures are among the most common injuries presenting to the pediatric emergency department (PED). Bier block (BB), or intravenous regional anesthesia, is a safe and effective alternative to procedural sedation for closed reduction of forearm fractures; it is associated with fewer adverse events, a shorter length of stay, and reduced costs. BB has long remained relatively underutilized; however, with an increasing emphasis on efficient resource use and patient-centered care, there is renewed interest in this technique...
December 21, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
Robert B Lewis, Omar Hariri, Marilyn E Elliott, Chan-Hee Jo, Brandon A Ramo
BACKGROUND: Health care in America continues to place more importance on providing value-based medicine. Medicare reimbursements are increasingly being tied to this and future policy changes are expected to reinforce these trends. Recent literature has shown pediatric femur fractures in preschool-age children have equivalent clinical and radiographic outcomes when treated with spica casting or flexible intramedullary nails (IMN). We compared hospital care statistics including charges for nonoperative versus operative treatment for closed femur fractures in 3- to 6-year-olds...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
K O Rove, M A Brockel, A F Saltzman, M I Dönmez, K E Brodie, D J Chalmers, B T Caldwell, V M Vemulakonda, D T Wilcox
BACKGROUND: Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocol is a set of peri-operative strategies to increase speed of recovery. ERAS is well established in adults but has not been well studied in children. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the current study was to establish the safety and efficacy of an ERAS protocol in pediatric urology patients undergoing reconstructive operations. It was hypothesized that ERAS would reduce length of stay and decrease complications when compared with historical controls...
June 2018: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Mark D Baker, John P Gullett
Pediatric acute femur fractures are a relatively common major orthopedic injury seen in emergency departments. Providing adequate and safe analgesia is essential while patients await definitive management of these fractures. Opioid medications are typically used to treat fracture-associated pain but have well-known adverse effects including respiratory and central nervous system depression, pruritus, nausea, and allergic reactions. Dose titration of opioids in pediatric patients may be difficult and requires frequent nursing and physician reassessments...
December 2015: Pediatric Emergency Care
Chad E Aarons, Meagan D Fernandez, Matt Willsey, Bret Peterson, Charles Key, Jorge Fabregas
BACKGROUND: Bier block regional anesthesia was first described in 1908; however, it is uncommonly used for fears of cardiac and neurological complications. Although recent studies have documented safe usage in an adult population, no study to date has investigated its use in a pediatric setting. In addition, most emergency departments feel that splint placement is safer than casting after acute forearm fracture reduction in the pediatric population. However, to our knowledge there is no such study that documents the complication rates associated with immediate casting...
January 2014: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
Francesco Manna, Egidio Barbi, Flora Murru, Rossana Bussani
We present the case of a 15-year-old boy who presented to our emergency department because of a soft lesion growing on the back of his tongue. On examination, a vegetant mass on the posteromidline lingual part of the body of the tongue was noticed: it was not painful, even if the boy reported discomfort because of its size; there was no bleeding or signs of infection. The magnetic resonance imaging showed the lesion as trilobated and capsulated, but was not diriment to define a diagnosis; excisional biopsy was performed under general anesthesia, and the mass was identified as a schwannoma...
September 2012: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Joana Afonso, Flávio Reis
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To update and review the application of dexmedetomidine in anesthesia and intensive care. This study is a comprehensive review of clinical uses, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, mechanism of action and adverse effects of dexmedetomidine. CONTENT: The effective use of sedative-hypnotic agents and analgesics is an integral part of comfort and safety of patients. Dexmedetomidine is a potent and highly selective α-2 adrenoceptor agonist with sympatholytic, sedative, amnestic, and analgesic properties, which has been described as a useful and safe adjunct in many clinical applications...
January 2012: Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
Henry C Vasconez, Jason L Buseman, Larry L Cunningham
Pediatric facial trauma can present a challenge to even the more experienced plastic surgeon. Injuries to the head and neck may involve bone and soft tissues with an assortment of specialized organs and tissue elements involved. Because of the active nature of children, facial soft tissue injuries can be diverse and extensive as well as some of the more common injuries a plastic surgeon is asked to treat. In 2007, approximately 800,000 patients younger than 15 years presented to emergency departments around the country with significant open wounds of the head that required treatment...
July 2011: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Mary A King, Kathryn Koelemay, Jerry Zimmerman, Lewis Rubinson
OBJECTIVE: Seattle-King County (SKC) Washington is at risk for regional disasters, especially earthquakes. Of 1.8 million residents, >400,000 (22%) are children, a proportion similar to that of the population of the State of Washington (24%) and of the United States (24%). The county's large area of 2,134 square miles (5,527 km2) is connected through major transportation routes that cross numerous waterways; sub-county zones may become isolated in the wake of a major earthquake. Therefore, each of SKC's three subcounty emergency response zones must have ample pediatric medical response capabilities...
July 2010: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Nathalie A Fleming, Laura Hopkins, Joseph de Nanassy, Mary Senterman, Amanda Y Black
UNLABELLED: Müllerian adenosarcoma is a rare neoplasm usually found in postmenopausal women. It usually presents as a polypoid mass within the endometrium. It is a biphasic tumor, composed of a benign epithelial component and a malignant stromal component. To date, this neoplasm has been reported in only 16 adolescent girls. We present a case of a 10-year-old girl who was diagnosed with müllerian adenosarcoma arising from the endocervix, the youngest female ever reported. CASE REPORT: A 10-year-old previously healthy girl presented to the Emergency Department at the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario with a painless mass protruding from her vagina...
