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Christine M Batikian, Ally Lu, Kayo Watanabe, Jerome Pitt, Richard M Gersberg
Imidacloprid is a widely used insecticide with high runoff potential posing a significant threat to aquatic ecosystems. In order to determine the spatial and temporal concentrations of imidacloprid in Forester Creek, a tributary to the San Diego River, surface water samples were collected from two sites under wet-weather and dry-weather conditions. Solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry were utilized to quantify imidacloprid levels in all samples. Imidacloprid was detected with 100% frequency in surface water samples from Forester Creek with a median concentration of 16...
February 2, 2019: Chemosphere
Carly Hyland, Asa Bradman, Roy Gerona, Sharyle Patton, Igor Zakharevich, Robert B Gunier, Kendra Klein
BACKGROUND: Previous diet intervention studies indicate that an organic diet can reduce urinary pesticide metabolite excretion; however, they have largely focused on organophosphate (OP) pesticides. Knowledge gaps exist regarding the impact of an organic diet on exposure to other pesticides, including pyrethroids and neonicotinoids, which are increasing in use in the United States and globally. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of an organic diet intervention on levels of insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides or their metabolites in urine collected from adults and children...
January 29, 2019: Environmental Research
Ruoheng Jin, Kaikai Mao, Xun Liao, Pengfei Xu, Zhao Li, Ehsan Ali, Hu Wan, Jianhong Li
The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), is one of the most economically important rice pests in Asia and has become resistant to various kinds of insecticides, including neonicotinoid insecticides. In this study, an N. lugens clothianidin-resistant (CLR) strain and a susceptible (CLS) strain were established, and the potential resistance mechanisms of N. lugens to clothianidin were elucidated. The cross-resistance studies showed that the clothianidin-resistant strain exhibited cross-resistance to most neonicotinoid insecticides, especially nitenpyram (99...
February 2019: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Jason A Wulff, Mahnaz Kiani, Karly Regan, Micky D Eubanks, Adrianna Szczepaniec
Neonicotinoids are widely used systemic insecticides that have been associated with spider mite outbreaks on diverse plants. These insecticides have complex effects on plant physiology, which have been speculated to drive enhanced performance of spider mites. We used RNA-Seq to explore how neonicotinoids modify gene expression in soybean thereby lowering plant resistance. We exposed soybean ( Glycine max L.) to two neonicotinoid insecticides, thiamethoxam applied to seeds and imidacloprid applied as a soil drench, and we exposed a subset of these plants to spider mites ( Tetranychus cinnabarinus )...
February 12, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Yuanchen Chen, Lu Zang, Guofeng Shen, Maodian Liu, Wei Du, Jie Fei, Liyang Yang, Long Chen, Xuejun Wang, Weiping Liu, Meirong Zhao
Neonicotinoid insecticides have been widely consumed worldwide, particularly in China. There is a growing interest in the environmental research community about the occurrence, fates, sources, and risks of neonicotinoids. Nine neonicotinoids in river/lake water were measured at 12 sites along the Yangtze River Basin during the dry and wet seasons in 2016, and nonpoint sources were also identified based on a modified mass balance method. Significantly higher concentration of neonicotinoids was found during the dry season probably due to dilution effect and insecticide consumption...
February 13, 2019: Environmental Science & Technology
Muhammad Saad Waqas, Lixin Qian, Ali Ahmed Zaky Shoaib, Xinlai Cheng, Qianqian Zhang, Asem Saad Saad Elabasy, Zuhua Shi
Acetamiprid and imidacloprid are two important neonicotinoid insecticides that are widely utilized under field conditions for the management of sucking insect pests, including the solenopsis mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). Although some information is available regarding their lethal effects, nothing is currently known about the sublethal effects of these insecticides. We, therefore, performed a series of experiments to test the lethal and sublethal effects of these chemicals on oviposition duration and fecundity...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Economic Entomology
Chengyu Chen, Tisheng Shan, Ying Liu, Cuicui Wang, Xueyan Shi, Xiwu Gao
Insect cytochrome P450 monooxygenases played an important role in detoxifying insecticides which potentially contributed to the metabolic resistance to insecticides. Bradysia odoriphaga, as a major pest of Chinese chive, was reported to be highly tolerant to neonicotinoid insecticides imidacloprid. In this study, a novel P450 gene, CYP6FV12, was cloned from B. odoriphaga. The full-length cDNA sequence of CYP6FV12 is 2520 bp long and its open reading frame (ORF) encodes 519 amino acids. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that the highest expression of CYP6FV12 was observed in fourth-instar larvae, which is 154...
