Manash Saha, Qi-Jian Sun, Cara M Hildreth, Peter G R Burke, Jacqueline K Phillips
Carotid body feedback and hypoxia may serve to enhance respiratory-sympathetic nerve coupling (respSNA) and act as a driver of increased blood pressure. Using the Lewis polycystic kidney (LPK) rat model of chronic kidney disease, we examined respSNA in adult female rodents with CKD and their response to acute hypoxia or hypercapnia compared to Lewis control animals. Under urethane anesthesia, phrenic nerve activity, splanchnic sympathetic nerve activity (sSNA), and renal sympathetic nerve activity (rSNA) were recorded under baseline conditions and during mild hypoxic or hypercapnic challenges...
2021: Frontiers in Physiology
Nathaniel J Iannarelli, Adam J MacNeil, Kylie S Dempster, Terrance J Wade, Deborah D O'Leary
Central arterial stiffness is an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease. It is characterized by a marked reduction in the elastin-collagen ratio of the arterial wall extracellular matrix (ECM), and is largely the result of degradation of various ECM components. Matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) may contribute to central arterial stiffness via its involvement in ECM homeostasis and remodeling. This study examined the association between serum MMP-3 concentrations and central arterial stiffness and potential interactions of MMP-3 and traditional cardiovascular risk factors in a population of healthy young adults...
June 2021: Physiological Reports
Haojie Zhang, Jingsi Chen, Chi Chen, Heng Wan, Yi Chen, Yuying Wang, Wen Zhang, Bo Chen, Ningjian Wang, Yingli Lu
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) results in more than half of the mortality and the majority of morbidity in patients with type 2 diabetes. We aim to evaluate the associations of urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites with CVD in diabetic patients and explore whether CVD risk factors mediate or interact with these associations. A total of 675 type 2 diabetic participants were enrolled from Shanghai, China, in 2018. CVD was defined as a self-reported diagnosis by a physician including coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, or stroke; it was further reconfirmed in the records from the registration platform...
June 9, 2021: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Prodromos Chatzikyriakou, Philip Touska, Mufaddal T Moonim, Rupert Obholzer, Shazia Afridi, Ann Sandison, Rebecca J Oakey, Louise Izatt
We report a novel case of multiple paragangliomas in a patient who was identified with pathogenic variants in both NF1 and SDHD genes. The proband is a man with known familial NF1 disease, diagnosed clinically in childhood. Multiple head and neck paragangliomas (HNPGL) were found during investigations for acute left sided neurological symptoms, in the region of his known plexiform neurofibroma. He was referred for genetic counselling. He underwent surgery to remove a left carotid body tumor (CBT). A pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma gene panel was tested...
May 25, 2021: Cancer Genetics
Luana Tenorio-Lopes, Richard Kinkead
As our understanding of respiratory control evolves, we appreciate how the basic neurobiological principles of plasticity discovered in other systems shape the development and function of the respiratory control system. While breathing is a robust homeostatic function, there is growing evidence that stress disrupts respiratory control in ways that predispose to disease. Neonatal stress (in the form of maternal separation) affects "classical" respiratory control structures such as the peripheral O2 sensors (carotid bodies) and the medulla (e...
June 9, 2021: Comprehensive Physiology
Mohd Zulhilmie Mohd Nasir, Khasnur Abd Malek, Mohamad Rodi Isa, Mohd Farhan Hamdan, Roqiah Fatmawati Abdul Kadir, Fauziah Ahmad, Wan Farzihan Wan Adib
AIMS: Our study aimed to investigate the association between elevated carotid-intima media thickness (CIMT) and serum uric acid (SUA) levels in hypertensive patients attending primary care clinics in Sungai Buloh, Malaysia. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study on 140 hypertensive patients attending out-patient follow-up in two primary care clinics in Sungai Buloh, Malaysia, using a convenient sampling method. Serum uric acid levels were measured and divided into 4-quartile...
June 9, 2021: International Journal of Clinical Practice
Norihito Fukawa, Takahiro Ueda, Tomofumi Ogoshi, Yasuhide Kitazawa, Jun Takahashi
Background: Clinicians may choose to administer antiplatelet medications to patients with cerebral aneurysms following endovascular coiling to prevent thrombus formation and vascular occlusion, if they fear a thrombus will form on the platinum wire where it diverges into the vessel from the aneurysm sac. However, the mechanism by which vascular endothelial cells repair a vessel in the living body in the event of a coil deviation and the effects of antiplatelet drugs on these cells have not been fully elucidated...
