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Diet pre exercise

Anca Matei, Gabriele Saccone, Joshua P Vogel, Anthony B Armson
BACKGROUND: Preterm birth (PTB) is a leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Interventions aimed at preventing PTB can be classified as primary, secondary, or tertiary prevention. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a review of systematic reviews on the effectiveness and safety of primary and secondary preterm birth prevention interventions. SEARCH STRATEGY: A systematic literature search of the Cochrane, PubMed/Medline, EMBASE and CINAHL databases was conducted on 2 September 2015, and updated on 21 November 2016...
January 25, 2019: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Nadeeja N Wijayatunga, Youngdeok Kim, Winfield S Butsch, Emily J Dhurandhar
OBJECTIVES: Weight bias is present among kinesiology professionals and this may cause a significant negative impact on their clients with obesity. Thus, our objective was to test if learning about uncontrollable cause of obesity and about weight bias would reduce explicit and implicit weight bias among kinesiology undergraduate students compared to the traditional curriculum which is more focused on controllable causes of weight gain. METHODS: We recruited undergraduates from two classes of the same kinesiology major course taught by the same instructor...
February 12, 2019: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Nagaraj Malipatil, Helene A Fachim, Kirk Siddals, Bethany Geary, Gwen Wark, Nick Porter, Simon Anderson, Rachelle Donn, Michelle Harvie, Anthony D Whetton, Martin J Gibson, Adrian Heald
We investigated biological determinants that would associate with the response to a diet and weight loss programme in impaired glucose regulation (IGR) people using sequential window acquisition of all theoretical fragment ion spectra (SWATH) mass spectrometry (MS), a data acquisition method which complement traditional mass spectrometry-based proteomics techniques. Ten women and 10 men with IGR underwent anthropometric measurements and fasting blood tests. SWATH MS was carried out with subsequent immunoassay of specific peptide levels...
January 25, 2019: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Dana M Lis
Exercise-associated physiological disturbances alter gastrointestinal function and integrity. These alterations may increase susceptibility to dietary triggers, namely gluten and a family of short-chain carbohydrates known as FODMAPs (fermentable oligo-, di-, monosaccharides and polyols). A recent surge in the popularity of gluten-free diets (GFDs) among athletes without celiac disease has been exacerbated by unsubstantiated commercial health claims and high-profile athletes citing this diet to be the secret to their success...
January 22, 2019: Sports Medicine
James M Flanagan, Hanna Skrobanski, Xin Shi, Yasemin Hirst
BACKGROUND: Longer patient intervals can lead to more late-stage cancer diagnoses and higher mortality rates. Individuals may delay presenting to primary care with red flag symptoms and instead turn to the internet to seek information, purchase over-the-counter medication, and change their diet or exercise habits. With advancements in machine learning, there is the potential to explore this complex relationship between a patient's symptom appraisal and their first consultation at primary care through linkage of existing datasets (eg, health, commercial, and online)...
January 17, 2019: JMIR Cancer
Rudolf J Schilder, Hannah Stewart
We previously demonstrated the existence of a naturally occurring, metabolic disease phenotype in Libellula pulchella dragonflies, that shows high similarity to vertebrate obesity and type II diabetes, and is caused by a protozoan gut parasite. To further mechanistic understanding of how this metabolic disease phenotype affects male L. pulchella fitness in vivo , we examined infection effects on in situ muscle performance- and molecular traits relevant to L. pulchella flight performance in nature. Importantly, these traits were previously shown to be affected in obese vertebrates...
January 18, 2019: Journal of Experimental Biology
Mads S Larsen, Dagmar Clausen, Astrid Ank Jørgensen, Ulla R Mikkelsen, Mette Hansen
Recent studies demonstrate that protein ingestion immediately before sleep improves muscle recovery during the night following resistance exercise. Whether this feeding strategy benefits recovery from endurance training has yet to be established. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of whey protein isolate ingested every night before sleep on subsequent performance and circulatory markers of muscular recovery during a week of intensified endurance training mimicking a training camp. In a parallel design, thirty-two trained runners underwent a one-week intervention with a rigorously controlled diet (g kg-1 d-1 : 7...
