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Primate behavior

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30878289/reversible-inactivation-of-different-millimeter-scale-regions-of-primate-it-results-in-different-patterns-of-core-object-recognition-deficits
#1
Rishi Rajalingham, James J DiCarlo
Extensive research suggests that the inferior temporal (IT) population supports visual object recognition behavior. However, causal evidence for this hypothesis has been equivocal, particularly beyond the specific case of face-selective subregions of IT. Here, we directly tested this hypothesis by pharmacologically inactivating individual, millimeter-scale subregions of IT while monkeys performed several core object recognition subtasks, interleaved trial-by trial. First, we observed that IT inactivation resulted in reliable contralateral-biased subtask-selective behavioral deficits...
March 11, 2019: Neuron
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30877326/effects-of-chronic-cocaine-self-administration-and-n-acetylcysteine-on-learning-cognitive-flexibility-and-reinstatement-in-nonhuman-primates
#2
Brian D Kangas, Rachel J Doyle, Stephen J Kohut, Jack Bergman, Marc J Kaufman
RATIONALE: Cocaine use disorder (CUD) is associated with cognitive deficits that have been linked to poor treatment outcomes. An improved understanding of cocaine's deleterious effects on cognition may help optimize pharmacotherapies. Emerging evidence implicates abnormalities in glutamate neurotransmission in CUD and drugs that normalize glutamatergic homeostasis (e.g., N-acetylcysteine [NAC]) may attenuate CUD-related relapse behavior. OBJECTIVES: The present studies examined the impact of chronic cocaine exposure on touchscreen-based models of learning (repeated acquisition) and cognitive flexibility (discrimination reversal) and, also, the ability of NAC to modulate cocaine self-administration and its capacity to reinstate drug-seeking behavior...
March 15, 2019: Psychopharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30870840/locomotor-kinematics-of-two-semi-wild-macaque-species-macaca-assamensis-and-macaca-arctoides-in-thailand
#3
Eishi Hirasaki, Suchinda Malaivijitnond, Yuzuru Hamada
This project aimed to investigate primate locomotor kinematics noninvasively in the wild. Semi-wild Assamese and stump-tailed macaques were selected for the study, which was performed in Thailand. We investigated their locomotor kinematics and its relationship to habitat use. The macaques' positional behavior was recorded with two video cameras, and kinematic parameters were estimated during terrestrial quadrupedal locomotion, using the markerless method. The data analyzed so far revealed that stump-tailed macaques walk with longer, less frequent strides than Assamese macaques...
March 14, 2019: Folia Primatologica; International Journal of Primatology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30862520/behavioral-responses-to-changes-in-group-size-and-composition-a-case-study-on-grooming-behavior-of-female-japanese-macaques-macaca-fuscata-yakui
#4
Yosuke Kurihara, Mari Nishikawa, Koji Mochida
Primates flexibly change their grooming behavior depending on group size and composition to maintain social relationships among group members. However, how drastic social changes influence their grooming behavior remains unclear. We observed the grooming behavior of adult female Japanese macaques in two groups temporarily formed as one-female groups from multi-female groups and compared their behaviors between the multi-female and one-female periods. Adult females more frequently performed grooming with both their relatives and unrelated juveniles during the one-female period when other adult females were unavailable as alternatives to their absent familiar partners...
March 9, 2019: Behavioural Processes
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30858323/primitive-old-world-monkey-from-the-earliest-miocene-of-kenya-and-the-evolution-of-cercopithecoid-bilophodonty
#5
D Tab Rasmussen, Anthony R Friscia, Mercedes Gutierrez, John Kappelman, Ellen R Miller, Samuel Muteti, Dawn Reynoso, James B Rossie, Terry L Spell, Neil J Tabor, Elizabeth Gierlowski-Kordesch, Bonnie F Jacobs, Benson Kyongo, Mathew Macharwas, Francis Muchemi
Old World monkeys (Cercopithecoidea) are a highly successful primate radiation, with more than 130 living species and the broadest geographic range of any extant group except humans. Although cercopithecoids are highly variable in habitat use, social behavior, and diet, a signature dental feature unites all of its extant members: bilophodonty (bi: two, loph: crest, dont: tooth), or the presence of two cross-lophs on the molars. This feature offers an adaptable Bauplan that, with small changes to its individual components, permits its members to process vastly different kinds of food...
