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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30770929/myd88-dependent-signaling-in-non-parenchymal-cells-promotes-liver-carcinogenesis
#1
Antje Mohs, Nadine Kuttkat, Tobias Otto, Sameh A Youssef, Alain De Bruin, Christian Trautwein
In Western countries, a rising incidence of obesity and type 2 diabetes correlates with an increase of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)-a major risk factor for liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). NASH is associated with chronic liver injury, triggering hepatocyte death and enhanced translocation of intestinal bacteria, leading to persistent liver inflammation through activation of Toll-like receptors and their adapter protein myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88). Therefore, we investigated the role of MyD88 during progression from NASH to HCC using a mouse model of chronic liver injury (hepatocyte-specific deletion of nuclear factor κB essential modulator, Nemo; NemoΔhepa)...
February 13, 2019: Carcinogenesis
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30765939/the-changing-face-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-forecasting-prevalence-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-and-hepatitis-c-cirrhosis
#2
Osmanuddin Ahmed, Lisa Liu, Antony Gayed, Amanjit Baadh, Mikin Patel, Jordan Tasse, Ulku Turba, Bulent Arslan
Background/objectives: The purpose of this research is to analyze the past and forecast the future prevalence of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) and Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH) and their respective contribution to Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) incidence in the setting of novel anti-viral agents and rising obesity rates in the United States. Methods: Existing data of HCV and NASH prevalence in the United States utilizing the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) was collected and analyzed to project future prevalence trends...
January 2019: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30762890/soluble-fibers-improve-metabolic-syndrome-but-may-cause-liver-disease-and-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#3
Wen Wen, Robert F Schwabe
Nearly 25% of the world's population is suffering from non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is closely associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. NAFLD may progress to the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). With efficient medical therapies lacking, modifications of life style and diet are considered the best options for the prevention and treatment of NAFLD. For the latter, it is thought that besides reducing fat, sugar and caloric intake, increasing fiber may exert beneficial effects on NAFLD, e...
February 14, 2019: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30755499/emerging-awareness-on-the-importance-of-skeletal-muscle-in-liver-diseases-time-to-dig-deeper-into-mechanisms
#4
REVIEW
Maxime Nachit, Isabelle A Leclercq
Skeletal muscle is a tissue that represents 30-40% of total body mass in healthy humans and contains up to 75% of total body proteins. It is thus the largest organ in non-obese subjects. The past few years have seen increasing awareness of the prognostic value of appreciating changes in skeletal muscle compartment in various chronic diseases. Hence, a low muscle mass, a low muscle function and muscle fatty infiltration are linked with poor outcomes in many pathological conditions. In particular, an affluent body of evidence links the severity, the complications and mortality of chronic liver disease (CLD) with skeletal muscle depletion...
February 14, 2019: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30745416/rla8-a-new-and-highly-effective-quadruple-ppars-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-and-gpr40-agonist-to-reverse-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-and-fibrosis
#5
Menghua Li, Wei Chen, Lili Wang, Jialin Sun, Lei Zhou, Yucong Shi, Chuhan Wang, Bohua Zhong, Weiguo Shi, Zhongwu Guo
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a very common chronic hepatic disease, with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) as a major and severe subcategory that can lead to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, thereby a high mortality rate. Currently, there has been no approved drug to treat NAFLD or NASH. The current study has presented RLA8, a novel and balanced quadruple agonist for hepatic lipid metabolism and inflammation-related peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs)-α/γ/δ and G-protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40), as a NASH drug candidate...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30735525/epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-inhibition-attenuates-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-diet-induced-obese-mice
#6
Sorim Choung, Ji Min Kim, Kyong Hye Joung, Eaum Seok Lee, Hyun Jin Kim, Bon Jeong Ku
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the main causes of chronic liver disease. NAFLD begins with excessive lipid accumulation in the liver and progresses to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis. NAFLD is closely linked to dysregulated hepatic lipid metabolism. Although recent studies have reported that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling regulates lipid metabolism, the roles of EGFR and EGFR inhibitors as modulators of lipid metabolism are largely unknown. Here, we investigated whether inhibiting EGFR using the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) PD153035 improves NAFLD...
2019: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30732555/mechanisms-of-beneficial-effects-of-exercise-training-on-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nafld-roles-of-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation
#7
Parvin Farzanegi, Amir Dana, Zeynab Ebrahimpoor, Mahdieh Asadi, Mohammad Ali Azarbayjani
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common chronic liver disorder which is associated with accumulation of fats in the liver. It causes a wide variety of pathological effects such as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis, insulin resistance, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The molecular mechanisms that cause the initiation and progression of NAFLD are not fully understood. Oxidative stress (OS) induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammation are likely a significant mechanism which can lead to hepatic cell death and tissue injury...