January 11, 2019: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Alannah K A McKay, Peter Peeling, David B Pyne, Marijke Welvaert, Nicolin Tee, Jill J Leckey, Avish P Sharma, Megan L R Ross, Laura A Garvican-Lewis, Rachel P L van Swelm, Coby M Laarakkers, Louise M Burke
OBJECTIVES: Adhering to a low carbohydrate (CHO) high fat (LCHF) diet can alter markers of iron metabolism in endurance athletes. This investigation examined the re-introduction of CHO prior to, and during exercise on the iron-regulatory response to exercise in a homogenous (in regard to serum ferritin concentration) group of athletes adapted to a LCHF diet. DESIGN: Parallel groups design. METHODS: Three weeks prior to the exercise trials, twenty-three elite race walkers adhered to either a CHO-rich (n=14) or LCHF diet (n=9)...
January 4, 2019: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Emily M Heiston, Natalie Z M Eichner, Nicole M Gilbertson, Julian M Gaitán, Sibylle Kranz, Arthur Weltman, Steven K Malin
PURPOSE: No short-term exercise data exist testing whether training intensity modifies hormonal and perceived appetite in obese adults with prediabetes. Therefore, we compared the effects of short-term moderate continuous (CONT) vs. high-intensity interval (INT) training on appetite regulation. METHODS: Twenty-eight obese adults (Age: 61.3±1.5yr; BMI: 33.2±1.1) with prediabetes were randomized to work-matched CONT (n=14) or INT (n=14) training for 2 weeks. Plasma acylated ghrelin (AG), des-acylated ghrelin (dAG), active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and insulin were measured at 0, 30 and 60min of a 75g OGTT before and after training...
January 10, 2019: Journal of Applied Physiology
Tina L Skinner, Ben Desbrow, Julia Arapova, Mia A Schaumberg, John Osborne, Gary D Grant, Shailendra Anoopkumar-Dukie, Michael D Leveritt
PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine if 1) consumption of caffeine improves endurance cycling performance in women, and 2) sex differences exist in the magnitude of the ergogenic and plasma responses to caffeine supplementation. METHODS: Twenty-seven (11 women and 16 men) endurance-trained cyclists and triathletes participated in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Participants completed an incremental exercise test to exhaustion, two familiarization trials and two performance trials...
January 8, 2019: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Adithya Hari, Ciaràn Fealy, Thomas P J Solomon, Jacob M Haus, Karen R Kelly, Hope Barkoukis, John P Kirwan
AIMS: Glucose effectiveness (GE) refers to the ability of glucose to influence its own metabolism through insulin-independent mechanisms. Diminished GE is a predictor of progression to type 2 diabetes. Exercise training improves GE, however, little is known about how dietary interventions, such as manipulating the glycemic index of diets, interact with exercise-induced improvements in GE in at-risk populations. METHODS: We enrolled 33 adults with obesity and pre-diabetes (17 males, 65...
February 2019: Acta Diabetologica
Eva Apweiler, David Wallace, Sarah Stansfield, Dean M Allerton, Meghan A Brown, Emma J Stevenson, Tom Clifford
This study examined whether consuming casein protein (CP) pre-sleep could accelerate acute recovery following muscle-damaging exercise. Thirty-nine active males and females performed 100 drop jumps in the morning, consumed their habitual diet during the day, and then within 30 min pre-bed consumed either ~40 g of CP ( n = 19) or ~40 g of a carbohydrate-only control (CON) ( n = 20). Maximal isometric voluntary contractions (MIVC), countermovement jumps (CMJ), pressure-pain threshold (PPT), subjective muscle soreness and the brief assessment of mood adapted (BAM+) were measured pre, 24 and 48 h following the drop jumps...
December 28, 2018: Sports
John Hattersley, Adrian J Wilson, Robert M Gifford, Rin Cobb, C Doug Thake, Rebecca M Reynolds, David R Woods, Christopher H E Imray
This paper reports the metabolic energy changes in six women who made the first unsupported traverse of Antarctica covering a distance of 1700km in 61 days hauling sledges weighing up to 80kg. Pre- and post-expedition, measurements of energy expenditure and substrate utilisation were made on all 6 members of the expedition over a 36hr period in a whole body calorimeter. During the study, subjects were fed an isocaloric diet: 50% carbohydrate, 35% fat and 15% protein. The experimental protocol contained pre and post-expedition measurement including periods of sleep, rest and three periods of standardised stepping exercise at 80, 100 and 120 steps min-1 ...
