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Lucas J Leinen, Vaille A Swenson, Hope L Juntunen, Scott E McKay, Samantha M O'Hanlon, Patrick Videau, Michael O Gaylor
An essential dimension of food tasting (i.e., flavor) is olfactory stimulation by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted therefrom. Here, we developed a novel analytical method based on solid-phase microextraction (SPME) sampling in argon-filled gas sampling bags with direct gas chromatography⁻mass spectrometry (GC-MS) determination to profile the volatile constituents of 31 homemade preserves prepared in South Dakota (USA) during the period 1950⁻1953. Volatile profiles varied considerably, but generally decreased in detected compounds, complexity, and intensity over three successive 2-h SPME sampling periods...
February 13, 2019: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Eric A Lauer, Karla Armenti, Margaret Henning, Lissa Sirois
Variations in the barriers and contributors to breastfeeding across industries have not been well characterized for vulnerable populations such as mothers participating in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Our study used the Total Worker Health Framework to characterize workplace factors acting as barriers and/or contributors to breastfeeding among women participating in the New Hampshire WIC. Surveys were collected from WIC mothers ( n = 682), which asked about employment, industry, and workplace accommodation and supports related to breastfeeding in the workplace...
February 13, 2019: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Li Wang, Coucong Gong, Xinzhu Yuan, Gang Wei
Biomolecular self-assembly provides a facile way to synthesize functional nanomaterials. Due to the unique structure and functions of biomolecules, the created biological nanomaterials via biomolecular self-assembly have a wide range of applications, from materials science to biomedical engineering, tissue engineering, nanotechnology, and analytical science. In this review, we present recent advances in the synthesis of biological nanomaterials by controlling the biomolecular self-assembly from adjusting internal interactions and external stimulations...
February 18, 2019: Nanomaterials
Gloria Bellin, Chiara Gardin, Letizia Ferroni, Juan Carlos Chachques, Massimo Rogante, Dinko Mitrečić, Roberto Ferrari, Barbara Zavan
Exosomes are a subgroup of extracellular vesicles containing a huge number of bioactive molecules. They represent an important means of cell communication, mostly between different cell populations, with the purpose of maintaining tissue homeostasis and coordinating the adaptive response to stress. This type of intercellular communication is important in the cardiovascular field, mainly due to the fact that the heart is a complex multicellular system. Given the growing interest in the role of exosomes in cardiovascular diseases and the numerous studies published in the last few decades, we focused on the most relevant results about exosomes in the cardiovascular filed starting from their characterization, passing through the study of their function, and ending with perspectives for their use in cardiovascular therapies...
February 17, 2019: Cells
Aman-Ur-Rehman, Mushtaq Ahmad
Saberian and Esfandyari-Kalejahi [Phys. Rev. E 87, 053112 (2013)10.1103/PhysRevE.87.053112] have discussed Langmuir oscillations in a q-nonextensive electron-positron plasma. However, some of the results obtained and the conclusions drawn in this paper are not appropriate. In Fig. 3 of the above mentioned paper, the authors have claimed that for certain values of nonextensivity parameter q the imaginary part of the frequency becomes positive, resulting in unstable oscillations. In this Comment we shall discuss the fact that the Landau damping rate of Langmuir oscillations in a q-nonextensive electron-positron plasma is negative and results in damped oscillations...
January 2019: Physical Review. E
Katherine Ponte
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 20, 2019: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Robert P Sheridan
Most chemists would agree that the ability to interpret a Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) model is as important as the ability of the model to make accurate predictions. One type of interpretation is coloration of atoms in molecules according to the contribution of the atom to the predicted activity, as in "heat maps". The ability to determine which parts of a molecule increase the activity in question and which decrease it should be useful to chemists who want to modify the molecule...
February 19, 2019: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
T Broomhead, S R Baker
Systems science methods offer an alternative way to approach problems within Dental Public Health by encouraging the consideration of the wider systems and structures in which oral health problems exist. Through such an approach, and consideration of interacting systems over multiple hierarchical levels, it may be possible to better understand the complexity associated with oral health related outcomes, and to improve theoretical understanding of these relationships. Simulation methods associated with systems science can also be used to help model and capture these real-world problems, and to help test the interactions associated with different elements of a system...
February 19, 2019: Community Dental Health
Heidi Coy, Kevin Hsieh, Willie Wu, Mahesh B Nagarajan, Jonathan R Young, Michael L Douek, Matthew S Brown, Fabien Scalzo, Steven S Raman
PURPOSE: Currently, all solid enhancing renal masses without microscopic fat are considered malignant until proven otherwise and there is substantial overlap in the imaging findings of benign and malignant renal masses, particularly between clear cell RCC (ccRCC) and benign oncocytoma (ONC). Radiomics has attracted increased attention for its utility in pre-operative work-up on routine clinical images. Radiomics based approaches have converted medical images into mineable data and identified prognostic imaging signatures that machine learning algorithms can use to construct predictive models by learning the decision boundaries of the underlying data distribution...
February 18, 2019: Abdominal Radiology
Jingjing Shi, Shuangde Li, Fengming Wang, Lina Gao, Yanmei Li, Xiaorang Zhang, Jun Lu
Zinc cadmium sulfide solid solution (ZnxCd1-xS) photocatalysts have received significant attention in energy and environmental applications because of their wide and strong visible light absorption range. However, the high photogenerated electron-hole pair recombination rate is an innate problem for their application. In this study, Cu2S/Zn0.67Cd0.33S (CZCS) nanosheet heterojunctions were fabricated by the in situ topotactic hydrothermal transformation of CuZnCdAl layered double hydroxide (LDH) precursors. Structural and morphological characterization indicated that the CZCS nanosheets were 2D/2D atomic-level in-plane heterojunctions with matched crystalline orientation because of their intergrowth structure originating from the topotactic sulfurization of CuZnCdAl LDH precursors...