August 2009: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
John G McManus, Melinda J Morton, Chad S Crystal, Todd J McArthur, Jeremy S Helphenstine, David A Masneri, Scott E Young, Michael A Miller
OBJECTIVE: There is a need to develop tools for the rapid diagnosis and treatment of fractures and intraosseous pathology in remote and austere environments. Several emergency and orthopedic studies have demonstrated ultrasound to be a reliable tool in diagnosing these conditions in both adult and pediatric patients. The purpose of this pilot study is to assess the ability of the ultrasound to assess in "real-time" the success of fracture reduction in adult patients in the emergency department (ED), in comparison with the accepted standard, plain film radiography, for the purposes of future application in austere environments...
July 2008: American Journal of Disaster Medicine
Lloyd N Werk, Marjorie Lewis, Stacey Armatti-Wiltrout, Eric A Loveless
BACKGROUND: Minidose intravenous regional anesthesia (IVRA) and modified forearm IVRA have been used for closed reduction of forearm fractures and for hand surgery in children. METHODS: Children (5-17 years old) with forearm fractures presenting to a pediatric emergency department were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial to test if modified forearm and minidose IVRA together would provide improved analgesia with reduced risk of anesthetic toxicity compared with conventional minidose IVRA...
June 2008: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
Kendall Adams, Natalie Pennock, Becky Phelps, Wendy Rose, Matthew Peters
In January 2000, Primary Children's Medical Center (PCMC) nurses and physicians of specific disciplines including hematology/oncology, surgery, Emergency Department (ED), and anesthesia, identified a need to provide general anesthesia for children undergoing procedures outside of the operating room. This need was based upon two factors: (a) limited availability of the operating room, and (b) lack of proper monitoring of children receiving conscious sedation for painful procedures in PCMC clinics. In September 2000, the Rapid Treatment Unit (RTU) service was developed to provide cost-effective, efficient, patient/family-centered care for a variety of procedures...
May 2007: Pediatric Nursing
Erika Constantine, Dale W Steele, Craig Eberson, Kathy Boutis, Siraj Amanullah, James G Linakis
BACKGROUND: Although local anesthetic techniques (hematoma blocks, nerve blocks, intravenous regional anesthesia) for forearm fracture reduction are well described and commonly used in adults, it is unclear how often these techniques are used in children. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the use of local anesthesia for pediatric closed forearm fracture reduction by pediatric and orthopedic physicians practicing in teaching hospitals in Canada and the United States. METHODS: An on-line survey targeting physicians practicing in hospitals with pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) fellowships in Canada and the United States was sent to the PEM fellowship director and orthopedic department head at each hospital...
April 2007: Pediatric Emergency Care
Kelly L Kriwanek, Jim Wan, James H Beaty, Jay Pershad
Our objective was to compare procedural distress during manipulation of forearm fractures in children receiving either axillary (brachial plexus) block regional anesthesia (20 children) or deep sedation with ketamine and midazolam (21 children). This was a prospective randomized unmasked controlled comparative trial conducted in an urban children's hospital emergency department. The 2 groups were similar in age (older than 8 years), fracture types, initial pain scores, narcotic analgesia received, and midazolam doses before fracture manipulation...
November 2006: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
Robert M Kennedy, Jan D Luhmann, Scott J Luhmann
Orthopedic fractures and joint dislocations are among the most painful pediatric emergencies. Safe and effective management of fracture-related pain and anxiety in the emergency department reduces patient distress during initial evaluation and often allows definitive management of the fracture. No consensus exists on which pharmacologic regimens for procedural sedation/analgesia are safest and most effective. For some children, control of fracture pain is the primary goal, whereas for others, relief from anxiety is an additionally important objective...
2004: Paediatric Drugs
M L Waltzman, M Shannon, A P Bowen, M C Bailey
BACKGROUND: Playground equipment resulted in >200 000 injuries from 1990 to 1994, according to the Consumer Product Safety Commission; 88% were attributable to climbers (monkeybars/jungle gyms [MB/JGs]), swings, and slides. Equipment-specific injury requiring emergency department (ED) evaluation has not been reported previously. OBJECTIVE: To describe the spectrum of significant MB/JG-related injuries. METHODS: A 2-year retrospective chart review was performed using the computerized charting system at a large urban Children's Hospital/Regional Pediatric Trauma Center with 50 000 ED visits per year...
May 1999: Pediatrics
J M Lynch, M J Gardner, C T Albanese
Blunt traumatic injury to the urogenital region in the prepubescent girl is commonly evaluated in pediatric emergency departments (ED). The purpose of this study is: 1) to establish recommendations for an accurate, painless (both physically and psychologically), and timely diagnosis, and 2) to determine whether the ED examination can accurately determine the extent of the injury. Over a 24-month period (January 1991 through December 1992), 22 girls with blunt trauma to the urogenital region (mean age 5.7 years, range 2-9 years) were retrospectively evaluated...
December 1995: Pediatric Emergency Care
P R Gregory, J A Sullivan
A prospective, randomized study of intravenous (i.v.) regional anesthesia compared with nitrous oxide gas was performed in a group of 28 pediatric patients with forearm fractures requiring manipulation in the emergency department. The groups were compared in terms of pain perceived by the patients, success of manipulation, safety, and duration of procedure. The methods showed no significant difference in amount of pain perceived by the patient for the total pain experience. No medical complication was seen in either group...
March 1996: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
R G Bolte, P M Stevens, S M Scott, J E Schunk
The safety and effectiveness of the "mini-dose" Bier block, a technique of i.v. regional anesthesia using low-dose lidocaine (1.5 mg/kg) without routine premedication, was evaluated in the emergency department treatment of pediatric upper-extremity fractures and dislocations. We prospectively studied 69 patients, aged from 2 to 16 years, treated at a pediatric primary care/referral-based emergency department. Good to excellent anesthesia was achieved during closed reduction in 90% of the cases. All patients achieved an acceptable reduction, as demonstrated by follow-up radiographs...
July 1994: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
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