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"assisted suicide" OR "aid in dying"

Rafaella Christou, Niki Michael, Eirini Stylianou, Anneza I Yiallourou, Katerina Pantavou, Georgios K Nikolopoulos
This article presents data collected in a field, questionnaire-based survey about ethical issues in the Republic of Cyprus. The participants were students of the University of Cyprus, and physicians and other health professionals of the Medical School, University of Cyprus and of the Archbishop Makarios III Hospital. The questionnaire included items on sociodemographic characteristics of the participants, and on their knowledge and beliefs about three different ethical issues. Beliefs on the same ethical issues but under specific, hypothetical scenarios were also reported by the participants...
February 2019: Data in Brief
Samuel Kerstein
Suppose that a young athlete has just become quadriplegic. He expects to live several more decades, but out of self-interest he autonomously chooses to engage in physician-assisted suicide (PAS) or voluntary active euthanasia (VAE). Some of us are unsure whether he or his physician would be acting rightly in ending his life. One basis for such doubt is the notion that persons have dignity in a Kantian sense. This paper probes responses that David Velleman and Frances Kamm have suggested to the question of whether participating in PAS or VAE to benefit oneself, as the young man might, respects the dignity of persons, specified in an orthodox Kantian way...
February 3, 2019: Bioethics
Shaikhah Abohaimed, Basma Matar, Hussain Al-Shimali, Khalid Althalji, Omar Alothman, Yasmin Zurba, Nasra Shah
OBJECTIVE: Although in recent years the world has witnessed great advances in the medical field, much ambiguity still surrounds the issue of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide, with increasingly favorable attitudes amongst physicians around the world. In our study, we aimed to assess the attitudes of physicians in Kuwait towards different types of euthanasia, and to examine whether physicians' frequent encounters with terminally-ill patients were associated with their approval...
January 31, 2019: Medical Principles and Practice: International Journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre
Abby D'Angelo, Kelly E Ormond, David Magnus, Holly K Tabor
Physician aid-in-dying (PAD) is now legalized in more than half a dozen states across the United States yet remains controversial among health care providers and the general public. Previous studies have described physicians' and nurses' experiences with and attitudes about PAD; however, there is no data about PAD in the context of genetic counseling. This study explores genetic counselors' experiences, understanding, training, and perspectives about PAD. Fifteen participants were recruited to complete semistructured telephone interviews...
January 28, 2019: Journal of Genetic Counseling
Mara Buchbinder, Elizabeth R Brassfield, Manisha Mishra
BACKGROUND: The evolving legal landscape for medical aid-in-dying (AID) in the USA raises clinical and public health challenges and concerns regarding how health care providers will accommodate AID while expanding access to high-quality end-of-life care. OBJECTIVE: To describe Vermont health care providers' experiences practicing under the "Patient Choice and Control at End of Life" Act. DESIGN: Qualitative semi-structured interviews analyzed using grounded theory...
January 25, 2019: Journal of General Internal Medicine
Marshall E Cates, Jordan R Cochran Hodges, Thomas W Woolley
Introduction: Pharmacists have been called upon to be involved in suicide prevention efforts, but little is known regarding their attitudes, interest, and perceived skills in the area. Methods: The study was a voluntary, anonymous survey of pharmacists who attended a large end-of-year continuing education program sponsored by a school of pharmacy. The survey included the Attitudes to Suicide Prevention (ASP) Scale, items concerning interest in suicide prevention, and items from the suicide skills section of the Suicide Knowledge and Skills Questionnaire...
January 2019: The mental health clinician
Claire Vitale, Alexandre de Nonneville, Marie Fichaux, Sebastien Salas
BACKGROUND: For the year 2018, the French government plans a revision of bioethics laws, including certainly the recent Claeys-Leonetti law introducing the right to deep and continuous sedation at the request of palliative patients and prohibiting euthanasia for end-of-life patients. Because there is no published data on medical staff opposition to a deep and continuous palliative sedation request under Claeys-Leonetti law, we believe this report may give insight into physicians' decision making, into the role of criteria for prudent practice, and thus contribute to the bioethical debate...
January 8, 2019: BMC Palliative Care
Elias Ghossoub, Jacqueline Landess, William J Newman
In June 2017, a media frenzy ensued after Michelle Carter was convicted of involuntary manslaughter in the state of Massachusetts for facilitating the suicide of Conrad Roy. The verdict stirred controversy and cast a spotlight on facilitation of suicide, i.e., a person's act(s) done with the purpose of helping another to die by suicide. One form of facilitation, physician-assisted suicide, has been extensively debated in the existing literature. In this article, we set out to explore the legal and forensic ramifications of non-physician-assisted suicide, which we refer to as facilitated suicide...
December 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
Courtney S Campbell
Twenty years ago, the passage of the Oregon Death with Dignity Act prompted vigorous debate in my bioethics classrooms; now, the issue barely generates a ripple. Instead, we focus on an issue my students' generation will confront, as illustrated by an amendment to the ODDA introduced in the last Oregon legislative session that would have effectively rescinded two core procedural safeguards: patient decision-making capacity when requesting life-ending medication and self-administration of the medication. Patient requests for medication could be stipulated on an advance directive that appoints an "expressly identified agent" authorized, in the event of loss of decision-making capacity, "to collect and to administer to the patient the prescribed medication...
