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Katleen Peymen, Jan Watteyne, Charline Borghgraef, Elien Van Sinay, Isabel Beets, Liliane Schoofs
Aversive learning and memories are crucial for animals to avoid previously encountered stressful stimuli and thereby increase their chance of survival. Neuropeptides are essential signaling molecules in the brain and are emerging as important modulators of learned behaviors, but their precise role is not well understood. Here, we show that neuropeptides of the evolutionarily conserved MyoInhibitory Peptide (MIP)-family modify salt chemotaxis behavior in Caenorhabditis elegans according to previous experience...
February 2019: PLoS Genetics
Saniha H Makhzoumi, Colleen C Schreyer, Jennifer L Hansen, Lori A Laddaran, Graham W Redgrave, Angela S Guarda
OBJECTIVE: Information on nutritional rehabilitation for underweight patients with avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) is scarce. This study characterized hospitalized youth with ARFID treated in an inpatient (IP)-partial hospitalization behavioral eating disorders (EDs) program employing an exclusively meal-based rapid refeeding protocol and compared weight restoration outcomes to those of patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). METHOD: Data from retrospective chart review of consecutive underweight admissions (N = 275; age 11-26 years) with ARFID (n = 27) were compared to those with AN (n = 248) on clinical features, reason for discharge, and weight restoration variables...
February 19, 2019: International Journal of Eating Disorders
Michaela Bartosova, Miroslav Svetlak, Martina Kukletova, Petra Borilova Linhartova, Ladislav Dusek, Lydie Izakovicova Holla
BACKGROUND: Oral diseases, such as early childhood caries (ECC), have a complex etiology with common, behaviour-related risk factors. Appropriately targeted behavioural intervention using effective tools can help to eliminate risk behaviour leading to ECC. The aim of this study was to ascertain which visual stimuli with a supporting text evoke the strongest emotional response in infants' mothers and, therefore, are suitable candidates for inclusion in behavioural interventions within the prevention of ECC...
February 18, 2019: BMC Oral Health
Julina A Rattel, Stephan F Miedl, Laila K Franke, Lisa M Grünberger, Jens Blechert, Martin Kronbichler, Victor I Spoormaker, Frank H Wilhelm
BACKGROUND: Pathological peritraumatic encoding is proposed as a proximal risk factor for the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), with trauma-analog studies linking increased neural processing of trauma films to intrusive trauma recollections, a core symptom of PTSD. Cumulative lifetime adversity is proposed as a more distal risk factor, with research indicating a tipping point at about five events with regard to PTSD development following re-exposure to trauma. Thus, within a diathesis × stress framework, increased peritraumatic neural processing may constitute a specific risk factor for PTSD, particularly in individuals with several lifetime adversities...
January 4, 2019: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Haena Kim, Brian A Anderson
What we pay attention to is influenced by current task goals (goal-directed attention) [1, 2], the physical salience of stimuli (stimulus-driven attention) [3-5], and selection history [6-12]. This third construct, which encompasses reward learning, aversive conditioning, and repetitive orienting behavior [12-18], is often characterized as a unitary mechanism of control that can be contrasted with the other two [12-14]. Here, we present evidence that two different learning processes underlie the influence of selection history on attention, with dissociable consequences for orienting behavior...
February 12, 2019: Current Biology: CB
David M Shahian, David F Torchiana, Daniel T Engelman, Thoralf M Sundt, Richard S D'Agostino, Ann F Lovett, Matthew J Cioffi, James D Rawn, Vladimir Birjiniuk, Robert H Habib, Sharon-Lise T Normand
OBJECTIVES: Beginning in 2002, all 14 Massachusetts nonfederal cardiac surgery programs submitted Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) National Database data to the Massachusetts Data Analysis Center for mandatory state-based analysis and reporting, and to STS for nationally benchmarked analyses. We sought to determine whether longitudinal prevalences and trends in risk factors and observed and expected mortality differed between Massachusetts and the nation. METHODS: We analyzed 2003 to 2014 expected (STS predicted risk of operative [in-hospital + 30-day] mortality), observed, and risk-standardized isolated coronary artery bypass graft mortality using Massachusetts STS data (N = 39,400 cases) and national STS data (N = 1,815,234 cases)...
