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Pan Liu, Huixiang Li, Ruiling Luan, Guiyan Huang, Yanan Liu, Mengdi Wang, Qiuli Chao, Liying Wang, Danna Li, Huaying Fan, Daquan Chen, Linyu Li, Keiichi Matsuzaki, Wei Li, Kazuo Koike, Feng Zhao
A compound library, which consists of 75 natural β-carboline-type or canthinone-type alkaloids from Simaroubaceae plants and their chemical synthetic analogues, was screened for the anti-inflammatory activity by inhibition of the overproduction of inflammatory mediator nitric oxide (NO) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Six compounds, namely, benzalharman (23), kumujian (27), 1-ethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid (37), 1-acetophenone-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid (42), cathin-6-one (46), and 9-methoxy-cathin-6-one (57), exhibited significant inhibitory activity on the overproduction of NO with good dose dependency...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Natural Medicines
Cuihua Gu, Luke R Tembrock, Shaoyu Zheng, Zhiqiang Wu
Qat ( Catha edulis , Celastraceae) is a woody evergreen species with great economic and cultural importance. It is cultivated for its stimulant alkaloids cathine and cathinone in East Africa and southwest Arabia. However, genome information, especially DNA sequence resources, for C. edulis are limited, hindering studies regarding interspecific and intraspecific relationships. Herein, the complete chloroplast (cp) genome of Catha edulis is reported. This genome is 157,960 bp in length with 37% GC content and is structurally arranged into two 26,577 bp inverted repeats and two single-copy areas...
February 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Md Dilshad Manzar, Mohammed Salahuddin, Peter Sony, Tarekegn Tesfaye Maru, Seithikurippu R Pandi-Perumal, Adam Moscovitch, Ahmed S Bahammam
Khat ( Catha edulis ) is a evergreen flowering shrub that is cultivated at high altitudes, especially in East Africa and the southwest of the Arabian Peninsula. The plant contains alkaloids, of which cathinone and cathine have structural similarity and pharmacological action similar to amphetamines. The leaves are, therefore, consumed in some regions as a psychoactive stimulant due to cultural beliefs and misperceptions on the health benefits of khat consumption. This resulted in a growing prevalence of khat consumption among pregnant women...
October 2017: Annals of Thoracic Medicine
Hans Hauner, Ljiljana Hastreiter, Dieter Werdier, Annette Chen-Stute, Jürgen Scholze, Matthias Blüher
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy and safety of increasing doses of cathine (nor-pseudoephedrine) as a weight-lowering agent in patients with obesity. METHODS: Overweight and obese patients (n = 241, mean BMI 34.6 ± 3.4 kg/m²) were randomly allocated to one of three doses of cathine (16 mg, 32 mg, 53.3 mg) or placebo in addition to a multimodal lifestyle intervention program in a multicenter, double-blind, controlled, dose-finding study for 24 weeks. Primary outcome was weight loss...
2017: Obesity Facts
Mowaffaq Awad Sallam, Kamaludin Ahmed Sheikh, Ronald Baxendale, Mohammad Nurul Azam, Anwar M Hossain, Maged El-Setouhy
BACKGROUND: Khat (Catha edulis Forsk) is a natural psychoactive substance which contains two main addictive substances; Cathine and Cathinone. Khat is widely used in east Africa and southern Arabian Peninsula. Khat chewers believe that it improves work capacity and increases energy level and alertness. That is why we aimed in this study to investigate the physiological and ergogenic effects of khat extract. METHODS: This study is an experimental study conducted at the Substance Abuse Research Centre in Jazan University, Saudi Arabia...
January 2, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Chih-Wei Chang, Szu-Yun Hsu, Guan-Qian Huang, Mei-Chich Hsu
Consumption of Ephedra alkaloids is prohibited in-competition by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). In Taiwan, colds are often treated with Chinese herbal formulae containing Herba Ephedrae. We screened products sold in Taiwan and preliminarily assessed their relationships with WADA threshold violations. Fifty-six concentrated powder products, including 19 Chinese herbal formulae that contained Herba Ephedrae, were collected. The content of Ephedra alkaloids, namely ephedrine (E), methylephedrine (ME), norpseudoephedrine (NPE; cathine), pseudoephedrine (PE), and norephedrine (NE; phenylpropanolamine), was determined using a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method...