February 8, 2019: European Journal of Sport Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30725432/laparoscopic-sleeve-gastrectomy-after-orthotopic-liver-transplantation-video-reported
#8
Georges Bou Nassif, Chady Salloum, Luca Paolino, Daniel Azoulay, Andrea Lazzati
INTRODUCTION: The immunosuppressive therapy for life after liver transplantation (LT) is considered as a risk factor for obesity. Seven percent of the transplanted patients develop severe or morbid obesity. The obesity induces non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which is a major risk factor for liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, without forgetting the cardiovascular risk and the devastating impact of obesity on quality of life of the transplanted patients. Consequently, obesity exposes these patients to future transplant loss...
February 6, 2019: Obesity Surgery
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30720468/novel-interplay-between-sonic-hedgehog-and-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-1-in-human-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#9
Xingang Zhou, Peng Wang, Zhiyuan Ma, Man Li, Xiaoying Teng, Lei Sun, Gang Wan, Yang Li, Limei Guo, Honggang Liu
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) has the potential to progress to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Upregulation of sonic hedgehog (Shh) has been documented in development of NASH through sustained cell stress. At the same time, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), which is a central element in fibrogenic reactions in various diseases and sites, has been reported to be associated with hepatic inflammation and fibrotic reaction. To explore crosstalk between Shh and TGF-β1 in the development and progression of NASH, we investigated the expression of both these proteins in 135 human specimens of NASH, 35 fatty liver specimens, 35 specimens of alcoholic steatohepatitis with immunohistochemistry...
February 1, 2019: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30717274/the-omics-window-into-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nafld
#10
REVIEW
Lucia Carulli, Giulia Zanca, Filippo Schepis, Erica Villa
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common cause of hepatic abnormalities worldwide. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is part of the spectrum of NAFLD and leads to progressive liver disease, such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. In NASH patient, fibrosis represents the major predictor of liver-related mortality; therefore, it is important to have an early and accurate diagnosis of NASH. The current gold standard for the diagnosis of NASH is still liver biopsy. The development of biomarkers able to predict disease severity, prognosis, as well as response to therapy without the need for a biopsy is the focus of most up-to-date genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic research...
February 1, 2019: Metabolites
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30710864/hepatitis-b-and-c-virus-infection-as-a-risk-factor-for-parkinson-s-disease-in-israel-a-nationwide-cohort-study
#11
Goldstein Lilach, Haya Fogel-Grinvald, Steiner Israel
OBJECTIVE: To study the association between hepatitis C and B viruses and Parkinson's disease (PD) in Israel. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed by analyzing the computerized database of Clalit Healthcare Service in Israel. Cohorts of people with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) were constructed and compared to a reference cohort for prevalence of PD. RESULTS: The prevalence of PD in Israel was found to be 0...
January 11, 2019: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30708071/beneficial-effects-of-sglt2-inhibitors-on-fatty-liver-in-type-2-diabetes-a-common-comorbidity-associated-with-severe-complications
#12
REVIEW
André J Scheen
Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are exposed to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a comorbidity associated with cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease, and which may progress to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), fibrosis and cirrhosis. Sodium-glucose cotransporter type-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are glucose-lowering agents that improve glucose control while promoting weight loss and lowering serum uric acid levels. These agents may exert cardiovascular and renal protection in T2DM patients with established cardiovascular disease...
January 29, 2019: Diabetes & Metabolism
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30706422/l-ornithine-l-aspartate-lola-as-a-novel-approach-for-therapy-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#13
REVIEW
Ali Canbay, Jan-Peter Sowa
L-ornithine L-aspartate (LOLA) has been known as an effective ammonia-lowering agent for more than 50 years with good evidence in hepatic encephalopathy. Administration of LOLA removes ammonia via two distinct mechanisms: by synthesis of urea and by the synthesis of glutamine via the enzyme glutamine synthetase. While LOLA has been used in cirrhosis and acute liver injury settings, it is less clear if LOLA could be used in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD and the progressive form non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are currently the leading causes of chronic liver disease worldwide, with roughly 25% of the world population affected by NAFLD...
January 31, 2019: Drugs
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30697502/elevated-liver-enzymes-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#14
Amrendra Mandal, Bikash Bhattarai, Paritosh Kafle, Mazin Khalid, Saikiran K Jonnadula, Jenny Lamicchane, Rajan Kanth, Vijay Gayam
Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is emerging as the most common chronic liver condition. Approximately 70% of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients have a fatty liver; the progression to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) dramatically increases the risks of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of our study was to assess the profile of liver enzymes in subjects with T2DM and NAFLD. Method This was a cross-sectional clinic-based study in patients with T2DM. An ultrasonography of the abdomen was done in all patients in order to examine the presence of a fatty liver...