December 31, 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Emilie Noe, Nicolas Bonneau, Marie-Line Fournier, Stéphanie Caillé, Martine Cador, Catherine Le Moine
Opiate withdrawal induces an early aversive state which can be associated to contexts and/or cues, and re-exposure to either these contexts or cues may participate in craving and relapse. Nucleus accumbens (NAC), hippocampus (HPC) and basolateral amygdala (BLA) are crucial substrates for acute opiate withdrawal, and for withdrawal memory retrieval. Also HPC and BLA interacting with the NAC are suggested to respectively mediate the processing of context and cue representations of drug-related memories. Here we used a paradigm of conditioned suppression of operant food seeking, allowing to differentiate context and cue related responses, to study the influence of withdrawal memories on operant behavior and the underlying neural substrates...
February 13, 2019: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Bart Doyen, Peter Vlerick, Heidi Maertens, Frank Vermassen, Isabelle Van Herzeele
BACKGROUND: This monocentric study aimed to explore whether key non-technical attributes can be reliably measured in a mixed population of candidates applying for surgical training, surgical trainees and staff and to identify any differences between these groups. MATERIALS & METHODS: Candidates applying for surgical training, surgical trainees and staff from four surgical specialties (general surgery, orthopedics, plastic surgery or urology) at a tertiary academic teaching hospital were all sent an online self-report questionnaire...
February 12, 2019: International Journal of Surgery
Julina A Rattel, Melanie Wegerer, Stephan F Miedl, Jens Blechert, Lisa M Grünberger, Michelle G Craske, Frank H Wilhelm
Higher prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in women than men may be explained by sex differences in fear learning processes. Initial evidence points to elevated unconditioned and conditioned fear responding as well as to elevated state anxiety in women as potential peritraumatic mechanisms. Using the "conditioned-intrusion-paradigm", which combines differential fear conditioning with the trauma-film paradigm, neutral sounds were presented as predictors of the occurrence (CS+) or non-occurrence (CS-) of highly aversive films...
February 2, 2019: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Raimo Pohjanvirta, Selma Mahiout
Previous studies have shown that several aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonists, including β-naphthoflavone (BNF), elicit avoidance of novel food items in rodents, with this behavioral response displaying a similar dose-response to hepatic induction of CYP1A1. The avoidance has been found to bear substantial similarity to conditioned taste avoidance/aversion (CTA). The present study set out to confirm the indispensability of AHR in the avoidance response, to verify whether vagal afferent fibers are involved in it, and to see if AHR signaling might interfere with the effect of the classic trigger of CTA, LiCl...
February 12, 2019: Physiology & Behavior
Julia Garami, Ahmed Moustafa
While the link between delay discounting and drug addiction has been well established, much less is known about probability discounting (PD) in the context of substance abuse. This study is the first to investigate how opioid-dependent individuals make risky decisions about gains and losses using the PD paradigm. Fifty-six opioid-dependent adults receiving opioid maintenance therapy and 55 controls performed two tasks that assessed PD of hypothetical monetary gains and losses, and completed the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11)...
February 12, 2019: Behavioural Brain Research
Diana V Atigari, Rajendra Uprety, Gavril W Pasternak, Susruta Majumdar, Bronwyn M Kivell
Kappa opioid receptor (KOPr) agonists have preclinical anti-cocaine and antinociceptive effects. However, adverse effects including dysphoria, aversion, sedation, anxiety and depression limit their clinical development. MP1104, an analogue of 3-iodobenzoyl naltrexamine, is a potent dual agonist at KOPr and delta opioid receptor (DOPr), with full agonist efficacy at both these receptors. In this study, we evaluate the ability of MP1104 to modulate cocaine-induced behaviors and side-effects preclinically. In male Sprague-Dawley rats trained to self-administer cocaine, MP1104 (0...
February 12, 2019: Neuropharmacology
Maartje Luijten, Claire M Gillan, Sanne De Wit, Ingmar H A Franken, Trevor W Robbins, Karen D Ersche
INTRODUCTION: Harmful behavior such as smoking may reflect a disturbance in the balance of goal-directed and habitual control. Animal models suggest that habitual control develops after prolonged substance use. In this study, we investigated whether smokers (N = 49) differ from controls (N = 46) in the regulation of goal-directed and habitual behavior. It was also investigated whether individual differences in nicotine dependence levels were associated with habitual responding. METHODS: We used two different multistage instrumental learning tasks that consist of an instrumental learning phase, subsequent outcome devaluation, and a testing phase to measure the balance between goal-directed and habitual responding...