March 11, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30849525/vaccinomics-strategy-for-developing-a-unique-multi-epitope-monovalent-vaccine-against-marburg-marburgvirus
#6
Mahmudul Hasan, Kazi Faizul Azim, Aklima Begum, Noushin Anika Khan, Tasfia Saiyara Shammi, Abdus Shukur Imran, Ishtiak Malique Chowdhury, Shah Rucksana Akhter Urme
Marburg virus is known to cause a severe hemorrhagic fever (MHF) in both humans and non-human primates with high degree of infectivity and lethality. To date no approved treatment is available for Marburg virus infection. A study was employed to design a novel chimeric subunit vaccine against Marburg virus by adopting reverse vaccinology approach. The entire viral proteome was retrieved from UniprotKB and assessed to design highly antigenic epitopes by antigenicity screening, transmembrane topology screening, allergenicity and toxicity assessment, population coverage analysis and molecular docking approach...
March 5, 2019: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30847671/first-insights-into-the-feeding-habits-of-the-critically-endangered-black-snub-nosed-monkey-rhinopithecus-strykeri-colobinae-primates
#7
Yin Yang, Colin Groves, Paul Garber, Xinwen Wang, Hen Li, Yongchen Long, Guangsong Li, Yingping Tian, Shaohua Dong, Shiyi Yang, Alison Behie, Wen Xiao
Since its initial discovery in 2010 in the Gaoligong Mountains on the Sino-Myanmar border, there remains no direct information on the feeding habits of the black snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus strykeri). This species is on the verge of extinction, with an estimated remaining population of < 400 individuals. Due to difficulties in following these monkeys across steep mountainous terrain, during 203 observation days (September 2015-January 2017) we recorded 80 h of behavioral records of a wild population (Luoma group)...
March 7, 2019: Primates; Journal of Primatology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30847641/uncovering-the-inferior-fronto-occipital-fascicle-and-its-topological-organization-in-non-human-primates-the-missing-connection-for-language-evolution
#8
Silvio Sarubbo, Laurent Petit, Alessandro De Benedictis, Franco Chioffi, Maurice Ptito, Tim B Dyrby
Whether brain networks underlying the multimodal processing of language in humans are present in non-human primates is an unresolved question in primate evolution. Conceptual awareness in humans, which is the backbone of verbal and non-verbal semantic elaboration, involves intracerebral connectivity via the inferior fronto-occipital fascicle (IFOF). While non-human primates can communicate through visual information channels, there has been no formal demonstration that they possess a functional homologue of the human IFOF...
March 7, 2019: Brain Structure & Function
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30847388/the-effects-of-methylphenidate-ritalin-on-the-neurophysiology-of-the-monkey-caudal-prefrontal-cortex
#9
Sébastien Tremblay, Florian Pieper, Adam Sachs, Ridha Joober, Julio Martinez-Trujillo
Methylphenidate (MPH), commonly known as Ritalin, is the most widely prescribed drug worldwide to treat patients with attention deficit disorders. Although MPH is thought to modulate catecholamine neurotransmission in the brain, it remains unclear how these neurochemical effects influence neuronal activity and lead to attentional enhancements. Studies in rodents overwhelmingly point to the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) as a main site of action of MPH. To understand the mechanism of action of MPH in a primate brain, we recorded the responses of neuronal populations using chronic multielectrode arrays implanted in the caudal LPFC of two macaque monkeys while the animals performed an attention task ( N = 2811 neuronal recordings)...