2021: Journal of Central Nervous System Disease
Steven Spector, Ryan Debi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 7, 2021: Journal of Physiology
Binisha H Mishra, Pashupati P Mishra, Nina Mononen, Mika Hilvo, Harri Sievänen, Markus Juonala, Marika Laaksonen, Nina Hutri-Kähönen, Jorma Viikari, Mika Kähönen, Olli T Raitakari, Reijo Laaksonen, Terho Lehtimäki
BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis and atherosclerosis are complex multifactorial diseases sharing common risk factors and pathophysiological mechanisms suggesting that these are comorbidities. Omics studies identifying joint molecular markers associated with these diseases are sparse. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry we quantified 437 molecular lipid species from the Young Finns Study cohort (aged 30-45 years and 57% women) and performed lipidome-wide multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) with early markers for both diseases...
June 4, 2021: Bone
Shir Lynn Lim, Xiao Liu, Qi Gao, Shwe Zin Nyunt, Lingli Gong, Josephine B Lunaria, Carolyn Sp Lam, Arthur Mark Richards, Shiou Liang Wee, Lieng Hsi Ling, Tze Pin Ng
Frailty is associated with future cardiovascular events in older adults. This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between subclinical vasculopathy with measures of skeletal muscle mass and function. Asymptomatic community-dwelling Asians ≥55 years underwent assessments for subclinical vasculopathy (carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), aortic and carotid stiffness, and endothelial function), muscle mass (calf circumference adjusted for body mass index) and function (knee extension strength, 6-meter fast gait speed)...
June 7, 2021: Aging
Diana Carmona-Fernandes, Sofia C Barreira, Natacha Leonardo, Renata I Casimiro, Alice M Castro, Pedro Oliveira Santos, António N Fernandes, Filipe Cortes-Figueiredo, Carolina A Gonçalves, Rafael Cruz, Mariana L Fernandes, Margarida Ivo, Luis M Pedro, Helena Canhão, João Eurico Fonseca, Maria José Santos
Background and Aims: Atherosclerosis and osteoporosis share common risk factors, as well as inflammatory mechanisms. Our aim was to understand how atherosclerotic lesions are related with disturbances in bone. Methods: Gene expression of pro-inflammatory and bone metabolism related proteins ( IL-1 β , IL-6, IL-17A, TNF, RANKL, OPG, COL1, CTSK, OCL, TRAP, CBFA1, DKK1, SOST, ADIPOQ , and ADIPOR1 ) were analyzed in arteries and bones from 45 deceased donors and adipose tissue was used as control. Additionally, in 139 patients with advanced atherosclerosis submitted to carotid endarterectomy we compared calcium content (Alizarin red) and plaque inflammatory scores (CD3+ , CD68+ , and adiponectin) of patients with normal bone mineral density (BMD) with those with low BMD and explored the associations between gene expression in atherosclerotic plaques and BMD...
2021: Frontiers in Medicine
Giovanni Tarantino, Vincenzo Citro, Clara Balsano, Domenico Capone
Common carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) represents a functional and structural marker of early, precocious, and subclinical atherosclerosis, independently from the carotid plaque. Macrophage cells, which have been detected in adipose tissue and atherosclerotic plaques, are regulated by interleukin-15 (IL-15). At the light of the conflicting results concerning the role of IL-15 in atherosclerosis, the aim of the study was to retrospectively evaluate in a population of 80 obese patients, with median age of 46 years (IQR 34-53 years), with a low rate of comorbidities but with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) or hepatic steatosis (HS), the relationship between IMT and serum concentrations of IL-15...
2021: Frontiers in Medicine
Boutaina Merzouqi, Khadija El Bouhmadi, Youssef Oukesou, Sami Rouadi, Redallah Larbi Abada, Mohamed Roubal, Mohamed Mahtar
Head and neck paragangliomas are rare vascular tumors derived from the paraganglionic system, located at the carotid body, jugular vein, tympanic cavity and vagal nerve. From 2010 to 2020, a cohort of 26 patients divided in two groups, 15 with cervical paragangliomas and 11 with temporal bone paragangliomas, was reviewed by analysing the medical history, the epidemiological and clinical parameters, the imaging results and classification, the modality of treatment and outcome. Cervical paragangliomas present as firm and pulsatile mass with the characteristic aspect of "salt and pepper" on MRI T1 weighted sequences...
