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Climate climatic

José M Fernández-Fernández, David Palacios, Nuria Andrés, Irene Schimmelpfennig, Skafti Brynjólfsson, Leopoldo G Sancho, José J Zamorano, Starri Heiðmarsson, Þorsteinn Sæmundsson
The Tröllaskagi Peninsula in northern Iceland hosts more than a hundred small glaciers that have left a rich terrestrial record of Holocene climatic fluctuations in their forelands. Traditionally, it has been assumed that most of the Tröllaskagi glaciers reached their Late Holocene maximum extent during the Little Ice Age (LIA). However, there is evidence of slightly more advanced pre-LIA positions. LIA moraines from Iceland have been primary dated mostly through lichenometric dating, but the limitations of this technique do not allow dating of glacial advances prior to the 18th or 19th centuries...
January 30, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Benjamin Richard, Goetz M Richter, Marianna Cerasuolo, Ian Shield
Background and Aims: Bioenergy is central for the future energy mix to mitigate climate change impacts; however, its intricate link with the water cycle calls for an evaluation of the carbon-water nexus in biomass production. The great challenge is to optimize trade-offs between carbon harvest and water use by choosing cultivars that combine low water use with high productivity. Methods: Regional scenarios were simulated over a range of willow genotype × environment interactions for the major UK soil × climate variations with the process-based model LUCASS...
February 13, 2019: Annals of Botany
Meredith T Niles, Benjamin F Emery, Andrew J Reagan, Peter Sheridan Dodds, Christopher M Danforth
Natural hazards are becoming increasingly expensive as climate change and development are exposing communities to greater risks. Preparation and recovery are critical for climate change resilience, and social media are being used more and more to communicate before, during, and after disasters. While there is a growing body of research aimed at understanding how people use social media surrounding disaster events, most existing work has focused on a single disaster case study. In the present study, we analyze five of the costliest disasters in the last decade in the United States (Hurricanes Irene and Sandy, two sets of tornado outbreaks, and flooding in Louisiana) through the lens of Twitter...
2019: PloS One
S V Bugmyrin, L A Bespyatova, Yu S Korotkov
The article presents the results of long-term observations of variations in the abundance of Ixodes persulcatus, carried out since 1982, in the middle taiga subzone of Karelia. Adult questing ticks were collected from vegetation following standard flagging procedures. The time series was evaluated by singular spectrum analysis. Correlation coefficients were calculated for the observed tick abundances and meteorological data (mean daily air temperature and precipitation) for the current year and preceding years...
February 13, 2019: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Bruna Wolfarth-Couto, Rosimeire Araújo da Silva, Naziano Filizola
Understanding the relations between rainfall and river water levels and malaria cases can provide important clues on modulation of the disease in the context of local climatic variability. In order to demonstrate how these relations can vary in the same endemic space, a coherence and wavelet phase analysis was performed between environmental and epidemiological variables from 2003 to 2010 for 8 municipalities (counties) in the state of Amazonas, Brazil (Barcelos, Borba, Canutama, Carauari, Coari, Eirunepé, Humaitá, and São Gabriel da Cachoeira)...
February 11, 2019: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
A P Gutierrez, L Ponti, P A Arias
Before its eradication from North America, the subtropical-tropical new world screwworm fly Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) invaded southwestern temperate areas of the U.S.A., where it caused myiasis in wildlife and livestock. Outbreaks of the fly occurred during years when adult migrants were carried northward on North American monsoon winds from the northern areas of Mexico and south Texas. We deconstruct, retrospectively, the biology and the effect of weather on the eradication of the fly in North America...
February 13, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
Jingtao Ding, Beidou Xi, Qigong Xu, Haibo Meng, Yujun Shen, Hongsheng Cheng
The considerable spatial and temporal variabilities of nitrogen (N) processing introduce large uncertainties for quantifying N cycles on a large scale, particularly in plain river network regions with complicated hydrographic connections and mixed multiple N sources. In this paper, the dual isotopes δ15N and δ18O and dissolved anions in regularly collected samples (n = 10) from the studied river, which is one of the most seriously polluted rivers in the plain river network regions of the Taihu Lake catchment, were analyzed to ascertain the main nitrate (NO3-) sources and watershed N processing in the context of monsoon climate...