February 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
E Keane, E C Francis, É Ó Catháin, H Rowley
BACKGROUND: The incidence of thyroid cancer is increasing. There is conflicting evidence as to why. However, studies suggest that it is not an apparent increase resulting from enhanced diagnostic practices, but a true increase with more affected patients. This study aimed to assess racial variation in thyroid cancer. METHOD: A narrative systematic review of the literature was conducted. RESULTS: Eight retrospective cohort studies were identified, comprising 611 777 adult patients...
June 2017: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
Luke R Tembrock, Corey D Broeckling, Adam L Heuberger, Mark P Simmons, Frank R Stermitz, Jessica M Uvarov
INTRODUCTION: Catha edulis (qat, khat, mirra) is a woody plant species that is grown and consumed in East Africa and Yemen for its stimulant alkaloids cathinone, cathine and norephedrine. Two Celastraceae species, in addition to qat, have been noted for their stimulant properties in ethnobotanical literature. Recent phylogenetic reconstructions place four genera in a clade sister to Catha edulis, and these genera are primary candidates to search for cathine and related alkaloids. OBJECTIVE: Determine if cathine or related alkaloids are present in species of Celastraceae other than Catha edulis...
July 2017: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
Hussein M Ageely, Ahmed E Agag, Syam Mohan, Atef Shehata
BACKGROUND: Khat (Catha edulis) is a controversial plant having a euphoretic effect, at the same time part of culture in many countries such as Africa and Arabian Peninsula. The presence of amphetamine-like substance, cathinone and cathine make this plant banned in many countries. Many neurological and other system related studies have been carried out in this plant, but the lack of toxicity studies are there especially the mechanism. OBJECTIVE: In this study, Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney cell line was used as an in vitro model to study the cell death mechanism...
July 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Minaleshewa Atlabachew, Sandra Combrinck, Alvaro M Viljoen, Josias H Hamman, Chrisna Gouws
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Khat, the leaves of Catha edulis, is used as a "natural amphetamine-like" stimulant in eastern and southern Africa, as well as in the Arabian Peninsula. Leaves are masticated to elicit a state of euphoria. Although the psychostimulatory effects of the leaves are attributed to the presence of phenylpropylamino alkaloids (i.e. cathinone, cathine and norephedrine), the extent of permeation of these alkaloids across the oral and intestinal mucosa has not been established...
December 24, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Syam Mohan, Siddig Ibrahim Abdelwahab, Yahya Hasan Hobani, Suvitha Syam, Adel S Al-Zubairi, Rashad Al-Sanousi, Magbool Essa Oraiby
BACKGROUND: Catha edulis (Khat) is an evergreen shrub or small tree, traditionally used by various peoples of the Arabian Peninsula and Africa as an integral component of the socioeconomic traditions. It is believed that the psychostimulant nature and toxic nature of khat is primarily due to the presence of cathinone and cathine respectively. Studies have shown that khat chewing is closely associated with cardiac complications, especially myocardial infarction. Hence in this study, we exposed cathine-rich khat extract in a cardiomyoblast H9c2 (2-1) cell line to check the cell death mechanism...
May 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Adedayo O Ademiluyi, Opeyemi B Ogunsuyi, Ganiyu Oboh
Although some findings have reported the medicinal properties of Jimson weed (Datura stramonium L.), there exist some serious neurological effects such as hallucination, loss of memory and anxiety, which has been reported in folklore. Consequently, the modulatory effect of alkaloid extracts from leaf and fruit of Jimson weed on critical enzymes of the purinergic [ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (E-NTPDase), ecto-5'-nucleotidase (E-NTDase), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Na+ /K+ ATPase] system of neurotransmission was the focus of this study...
September 2016: Neurotoxicology
Mowaffaq Awad Sallam, Kamaludin Ahmed Sheikh, Ronald Baxendale, Mohammad Nurul Azam, Maged El-Setouhy
BACKGROUND: Khat (Catha Edulis Forsk) is a natural psychoactive substance that contains addictive substances such as Cathine and Cathinone which have similar structure and action to amphetamine. This substance has been suggested that it can decrease perceived exertion and thus improve performance. There is no study in the literature regarding the effect of khat on exercise performance. Therefore, the aim of this study is to find out whether khat leaves can decrease perceived exertion in humans...
May 10, 2016: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Khaled M Mohamed, Abtehaj H Al-Hazmi, Alanoud M Alasiri, Mahmoud El-Said Ali
The stimulating herbal drug khat (cathine, cathinone) and its analog methcathinone are common substances of abuse in most countries. A GC-MS method was developed and validated for the detection and quantification of cathine, cathinone, methcathinone and ephedrine in oral fluid specimens. The analytes and internal standard (amphetamine-d5) were extracted from 0.5 mL oral fluids by ethyl acetate, and then the dried extracts were derivatized with heptafluorobutyric anhydride at 70°C for 30 min. The MS was used in selected ion monitoring mode...