November 23, 2018: Curēus
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30686780/treating-hepatic-steatosis-and-fibrosis-by-modulating-mitochondrial-pyruvate-metabolism
#15
REVIEW
Kyle S McCommis, Brian N Finck
A hepatic comorbidity of metabolic syndrome, known as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), is increasing in prevalence in conjunction with the pandemics of obesity and diabetes. The spectrum of NAFLD ranges from simple hepatic fat accumulation to a more severe disease termed nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), involving inflammation, hepatocyte death, and fibrosis. Importantly, NASH is linked to a much higher risk of cirrhosis, liver failure, and hepatocellular carcinoma, as well as an increased risk for nonhepatic malignancies and cardiovascular disease...
October 10, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30671098/the-role-of-hepatic-macrophages-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#16
REVIEW
Ji-Young Cha, Da-Hyun Kim, Kyung-Hee Chun
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is becoming common chronic liver disease because of the increasing global prevalence of obesity and consequently Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the mechanism for progression of NAFLD to NASH and then cirrhosis is not completely understood, yet. The triggering of these hepatic diseases is thought from hepatocyte injury caused by over-accumulated lipid toxicity. Injured hepatocytes release damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), which can stimulate the Kupffer cells (KCs), liver-resident macrophages, to release pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and recruit monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs)...
December 2018: Laboratory Animal Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30670907/current-status-problems-and-perspectives-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-research
#17
REVIEW
Naoki Tanaka, Takefumi Kimura, Naoyuki Fujimori, Tadanobu Nagaya, Michiharu Komatsu, Eiji Tanaka
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major chronic liver disease that can lead to liver cirrhosis, liver cancer, and ultimately death. NAFLD is pathologically classified as non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) or non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) based on the existence of ballooned hepatocytes, although the states have been known to transform into each other. Moreover, since the detection of ballooned hepatocytes may be difficult with limited biopsied specimens, its clinical significance needs reconsideration...
January 14, 2019: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30660725/non-invasive-assessment-of-liver-disease-in-patients-with-nafld
#18
REVIEW
Laurent Castera, Mireen Friedrich-Rust, Rohit Loomba
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is estimated to afflict approximately 1 billion individuals worldwide. In a subset of NAFLD patients, who have the progressive form of NAFLD termed as nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), it can progress to advanced fibrosis, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and liver-related morbidity and mortality. NASH is typically characterized by a specific pattern on liver histology, including steatosis, lobular inflammation, ballooning with or without peri-sinusoidal fibrosis...
January 17, 2019: Gastroenterology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30658519/gut-liver-axis-gut-microbiota-and-its-modulation-in-the-management-of-liver-diseases-a-review-of-the-literature
#19
REVIEW
Ivana Milosevic, Ankica Vujovic, Aleksandra Barac, Marina Djelic, Milos Korac, Aleksandra Radovanovic Spurnic, Ivana Gmizic, Olja Stevanovic, Vladimir Djordjevic, Nebojsa Lekic, Edda Russo, Amedeo Amedei
The rapid scientific interest in gut microbiota (GM) has coincided with a global increase in the prevalence of infectious and non-infectivous liver diseases. GM, which is also called "the new virtual metabolic organ", makes axis with a number of extraintestinal organs, such as kidneys, brain, cardiovascular, and the bone system. The gut-liver axis has attracted greater attention in recent years. GM communication is bi-directional and involves endocrine and immunological mechanisms. In this way, gut-dysbiosis and composition of "ancient" microbiota could be linked to pathogenesis of numerous chronic liver diseases such as chronic hepatitis B (CHB), chronic hepatitis C (CHC), alcoholic liver disease (ALD), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), development of liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
January 17, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30653341/hepatic-transcriptome-signatures-in-patients-with-varying-degrees-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-compared-to-healthy-normal-weight-individuals
#20
Malte P Suppli, Kristoffer T G Rigbolt, Sanne S Veidal, Sara Heebøl, Peter Lykke Eriksen, Mia Demant, Jonatan I Bagger, Jens Christian Nielsen, Denise Oró, Sebastian W Thrane, Asger Lund, Charlotte Strandberg, Merete J Kønig, Tina Vilsbøll, Niels Vrang, Karen Louise Thomsen, Henning Grønbæk, Jacob Jelsing, Henrik H Hansen, Filip K Knop
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a spectrum of conditions ranging from simple steatosis (NAFL), over non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with or without fibrosis, to cirrhosis with end-stage disease. The hepatic molecular events underlying the development of NAFLD and transition to NASH are poorly understood. The present study aimed to determine hepatic transcriptome dynamics in patients with NAFL or NASH compared to healthy normal-weight and obese individuals. RNA sequencing and quantitative histomorphometry of liver fat, inflammation and fibrosis was performed on liver biopsies obtained from healthy normal weight (n=14) and obese (n=12) individuals, NAFL (n=15) and NASH (n=16) patients...
January 17, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
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