January 2019: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Ségolène Humann-Guilleminot, Sarah Clément, Julia Desprat, Łukasz J Binkowski, Gaétan Glauser, Fabrice Helfenstein
The massive use of neonicotinoid insecticides has been repeatedly incriminated for their impacts to avian populations. Some studies have reported contamination of granivorous birds by neonicotinoids but very little is known about exposure to neonicotinoids in other bird species. To fill this lack of knowledge, we trapped house sparrows Passer domesticus, an omnivorous bird whose diet is composed of both grains and insects, and we collected 617 feathers from individuals living on 47 conventional, integrated-production (IP-Suisse) and organic farms distributed all over the Swiss plateau, the country's main agricultural area...
April 10, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Iria González-Mariño, Isaac Rodríguez, Lorena Rojo, Rafael Cela
The photodegradation of the neonicotinoid insecticide nitenpyram (NPY) under UV and solar irradiation has been investigated in water solutions in order to assess its persistence in the environment and its transformation into other potentially more toxic species. Time-courses were followed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Transformation products (TPs) were identified by their accurate product ion spectra, obtained with a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer after their liquid chromatographic separation...
December 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Chunyan Hao, Margaret L Eng, Fengrong Sun, Christy A Morrissey
Neonicotinoids are the most widely used class of insecticides in the world, and there are increasing concerns about their effects on non-target organisms. Analytical methods to diagnose exposure to neonicotinoids in wildlife are still very limited, particularly for small animals such as songbirds. Blood can be used as a non-lethal sampling matrix, but the sample volume is limited by body size. Neonicotinoids have a low bioaccumulation potential and are rapidly metabolized, therefore, sensitive assays are critically needed to reliably detect their residues in blood samples...
December 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Xiaoyu Cheng, Fanchi Li, Jian Chen, Hui Wang, Tingting Mao, Jinxin Li, Jiahuan Hu, Bing Li
BACKGROUND: Neonicotinoid insecticides are widely used in the prevention and control of pests in agriculture and forestry, but they can also affect the development of nontarget economic insects. In order to determine the effects of trace acetamiprid on the development of reproductive system of silkworm, we studied the gonad development and endogenous hormone metabolism in silkworms exposed to trace acetamiprid. RESULT: The silkworm showed mild poisoning symptoms after being exposed to trace acetamiprid (0...
February 10, 2019: Pest Management Science
Xue Ma, Huizhen Li, Jingjing Xiong, W Tyler Mehler, Jing You
Agricultural use of neonicotinoid insecticides is increasing worldwide, posing a risk to non-target organisms. The present study investigated developmental toxicity of a widely used neonicotinoid, acetamiprid, to zebrafish embryos. Sub-lethal (malformations, hatchability, heart rate, body length, alteration of spontaneous movement and touch responses) and lethal effects were monitored during exposure period from 6 h post fertilization (hpf) to 120 hpf. Zebrafish embryos exhibited significant mortality and teratogenic effects at acetamiprid concentration greater than 263 mg/L, with bent spine being the main malformation...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Melanie Raby, Erin Maloney, David G Poirier, Paul K Sibley
Receiving waters from agricultural areas can contain multiple pesticides such as the neonicotinoid imidacloprid and the fungicide tebuconazole, leading to the potential for aquatic life to be exposed to such mixtures. In the present study, the effects of tebuconazole were tested alone and in binary mixtures with imidacloprid on four aquatic invertebrates: Chironomus dilutus, Hyalella azteca, Lumbriculus variegatus, and Neocloeon triangulifer. Acute (96-h) LC50s were derived for individual compounds and used to design a binary mixture study to determine cumulative effects...
February 6, 2019: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Eduardo C Reynoso, Eduardo Torres, Francesca Bettazzi, Ilaria Palchetti
Pesticides, due to their intensive use and their peculiar chemical features, can persist in the environment and enter the trophic chain, thus representing an environmental risk for the ecosystems and human health. Although there are several robust and reliable standard analytical techniques for their monitoring, the high frequency of contamination caused by pesticides requires methods for massive monitoring campaigns that are capable of rapidly detecting these compounds in many samples of different origin. Immunosensors represent a potential tool for simple, rapid, and sensitive monitoring of pesticides...