January 2019: ENeuro
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30842250/sequential-neural-activity-in-primary-motor-cortex-during-sleep
#10
Wei Xu, Felipe de Carvalho, Andrew Jackson
Sequential firing of neurons during sleep is thought to play a role in the consolidation of learning, but direct evidence for such sequence replay is limited to only a few brain areas and sleep states mainly in rodents. Using a custom-designed wearable neural data logger and chronically implanted electrodes, we made long-term recordings of neural activity in the primary motor cortex of 2 female non-human primates during free behavior and natural sleep. We used the local field potential (LFP) spectrogram to characterize sleep cycles, and examined firing rates, correlations and sequential firing of neurons at different frequency bands through the cycle...
March 6, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30837611/striatal-interneurons-in-transgenic-nonhuman-primate-model-of-huntington-s-disease
#11
Shoeb B Lallani, Rosa M Villalba, Yiju Chen, Yoland Smith, Anthony W S Chan
Huntington's disease is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder associated with progressive motor and cognitive impairments, and the expansion of a cysteine-adenine-guanine trinucleotide (polyglutamine) repeats in exon one of the human huntingtin gene. The pathology of the disease is characterized by a profound degeneration of striatal GABAergic projection neurons with relative sparing of interneurons accompanied with astrogliosis. Here, we describe the striatal pathology in two genotypically different transgenic HD monkeys that exhibit degrees of disease progression that resembled those seen in juvenile- (rHD1) and adult-onset (rHD7) HD...
March 5, 2019: Scientific Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30826809/informing-protection-efforts-for-critically-endangered-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes-verus-and-sympatric-mammals-amidst-rapid-growth-of-extractive-industries-in-senegal
#12
Stacy Lindshield, Stephanie L Bogart, Mallé Gueye, Papa Ibnou Ndiaye, Jill D Pruetz
Updated information on Critically Endangered western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in Senegal is urgently needed, given that gold mining is rapidly transforming landscapes and livelihoods. Specifically, biodiversity assessments will better elucidate the chimpanzee extinction risk here and yield baselines for monitoring. We compared mammal species richness between Fongoli (unprotected) and Assirik in Niokolo-Koba National Park to assess the efficacy of the only nationally protected area where chimpanzees range in this country...
March 1, 2019: Folia Primatologica; International Journal of Primatology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30822717/validations-of-apomorphine-induced-bold-activation-correlations-in-hemiparkinsonian-rhesus-macaques
#13
J E Quintero, Yi Ai, A H Andersen, P Hardy, R Grondin, Z Guduru, D M Gash, G A Gerhardt, Z Zhang
Identification of Parkinson's disease at the earliest possible stage of the disease may provide the best opportunity for the use of disease modifying treatments. However, diagnosing the disease during the pre-symptomatic period remains an unmet goal. To that end, we used pharmacological MRI (phMRI) to assess the function of the cortico-basal ganglia circuit in a non-human primate model of dopamine deficiency to determine the possible relationships between phMRI signals with behavioral, neurochemical, and histological measurements...
February 18, 2019: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30821351/dust-affects-chewing-efficiency-and-tooth-wear-in-forest-dwelling-western-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes-verus
#14
Ellen Schulz-Kornas, Julia Stuhlträger, Marcus Clauss, Roman M Wittig, Kornelius Kupczik
OBJECTIVES: In humans it has been shown that abrasive particles in the diet result in increased tooth wear and less intense chewing behavior, both of which decrease chewing efficiency. This behavioral response may also exist in non-human primates as a means to reduce the wear effect of dust-laden food. Here we tested whether the periodical occurrence of abrasive dust particles in the diet of Western chimpanzees affects tooth wear and reduces chewing efficiency. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We measured fecal particle size of undigested food matter as an indicator of chewing efficiency in 13 Western chimpanzees of the Taï National Park (Ivory Coast) before (wet), after (wet) and during a dust-rich (dry) period...
March 1, 2019: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30820237/limb-phase-flexibility-in-walking-a-test-case-in-the-squirrel-monkey-saimiri-sciureus
#15
Charlotte Elizabeth Miller, Laura Elizabeth Johnson, Henry Pinkard, Pierre Lemelin, Daniel Schmitt
Background: Previous analyses of factors influencing footfall timings and gait selection in quadrupeds have focused on the implications for energetic cost or gait mechanics separately. Here we present a model for symmetrical walking gaits in quadrupedal mammals that combines both factors, and aims to predict the substrate contexts in which animals will select certain ranges of footfall timings that (1) minimize energetic cost, (2) minimize rolling and pitching moments, or (3) balance the two...