September 2016: Journal of Chromatographic Science
Cláudia Margalho, Alice Castanheira, Francisco Corte Real, Eugenia Gallardo, Manuel López-Rivadulla
Despite worldwide efforts aiming to ban the marketing and subsequent abuse of psychoactive substances such as synthetic cathinones and phenethylamines, there has been an alarming growth of both in recent years. Different compounds similar to those already existing are continuously appearing in the market in order to circumvent the legislation. An analytical methodology has been validated for qualitative and quantitative determinations of D-cathine (D-norpseudoehedrine), ephedrine, methcathinone, 1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-propan-2-amine (PMA), mephedrone, methedrone, 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine (DOM), 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine (DOB), 2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine (2C-H), 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine (2C-B), 4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine (2C-I), 2-[2,5-dimethoxy-4-(ethylthio)phenyl]ethanamine (2C-T-2), 2,5-dimethoxy-4-isopropylthiophenethylamine (2C-T-4) and 2-[2,5-dimethoxy-4-(propylthio)phenyl]ethanamine (2C-T-7), in low volumes of vitreous humor (100 μL), pericardial fluid (250 μL) and whole blood (250 μL), using deutered amphetamine, ephedrine and mephedrone as internal standards...
May 1, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Borbála Molnár, Blanka Fodor, Imre Boldizsár, Ibolya Molnár-Perl
A literature criticism is given on methods using currently gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to determine cathine (CAT), cathinone (CTN) and norephedrine (NE), jointly khatamines. In this study, khatamines' oximation, trimethylsilylation and mass fragmentation properties-applying N-Methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (MSTFA), its trimethyliodosilane (TMIS) catalyst containing version (MSTFA(TMIS)), N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) and hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS)-was highlighted, at first...
April 1, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
Selasi Attipoe, Pieter A Cohen, Amy Eichner, Patricia A Deuster
Many studies have found that some dietary supplement product labels do not accurately reflect the actual ingredients. However, studies have not been performed to determine if ingredients in the same dietary supplement product vary over time. The objective of this study was to assess the consistency of stimulant ingredients in popular sports supplements sold in the United States over a 9-month period. Three samples of nine popular sports supplements were purchased over the 9-month period. The 27 samples were analyzed for caffeine and several other stimulants (including adulterants)...
October 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Minaleshewa Atlabachew, Nelson Torto, Bhagwan Singh Chandravanshi, Mesfin Redi-Abshiro, Samuel Chigome, Kediemetse Mothibedi, Sandra Combrinck
A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was prepared using (-)-norephedrine as the template, methacrylic acid as the functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker and chloroform as the porogen. The MIP was used as a selective sorbent in the molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MIP-SPE) of the psychoactive phenylpropylamino alkaloids, norephedrine and its analogs, cathinone and cathine, from Khat (Catha edulis Vahl. Endl.) leaf extracts prior to HPLC-DAD analysis. The MIP was able to selectively extract the alkaloids from the aqueous extracts of Khat...
July 2016: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
Worku Bedada, Fernando de Andrés, Ephrem Engidawork, Anton Pohanka, Olof Beck, Leif Bertilsson, Adrián Llerena, Eleni Aklillu
The use of khat (Catha edulis) while on medication may alter treatment outcome. In particular, the influence of khat on the metabolic activities of drug-metabolizing enzymes is not known. We performed a comparative 1-way crossover study to evaluate the effect of khat on cytochrome P450 (CYP)2D6 and CYP3A4 enzyme activity. After 1 week of khat abstinence, baseline CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 metabolic activities were determined in 40 Ethiopian male volunteers using 30 mg dextromethorphan (DM) as a probe drug and then repeated after 1 week of daily use of 400 g fresh khat leaves...
December 2015: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
Nilesh B Patel
Khat, Catha edulis Forsk, is among the most widely used plant-based psychoactive substance in the world. Grown in Eastern Africa, Horn of Africa, and southwestern part of the Arabian Peninsula, its fresh young leaves and twigs are used daily by over 20 million people for the psychostimulatory effects it produces in the user, a practice deeply rooted in the history, tradition, and culture of the indigenous population. Once hardly known outside the regions where it is grown and used, khat use has now spread to other countries...
2015: International Review of Neurobiology
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