February 4, 2019: Biosensors
Jesse Radolinski, Junxue Wu, Kang Xia, W Cully Hession, Ryan D Stewart
Neonicotinoid insecticides provide crop protection via water solubility and systemicity, yet these chemical characteristics, combined with high toxicity to non-target invertebrates (e.g., honeybees), elicit concern of environmental transport. Neonicotinoids have been detected in soil and surface water throughout North America; however, no investigation has defined a direct connection to planted seed dressings. We quantified the physical transport of thiamethoxam (TMX), a neonicotinoid, under field conditions...
January 28, 2019: Chemosphere
Katherine Beadle, Kumar Saurabh Singh, Bartlomiej J Troczka, Emma Randall, Marion Zaworra, Christoph T Zimmer, Angela Hayward, Rebecca Reid, Laura Kor, Maxie Kohler, Benjamin Buer, David R Nelson, Martin S Williamson, T G Emyr Davies, Linda M Field, Ralf Nauen, Chris Bass
The impact of pesticides on the health of bee pollinators is determined in part by the capacity of bee detoxification systems to convert these compounds to less toxic forms. For example, recent work has shown that cytochrome P450s of the CYP9Q subfamily are critically important in defining the sensitivity of honey bees and bumblebees to pesticides, including neonicotinoid insecticides. However, it is currently unclear if solitary bees have functional equivalents of these enzymes with potentially serious implications in relation to their capacity to metabolise certain insecticides...
February 4, 2019: PLoS Genetics
Verena Christen, Maren Susanne Vogel, Timm Hettich, Karl Fent
The insect yolk precursor vitellogenin is a lipoglycoprotein synthesised and stored in the fat body and secreted into the hemolymph. In honey bees, vitellogenin displays crucial functions in hormone signalling, behavioural transition of nurse bees to foragers, stress resistance and longevity in workers. Plant protection products (PPPs) such as neonicotinoids, pyrethroids and organophosphate alter transcriptional expression of vitellogenin. To assess PPP-induced alterations on protein level, we developed a rabbit polyclonal vitellogenin antibody...
February 4, 2019: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Anna Jurado, Marc Walther, M Silvia Díaz-Cruz
This paper aims to review the existing occurrence data in Spanish groundwater (GW) for the emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) defined in the surface water Watch Lists of Decisions 2015/495/EU and 2018/840/EU since these contaminants are likely to reach GW bodies because surface waters show close interaction with GW. These two lists include 20 substances: 9 pesticides (5 neonicotinoids, 2 carbamates, 1 oxadiazole and 1 semicarbazone), 6 pharmaceuticals (diclofenac and 5 antibiotics), 3 estrogens, 1 UV filter (2-ethylhexyl-4-methoxycinnamate, EHMC) and 1 antioxidant (2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol, BHT)...
January 23, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Marta Gaweł, Tomasz Kiljanek, Alicja Niewiadowska, Stanisław Semeniuk, Milena Goliszek, Olga Burek, Andrzej Posyniak
Current work presents a modified QuEChERS method for the determination of 207 pesticide residues in honey by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS. Acetate buffered acetonitrile extraction with Z-Sep+ and PSA dispersive-SPE clean-up were used for sample preparation. Optimised conditions allows determination of neonicotinoids as well as other insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, acaricides, growth regulators and veterinary drugs in honey samples. Validated method enable sensitive analysis at least at concentrations from 0...
June 1, 2019: Food Chemistry
Emiliane Taillebois, Alison Cartereau, Andrew K Jones, Steeve H Thany
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are the main target of neonicotinoid insecticides, which are widely used in crop protection against insect pests. Electrophysiological and molecular approaches have demonstrated the presence of several nAChR subtypes with different affinities for neonicotinoid insecticides. However, the precise mode of action of neonicotinoids on insect nAChRs remains to be elucidated. Radioligand binding studies with [3 H]-α-bungarotoxin and [3 H]-imidacloprid have proved instructive in understanding ligand binding interactions between insect nAChRs and neonicotinoid insecticides...
October 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
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