2019: Frontiers in Zoology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30814470/assessing-public-perceptions-and-solutions-to-human-monkey-conflict-from-50-years-in-sri-lanka
#16
Wolfgang P J Dittus, Sunil Gunathilake, Melissa Felder
Sri Lanka is a biodiversity hotspot with high human density that contributes to increasing human-monkey conflict (HMC). In 50 years of primate studies there, the development of HMC has been documented, and many workshops and interventions organized to ameliorate HMC. These activities prompted the present survey. In the extensive lowland dry zone of Sri Lanka, the affected nonhuman primates are the toque macaque, gray and purple-faced langurs and slender loris. We surveyed and evaluated the attitudes of rural residents towards these four species in an effort to contribute to an ethnoprimatological approach to conservation, i...
February 27, 2019: Folia Primatologica; International Journal of Primatology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30811068/unraveling-the-dispersal-patterns-and-the-social-drivers-of-natal-emigration-of-a-cooperative-breeding-mammal-the-golden-lion-tamarin
#17
Valéria Romano, Andreia F Martins, Carlos R Ruiz-Miranda
The study of the social drivers of animal dispersal is key to understanding the evolution of social systems. Among the social drivers of natal emigration, the conspecific attraction, aggressive eviction, and reduced social integration hypotheses predict that sexually mature individuals who receive more aggressive behavior and are engaged in less affiliative interactions are more likely to disperse. Few reports have explored these proximate factors affecting emigration in cooperatively breeding species, particularly of Neotropical primates...
February 27, 2019: American Journal of Primatology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30810248/balancing-contest-competition-scramble-competition-and-social-tolerance-at-feeding-sites-in-wild-common-marmosets-callithrix-jacchus
#18
María Fernanda De la Fuente, Nicola Schiel, Júlio César Bicca-Marques, Christini B Caselli, Antonio Souto, Paul A Garber
Models of primate sociality focus on the costs and benefits of group living and how factors such as rank, feeding competition, alliance formation, and cooperative behavior shape within-group social relationships. We conducted a series of controlled field experiments designed to investigate how resource distribution (one or three of four reward platforms) and amount of food on a reward platform affected foraging strategies and individual feeding success in four groups of wild common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) living in the Caatinga of northeastern Brazil...
February 27, 2019: American Journal of Primatology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30805137/a-description-of-nesting-behaviors-including-factors-impacting-nest-site-selection-in-black-and-white-ruffed-lemurs-varecia-variegata
#19
Andrea L Baden
Nest site selection is at once fundamental to reproduction and a poorly understood component of many organisms' reproductive investment. This study investigates the nesting behaviors of black-and-white ruffed lemurs, Varecia variegata , a litter-bearing primate from the southeastern rainforests of Madagascar. Using a combination of behavioral, geospatial, and demographic data, I test the hypotheses that environmental and social cues influence nest site selection and that these decisions ultimately impact maternal reproductive success...
February 2019: Ecology and Evolution
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30804750/combining-gene-transfer-and-nonhuman-primates-to-better-understand-and-treat-parkinson-s-disease
#20
Christelle Lasbleiz, Nadine Mestre-Francés, Gina Devau, Maria-Rosario Luquin, Liliane Tenenbaum, Eric J Kremer, Jean-Michel Verdier
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive CNS disorder that is primarily associated with impaired movement. PD develops over decades and is linked to the gradual loss of dopamine delivery to the striatum, via the loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). While the administration of L-dopa and deep brain stimulation are potent therapies, their costs, side effects and gradual loss of efficacy underlines the need to develop other approaches. Unfortunately, the lack of pertinent animal models that reproduce DA neuron loss and behavior deficits-in a timeline that mimics PD progression-has hindered the identification of alternative therapies...
2019: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
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