November 2018: Hastings Center Report
James Downar, Stefanie Green, Arun Radhakrishnan, Joshua Wales, George Kim, Dori Seccareccia, Kim Wiebe, Jeff Myers, Sarah Kawaguchi
BACKGROUND: In jurisdictions where medical aid in dying (MAiD) is legal, there is an obligation to ensure the competence of those who assess eligibility and provide MAiD to patients. Entrustable professional activities (EPAs) are one framework for incorporating competency-based training and assessment into the workplace, so we convened a group of experienced MAiD providers to develop an EPA descriptor for MAiD. METHODS: We performed a mixed-methods sequential qualitative (focus group via 2 teleconferences) and quantitative (survey) study to generate and refine a consensus descriptor using open coding followed by a modified Delphi approach...
October 2018: CMAJ Open
Sabrina Stängle, Wilfried Schnepp, Mirjam Mezger, Daniel Büche, André Fringer
BACKGROUND: "To die with dignity" has reached the significance of a core value in democratic societies. Based on this unconditional value, people require autonomy and care. "Voluntary stopping of eating and drinking" (VSED) represents an alternative to assisted suicide because no one else is involved in the action of death fastening, even though from outside, it might be considered as an extreme form of passive euthanasia. However, there are no data available about the prevalence and frequency of either explicit VSED or the implicit reduction of food and liquid in Switzerland...
December 21, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
Mark S Komrad, Ronald W Pies, Annette L Hanson, Cynthia M A Geppert
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 27, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
William McClelland, Ewan C Goligher
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Withholding or withdrawing life-sustaining therapy is generally differentiated from physician-assisted suicide or euthanasia based on the distinction between intention and foresight. We reviewed the literature surrounding the validity of this distinction. RECENT FINDINGS: Many physicians from different specialties express a perceived distinction between intention and foresight. The distinction between intention and foresight differs from the morally irrelevant distinction between doing and allowing...
December 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
Lori Seller, Marie-Ève Bouthillier, Veronique Fraser
BACKGROUND: Medical aid in dying (MAiD) was introduced in Quebec in 2015. Quebec clinical guidelines recommend that MAiD be approached as a last resort when other care options are insufficient; however, the law sets no such requirement. To date, little is known about when and how requests for MAiD are situated in the broader context of decision-making in end-of-life care; the timing of MAiD raises potential ethical issues. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of all MAiD requests between December 2015 and June 2017 at two Quebec hospitals and one long-term care centre was conducted to explore the relationship between routine end-of-life care practices and the timing of MAiD requests...
November 22, 2018: Journal of Medical Ethics
Derek Willis, Rob George
Conscience objection is a proposed way of ensuring that medical practitioners who object to physician-assisted suicide may avoid having to be involved in such a procedure if this is legalised. This right on the part of healthcare professionals already exists in certain circumstances. This paper examines the ethical and legal grounds for conscientious objection for medical professionals and shows how it is heavily criticised in circumstances where it is already used. The paper comes to the conclusion that as the grounds and application of conscience objection are no longer as widely accepted, its future application in any legislation can be called into question...
November 15, 2018: BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care
Alpo Vuorio, Tanja Laukkala, Ilkka Junttila, Robert Bor, Bruce Budowle, Eero Pukkala, Pooshan Navathe, Antti Sajantila
Pilot aircraft-assisted suicides (AAS) are rare, and there is limited understanding of copycat phenomenon among aviators. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible effect the 11 September 2001, terrorist attacks had on pilot AASs in the U.S. Fatal aviation accidents in the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) database were searched using the following search words: "suicide", "murder-suicide" and "homicide-suicide". The timeline between 11 September 1996, and 11 September 2004, was analyzed...
November 12, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
E Ávila, J C Bermejo, P Sastre, M Villacieros, R Prieto
OBJECTIVE: The Law (4/2017) on rights and guarantees of persons in the process of dying in Community of Madrid regulates the exercise of the rights of the person during this process. The main objective of this study was to determine the knowledge and preferences about palliative sedation (PS), euthanasia, physician-assisted suicide (PAS), and adequacy of the therapeutic effort (ATE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A questionnaire was designed to collect knowledge about definition and legality of detailed resources, and disposition for themselves or for a relative...
November 5, 2018: Semergen
Devin Miller, Nicole Nevadunsky
The purpose of this article is to review data supporting the benefit of palliative care, specifically for women with advanced ovarian cancer. Authors discuss barriers to implementation of palliative care, including confusion with hospice and challenges of prognostication. Generalist-level palliative techniques for treatment of pain, shortness of breath, bowel obstruction, and ascites are described. A description of physician-assisted suicide in legalized states is provided. Resources for physicians regarding communication and end-of-life decision making support for patients and their families...
December 2018: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
Pablo Requena, Antonio de Pádua Andrade Dos Santos
In the last few years, the new catch phrase ″voluntary stopping of eating and drinking″ has made its appearance in the medical and bioethical literature. The practice, whose ″primary intention″ is to hasten the death of a person who does not want to continue living, has been proposed as an alternative to euthanasia and assisted suicide. Some authors present it as a valid option from both the ethical and legal point of view arguing that it is basically a ″natural death″ in the same line as a limitation of treatment and does not involve suicide...
September 2018: Cuadernos de Bioética: Revista Oficial de la Asociación Española de Bioética y Ética Médica
Mohammad Rostami, Seyyed Jalal Younesi, Farahnaz Mohammadi Shahboulaghi, Seyed Kazem Malakouti, Mahshid Foroughan
INTRODUCTION: The rates of suicide in the elderly population are generally higher than other age groups. Models of suicide that explain the phenomenon of suicide in later life may have research, clinical and educational implications for the field of ageing. The primary purpose of this systematic review is to identify and review existing models of suicide that have a particular focus on the elderly. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The authors intend reviewing the findings of observational studies including cohort studies, cross-sectional studies, case-control studies, and qualitative studies such as grounded theory designs which are published in Google Scholar, Scopus, PsycINFO, PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and research-related journals...
October 18, 2018: BMJ Open
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