February 13, 2019: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Pascale Ayotte, M Anouk Simard, Steeve D Côté
Life-history strategies of female ungulates usually depend on density-dependent and independent processes affecting body condition. Using a long-term data set on life-history traits of female white-tailed deer (2002-2014), we investigated the influence of population density and environmental factors on the reproductive effort of females. We also evaluated post-reproductive consequences on body condition using body mass, body fat, and body protein contents in the autumn following conception. We found that under high densities, females had a lower reproductive rate, which corresponds to a conservative reproduction strategy...
February 11, 2019: Oecologia
Reza Deihimfard, Sajjad Rahimi-Moghaddam, Karine Chenu
In the semi-arid climatic conditions, water shortage is a key factor to generate crop production. Planting in autumn and winter and using precipitation can help cope with the problem. But in the semi-arid areas with cold winter, frost is another limited factor affecting crop production. For this purpose, in the present study, a simple and universal crop growth simulator (SUCROS) model was used to estimate the potential yield of sugar beets and frost damage from 1993 to 2009 for four autumn sowing dates (2 October, 17 October, 1 November, and 16 November) and two spring dates (6 March and 6 May) in eight locations (Birjand, Bojnord, Ghaen, Mashhad, Torbat-e Heydarieh, Neyshabor, Torbat-e Jam, and Ghochan) of the Khorasan province in northeastern Iran as a semi-arid and cold area...
February 13, 2019: International Journal of Biometeorology
David Singer, Sebastian Metz, Fernando Unrein, Satoshi Shimano, Yuri Mazei, Edward A D Mitchell, Enrique Lara
Sphagnum-dominated ecosystem plays major roles as carbon sinks at the global level. Associated microbial communities, in particular, eukaryotes, play significant roles in nutrient fixation and turnover. In order to understand better the ecological processes driven by these organisms, the first step is to characterise these associated organisms. We characterised the taxonomic diversity, and from this, inferred the functional diversity of microeukaryotes in Sphagnum mosses in tropical, subtropical and temperate climatic zones through an environmental DNA diversity metabarcoding survey of the V9 region of the gene coding for the RNA of the small subunit of the ribosomes (SSU rRNA)...
February 12, 2019: Microbial Ecology
Tobias Roth, Lukas Kohli, Christoph Bühler, Beat Rihm, Reto Giulio Meuli, Reto Meier, Valentin Amrhein
Nitrogen (N) deposition is a major threat to biodiversity in many habitats. The recent introduction of cleaner technologies in Switzerland has led to a reduction in the emissions of nitrogen oxides, with a consequent decrease in N deposition. We examined different drivers of plant community change, that is, N deposition, climate warming, and land-use change, in Swiss mountain hay meadows, using data from the Swiss biodiversity monitoring program. We compared indicator values of species that disappeared from or colonized a site (species turnover) with the indicator values of randomly chosen species from the same site...
2019: PeerJ
Rosane G Collevatti, Evandro Novaes, Orzenil B Silva-Junior, Lucas D Vieira, Matheus S Lima-Ribeiro, Dario Grattapaglia
The role of natural selection in shaping patterns of diversity is still poorly understood in the Neotropics. We carried out the first genome-wide population genomics study in a Neotropical tree, Handroanthus impetiginosus (Bignoniaceae), sampling 75,838 SNPs by sequence capture in 128 individuals across 13 populations. We found evidences for local adaptation using Bayesian correlations of allele frequency and environmental variables (32 loci in 27 genes) complemented by an analysis of selective sweeps and genetic hitchhiking events using SweepFinder2 (81 loci in 47 genes)...
February 12, 2019: Heredity
Jonne Kotta, Jarno Vanhatalo, Holger Jänes, Helen Orav-Kotta, Luca Rugiu, Veijo Jormalainen, Ivo Bobsien, Markku Viitasalo, Elina Virtanen, Antonia Nyström Sandman, Martin Isaeus, Sonja Leidenberger, Per R Jonsson, Kerstin Johannesson
Predictive species distribution models are mostly based on statistical dependence between environmental and distributional data and therefore may fail to account for physiological limits and biological interactions that are fundamental when modelling species distributions under future climate conditions. Here, we developed a state-of-the-art method integrating biological theory with survey and experimental data in a way that allows us to explicitly model both physical tolerance limits of species and inherent natural variability in regional conditions and thereby improve the reliability of species distribution predictions under future climate conditions...