February 19, 2019: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Yuliang Cao, Matthew Li, Jun Lu, Jun Liu, Khalil Amine
Batteries have shaped much of our modern world. This success is the result of intense collaboration between academia and industry over the past several decades, culminating with the advent of and improvements in rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. As applications become more demanding, there is the risk that stunted growth in the performance of commercial batteries will slow the adoption of important technologies such as electric vehicles. Yet the scientific literature includes many reports describing material designs with allegedly superior performance...
February 18, 2019: Nature Nanotechnology
Dominique Hope Limoli, Lucas R Hoffman
Recent studies of human respiratory secretions using culture-independent techniques have found a surprisingly diverse array of microbes. Interactions among these community members can profoundly impact microbial survival, persistence and antibiotic susceptibility and, consequently, disease progression. Studies of polymicrobial interactions in the human microbiota have shown that the taxonomic and structural compositions, and resulting behaviours, of microbial communities differ substantially from those of the individual constituent species and in ways of clinical importance...
February 18, 2019: Thorax
Nicholas Kontos
Affectively uncomfortable concern, anxiety, indecisionand disputation over 'right' action are among the expressions of moral tension associated with ethical dilemmas. Moral tension is generated and experienced by people. While ethical principles, rules and situations must be worked through in any dilemma, each occurs against a backdrop of people who enact them and stand much to gain or lose depending on how they are applied and resolved. This paper attempts to develop a taxonomy of moral tension based on its intrapersonal and interpersonal sources and expressions...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Medical Ethics
X Muller, A Schlegel, M Würdinger, M Wendt, P Kron, D Eshmuminov, B Müllhaupt, P A Clavien, P Dutkowski
BACKGROUND: The new UK-DCD-Risk-Score has been recently developed to predict graft loss in DCD liver transplantation. Donor-recipient combinations with a cumulative risk of >10 points were classified as futile and achieved an impaired one-year graft survival of <40%. The aim of this study was to show, if hypothermic oxygenated perfusion (HOPE) can rescue such extended DCD livers and improve outcomes. METHODS: "Futile"-classified donor-recipient combinations were selected from our HOPE-treated human DCD liver cohort (01/2012-5/2017), with a minimum follow-up of one year...
February 15, 2019: HPB: the Official Journal of the International Hepato Pancreato Biliary Association
Holly C P Chun, Siew-Mei Skinner, Tara Rosewall
INTRODUCTION: The value of a blog as an educational tool is thought to be underestimated by health care professionals. This research aimed to explore the MRI educational utility of blogs, and to determine who was participating in writing those blogs. It was hoped that this research would increase awareness of alternative education formats that would be useful for MRI technologists. METHODS: Between March and April of 2017, an online blog search was performed using MRI-related keywords...
March 2019: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences
Adam A Dmytriw, Yuchen Zhang, Vitor Mendes Pereira
After being staggered by numerous negative trials in 2013, the interventional stroke community saw four years of vindication for mechanical thrombectomy showing efficacy and safety, even beyond a hopeful 6-8 hour window out to 24 h. A landmark set of five trials in 2015 provided a foundation upon which years of incremental follow-ups, meta-analyses and new breakthroughs would be built. With optimized devices for thrombectomy and image analysis, the neurointerventional community has turned to workflow and systemization in this new era of acute ischemic stroke treatment...
March 2019: European Journal of Radiology
Abdul Hameed, Mariya Al-Rashida, Maliha Uroos, Syeda Uroos Qazi, Sadia Naz, Marium Ishtiaq, Khalid Mohammed Khan
Urease is a nickel containing metallo-enzyme that is commonly found in different bacteria, plants, algae and fungi, and mediates the growth of many pathogenic bacteria in the acidic environment of the stomach. Despite the large number of molecules known to have excellent urease inhibitory activity, there is an alarming lack of urease inhibitor drugs on the market. Area covered: This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the different types of molecules patented as potent urease inhibitors from the year 2012 to 2018...
February 18, 2019: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
Ashok Saluja, Vikas Dudeja, Rajinder Dawra, Raghuwansh P Sah
Premature activation of digestive enzymes in the pancreas has been linked to development of pancreatitis for more than a century. Recent development of novel models to study the role of pathologic enzyme activation has led to advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of pancreatic injury. Co-localization of zymogen and lysosomal fraction occurs early after pancreatitis causing stimulus. Cathepsin B activates trypsinogen in these co-localized organelles. Active trypsin increases permeability of these organelles resulting in leakage of cathepsin B into the cytosol leading to acinar cell death...
February 15, 2019: Gastroenterology
A McDonald, J Goodwin, S Roberts, L Fish, B Vaughan, A Cooper, J Cadwgan
BACKGROUND: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a complex multisystem genetic disorder. Approximately 84% of people with TSC have epilepsy. However, there is little literature available regarding families' experiences with TSC and seizure management. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to explore families' positive and negative experiences, and attitudes towards TSC, epilepsy and medical management of seizures. METHODS: Framework analysis informed an open exploration of families' experiences with TSC, epilepsy and medical management of seizures...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
David W Green, Jolanta A Watson, Han-Sung Jung, Gregory S Watson
Living organisms are the ultimate survivalists, having evolved phenotypes with unprecedented adaptability, ingenuity, resourcefulness, and versatility compared to human technology. To harness these properties, functional descriptions and design principles from all sources of biodiversity information must be collated - including the hundreds of thousands of possible survival features manifest in natural history museum collections, which represent 12% of total global biodiversity. This requires a consortium of expert biologists from a range of disciplines to convert the observations, data, and hypotheses into the language of engineering...
February 2019: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
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