June 2021: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
Lynda Cheddani, Jean Philippe Haymann, Sophie Liabeuf, Nahid Tabibzadeh, Jean-Jacques Boffa, Emmanuel Letavernier, Marie Essig, Tilman B Drüeke, Michel Delahousse, Ziad A Massy
Background: Chronic kidney disease is associated with a high cardiovascular risk. Compared with glomerular filtration rate-matched CKD patients (CKDps), we previously reported a 2.7-fold greater risk of global mortality among kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). We then examined aortic stiffness [evaluated by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (CF-PWV)] and cardiovascular risk in KTRs compared with CKDps with comparable measured glomerular filtration rate (mGFR). Methods: We analysed CF-PWV in two cohorts: TransplanTest (KTRs) and NephroTest (CKDps)...
April 2021: Clinical Kidney Journal
Andres Guerra, Ashish K Jain, Mark K Eskandari, Heron E Rodriguez
OBJECTIVE: To determine differences in outcomes among patients undergoing ipsilateral carotid bypass with hostile or normal neck anatomy. METHODS: Single-center retrospective review of all ipsilateral extra-cranial carotid bypasses performed between 1998 and 2018. RESULTS: Forty-eight patients underwent ipsilateral carotid bypass from the common carotid artery to either the internal carotid artery or carotid bifurcation during the study period...
June 3, 2021: Journal of Vascular Surgery
Ning Wang, Ying-Jie Peng, Xiaoyu Su, Nanduri R Prabhakar, Jayasri Nanduri
Intermittent hypoxia (IH) is a hallmark manifestation of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Long term IH (LT-IH) triggers epigenetic reprogramming of the redox state involving DNA hypermethylation in the carotid body chemo reflex pathway resulting in persistent sympathetic activation and hypertension. Present study examined whether IH also activates epigenetic mechanism(s) other than DNA methylation. Histone modification by lysine acetylation is another major epigenetic mechanism associated with gene regulation...
2021: Frontiers in Physiology
Arianna Petrelli, Lucilla Rava, Alberto Mascali, Novella Rapini, Michela Massoud, Maria Luisa Manca Bitti, Stefano Cianfarani, Melania Manco
AIM: To test the hypothesis that intensive insulin treatment and optimal glycemic control are not fully protective against reduction of insulin sensitivity in children with type 1 diabetes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cohort study of 78 normal-weight patients with prepubertal onset (T0) and follow-up waves at 1 (T1), 5 (T5), 10 (T10) and 12 (T12) years; matched for age and sex to 30 controls at T12. Estimated insulin sensitivity (eIS) by three formulas; ultrasound evaluation of para and perirenal fat thickness; hepatic steatosis (HS); carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) at T12...
June 2, 2021: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Vladimir Vasilev, Dejana Popovic, Gorica G Ristic, Ross Arena, Goran Radunovic, Arsen Ristic
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases are common cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with systemic connective tissue diseases (SCTD) due to accelerated atherosclerosis which couldn't be explained by traditional risk factors (CVDRF). HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesized that recently developed score predicting probability of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (H2 FPEF), as well as a measure of right ventricular-pulmonary vasculature coupling [tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE)/pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) ratio], are predictive of atherosclerosis in SCTD...
June 2, 2021: Clinical Cardiology
Anasuya Guha, Ales Vicha, Tomas Zelinka, Zdenek Musil, Martin Chovanec
Multiple head and neck paragangliomas (HNPGLs) are neuroendocrine tumors of a mostly benign nature that can be associated with a syndrome, precipitated by the presence of a germline mutation. Familial forms of the disease are usually seen with mutations of SDHx genes, especially the SDHD gene. SDHB mutations are predisposed to malignant tumors. We found 6 patients with multiple tumors amongst 30 patients with HNPGLs during the period of 2016 to 2021. We discuss the phenotypic and genetic patterns in our patients with multiple HNPGLs and explore the management possibilities related to the disease...
May 31, 2021: Biomedicines
Agnieszka Swiderska, Andrew M Coney, Abdulaziz A Alzahrani, Hayyaf S Aldossary, Nikolaos Batis, Clare J Ray, Prem Kumar, Andrew P Holmes
Reflex increases in breathing in response to acute hypoxia are dependent on activation of the carotid body (CB)-A specialised peripheral chemoreceptor. Central to CB O2 -sensing is their unique mitochondria but the link between mitochondrial inhibition and cellular stimulation is unresolved. The objective of this study was to evaluate if ex vivo intact CB nerve activity and in vivo whole body ventilatory responses to hypoxia were modified by alterations in succinate metabolism and mitochondrial ROS (mitoROS) generation in the rat...
May 25, 2021: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
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