February 12, 2019: Scientific Reports
Abhishek Goyal, Kanika Narang, Gautam Ahluwalia, P M Sohal, Bhupinder Singh, Shibba T Chhabra, Naved Aslam, Bishav Mohan, Gurpreet S Wander
The clinical and experimental data on seasonal variation in blood pressure is mainly from office and home blood pressure (BP) monitoring studies. There are few studies from temperate climates on seasonal changes with ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) monitoring and none from India. This is a prospective, observational study among healthy adults. ABP was measured in four different seasons in 28 subjects. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), ambulatory systolic blood pressure (SBP), and ambulatory diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were significantly higher in winter compared to summer season...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Human Hypertension
Matthew C Fitzpatrick, Robert R Dunn
A major challenge in articulating human dimensions of climate change lies in translating global climate forecasts into impact assessments that are intuitive to the public. Climate-analog mapping involves matching the expected future climate at a location (e.g., a person's city of residence) with current climate of another, potentially familiar, location - thereby providing a more relatable, place-based assessment of climate change. For 540 North American urban areas, we used climate-analog mapping to identify the location that has a contemporary climate most similar to each urban area's expected 2080's climate...
February 12, 2019: Nature Communications
Mélanie Roffet-Salque, Arkadiusz Marciniak, Paul J Valdes, C Neil Roberts, Kamilla Pawłowska, Joanna Pyzel, Lech Czerniak, Marta Krüger, Sharmini Pitter, Richard P Evershed
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 12, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Nathaniel J Williams, Hannah E Frank, Lindsay Frederick, Rinad S Beidas, David S Mandell, Gregory A Aarons, Philip Green, Jill Locke
BACKGROUND: Implementation researchers have typically studied organizational culture and climate by testing whether individual dimensions are linked to the implementation of evidence-based practices (EBPs) rather than examining how the overarching social context influences implementation. This approach may limit implementation theory and strategy development to the extent that individual dimensions of culture and climate interact, mutually reinforce or counteract one another, or exhibit non-linear relationships...
February 12, 2019: Implementation Science: IS
Sharon H Kim, Sallie J Weaver, Ting Yang, Michael A Rosen
BACKGROUND: Are creativity and compliance mutually exclusive? In clinical settings, this question is increasingly relevant. Hospitals and clinics seek the creative input of their employees to help solve persistent patient safety issues, such as the prevention of bloodstream infections, while simultaneously striving for greater adherence to evidence-based guidelines and protocols. Extant research provides few answers about how creativity works in such contexts. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey data were collected from employees in 24 different U...
February 12, 2019: BMC Health Services Research
Jenni Metcalfe
Scholars have variously described different models of science communication over the past 20 years. However, there has been little assessment of theorised models against science communication practice. This article compares 515 science engagement activities recorded in a 2012 Australian audit against the theorised characteristics of the three dominant models of deficit, dialogue and participation. Most engagement activities had objectives that reflected a mix of deficit and dialogue activities. Despite increases in scientific controversies like climate change, there appears to be a paucity of participatory activities in Australia...
February 12, 2019: Public Understanding of Science
Hung Chak Ho, Sawaid Abbas, Jinxin Yang, Rui Zhu, Man Sing Wong
Climate variability has been documented as being key to influencing human wellbeing across cities as it is linked to mortality and illness due to changes in the perceived weather cycle. Many studies have investigated the impact of summer temperature on human health and have proposed mitigation strategies for summer heat waves. However, sub-tropical cities are still experiencing winter temperature variations. Increasing winter perceived temperature through the decades may soon affect city wellbeing, due to a larger temperature change between normal winter days and extreme cold events, which may cause higher health risk due to lack of adaptation and self-preparedness...
February 11, 2019: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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