February 15, 2019: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Krista J Spiller, Guo-Hua Bi, Yi He, Ewa Galaj, Eliot L Gardner, Zheng-Xiong Xi
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Endocannabinoids are critically involved in brain reward functions. This is generally believed to be mediated by activation of CB1 receptors, in large part due to their high density in the brain. However, the recent discovery of CB2 receptors (CB2 R) in the brain, particularly in midbrain dopamine neurons, has challenged this view and inspired us to re-examine the roles of both CB1 R and CB2 R in the effects of cannabis. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: In the present study, we used the electrical intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) paradigm to evaluate the effects of various cannabinoid drugs on brain reward in laboratory rats, and the roles of CB1 R and CB2 R activation in brain reward function(s)...
February 14, 2019: British Journal of Pharmacology
Massimo Trusel, Alvaro Nuno-Perez, Salvatore Lecca, Harumi Harada, Arnaud L Lalive, Mauro Congiu, Kiwamu Takemoto, Takuya Takahashi, Francesco Ferraguti, Manuel Mameli
Throughout life, individuals learn to predict a punishment via its association with sensory stimuli. This process ultimately prompts goal-directed actions to prevent the danger, a behavior defined as avoidance. Neurons in the lateral habenula (LHb) respond to aversive events as well as to environmental cues predicting them, supporting LHb contribution to cue-punishment association. However, whether synaptic adaptations at discrete habenular circuits underlie such associative learning to instruct avoidance remains elusive...
February 7, 2019: Neuron
Rami Burstein, Rodrigo Noseda, Anne B Fulton
BACKGROUND: Photophobia is commonly associated with migraine, meningitis, concussion, and a variety of ocular diseases. Advances in our ability to trace multiple brain pathways through which light information is processed have paved the way to a better understanding of the neurobiology of photophobia and the complexity of the symptoms triggered by light. PURPOSE: The purpose of this review is to summarize recent anatomical and physiological studies on the neurobiology of photophobia with emphasis on migraine...
March 2019: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
Björn Lindström, Armita Golkar, Simon Jangard, Philippe N Tobler, Andreas Olsson
In today's world, mass-media and online social networks present us with unprecedented exposure to second-hand, vicarious experiences and thereby the chance of forming associations between previously innocuous events (e.g., being in a subway station) and aversive outcomes (e.g., footage or verbal reports from a violent terrorist attack) without direct experience. Such social threat, or fear, learning can have dramatic consequences, as manifested in acute stress symptoms and maladaptive fears. However, most research has so far focused on socially acquired threat responses that are expressed as increased arousal rather than active behavior...
February 13, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Angela R Caldwell, Elizabeth R Skidmore, Ketki D Raina, Joan C Rogers, Lauren Terhorst, Cynthia A Danford, Roxanna M Bendixen
OBJECTIVE: Systematic approaches are needed to help parents with young children adopt healthy routines. This study examined the feasibility (home data collection, protocol adherence, intervention acceptance) of using a behavioral activation (BA) approach to train parents of children with sensory food aversions. METHOD: Parents of young children (18-36 mo) were trained using the novel Promoting Routines of Exploration and Play During Mealtime intervention. Measures included video-recorded meals, Fidelity Checklist, Treatment Acceptability Questionnaire, and Behavioral Pediatrics Feeding Assessment Scale...
November 2018: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
Tal Mazor-Karsenty, Lilach Shalev, Shula Parush, Yoram Bonneh
This study examined whether sensory modulation disorder-sensory overresponsivity (SMD-SOR) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have a significant effect on the perception of aversive auditory stimuli. Participants were 66 young adult women. The diagnosis of SOR was made using the Sensory Responsiveness Questionnaire, and ADHD was diagnosed by a qualified psychiatrist or neurologist using criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.). Participants were presented with the Battery of Aversiveness to Sounds, short presentations of daily life sounds, and rated each sound stimulus verbally according to its perceived unpleasantness...
November 2018: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
Wei Ye, Yong Zhang
This paper studies the impact of managerial traits, i.e. optimism, confidence and risk aversion, on capital structure using a principle-agent framework. We discover that optimistic manager perceives equity as more undervalued than debt, while, confident manager perceives debt as more undervalued than equity. We also find that there exists the level of risk aversion eliminating the impact of optimism and confidence on the leverage. Furthermore, in contrast to rational manager, the optimistic/confident manger has higher level of effort...
2019: PloS One
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