December 20, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Maude Perreault, Stephanie A Atkinson, Michelle F Mottola, Stuart M Phillips, Keyna Bracken, Eileen K Hutton, Feng Xie, David Meyre, Rita E Morassut, Harry Prapavessis, Lehana Thabane
BACKGROUND: Evidence from epidemiological and animal studies support the concept of programming fetal, neonatal, and adult health in response to in utero exposures such as maternal obesity and lifestyle variables. Excess gestational weight gain (GWG), maternal physical activity, and sub-optimal and excess nutrition during pregnancy may program the offspring's risk of obesity. Maternal intake of dairy foods rich in high-quality proteins, calcium, and vitamin D may influence later bone health status...
December 19, 2018: Trials
Tracy L Schumacher, Loretta Weatherall, Lyniece Keogh, Kathryn Sutherland, Clare E Collins, Kirsty G Pringle, Kym M Rae
OBJECTIVE: to determine the adequacy of gestational weight gain for a cohort of Indigenous Australian women and investigate whether it is associated with pre-pregnancy body mass index. DESIGN: analysis of observational data collected from a longitudinal cohort study that follows Indigenous Australian women through pregnancy. SETTING: women recruited through antenatal clinics in regional and remote towns in NSW, Australia to the Gomeroi gaaynggal program...
December 14, 2018: Midwifery
Russell Emmons, Guanying Xu, Diego Hernandez-Saavedra, Adam Kriska, Yuan-Xiang Pan, Hong Chen, Michael De Lisio
Obesity-induced inflammation associated with increased risk for colorectal cancer (CRC). The role of diet and exercise in modulating increased CRC risk in obesity, and the potential role of altered hematopoiesis as a contributor to these effects remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine how weight loss induced during CRC induction with or without exercise alter CRC initiation and their relationship to altered hematopoiesis. Mice consumed either a control (CON) or high fat diet to induce obesity...
December 4, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Jennifer A Fearon-Lynch, Kristen A Sethares, Marilyn E Asselin, Kristine Batty, Caitlin M Stover
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of guided reflection on self-care behaviors, confidence scores, and diabetes knowledge among adults with diabetes. A randomized controlled trial with a pre/posttest design was used to generate data from a convenience sample of 62 adults with diabetes recruited from a single site. After viewing a 30-minute video on how to manage diabetes, participants were randomized to a control group (CG) (usual care) or an intervention group (IG). The IG further engaged in a reflection educational session...
December 3, 2018: Diabetes Educator
L Gené Huguet, M Navarro González, B Kostov, M Ortega Carmona, C Colungo Francia, M Carpallo Nieto, A Hervás Docón, R Vilarrasa Sauquet, R García Prado, A Sisó-Almirall
OBJECTIVES: Preventing or delaying frailty has important benefits in the elderly, and in health and social services. Studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of multifactorial interventions in the frail elderly, but there are fewer studies on community-dwelling pre-frail individuals. Identifying pre-frail individuals susceptible to intervention could prevent or delay frailty and its consequences and associated disability and might reverse the state from pre-frail to robust. To evaluate a multifactorial, interdisciplinary primary care intervention in community-dwelling pre-frail elderly patients aged ≥ 80 years...
2018: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
Natalie Ein, Bonnie Armstrong, Kristin Vickers
There are conflicting findings regarding the effect very low calorie diets (VLCDs) have on self-reported depressive symptoms and anxiety levels. Some studies have reported decreased subjective depressive symptoms and anxiety post-diet, whereas other studies have not. Further complicating matters, the protocol for VLCDs vary substantially across studies, which could account for the mixed findings. The primary goal of this meta-analysis and systematic review was to determine the effect VLCDs have on subjective depressive symptoms and anxiety pre- to post-diet...
November 23, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Mohammad A Dallak, Bahjat Al-Ani, Abbas O El Karib, Mohamed Abd Ellatif, Refaat A Eid, Rihab Al-Ani, Hesham M Mahmoud, Mohamed A Haidara
BACKGROUND: We tested the hypothesis that vitamin E may protect against pre-diabetes-induced aortic injury (aortopathy), and exercise can augment the action of vitamin E. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Rats were either fed with a high fat and fructose diet (HFD) (model group) or a standard laboratory chow (control group) for 15 weeks before being sacrificed. The three protective groups were treated with vitamin E (HFD + Vit E), swimming exercises (HFD + Ex), and vitamin E plus swimming exercises (HFD + VitE + Ex), respectively...
November 22, 2018: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
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