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Hui Liu, Yaqing Wang, Yue Yu, Wenwen Chen, Lei Jiang, Jianhua Qin
Sodium alginate (NaA) has been widely used as microfiber-based scaffold material. However, Ca-alginate microfiber might disintegrate in the physiological environment due to the loss of calcium ions, which will limit its long-term application in tissue engineering. In this work, to enhance the stability of Ca-alginate microfiber in the physiological environment, an inner chitosan coating was introduced to Ca-alginate hollow microfiber by one step via a microfluidic device. A more stable composite microfiber with double cross-linking layers was generated...
February 19, 2019: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Ashley R Cross, Joanna B Goldberg
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that causes chronic lung infections in people with cystic fibrosis (CF). Chronic P. aeruginosa isolates generally do not express O antigen and often have a mucoid phenotype, which is characterized by the overproduction of the exopolysaccharide alginate. Therefore, O antigen expression and the mucoid phenotype may be coordinately regulated upon chronic adaption to the CF lung. Here we demonstrate that PDO300, a mucoid strain derived from the nonmucoid laboratory isolate PAO1, does not produce very long O antigen due to decreased expression of Wzz2, the very long O antigen chain length control protein, and that mucoid clinical isolates express reduced levels of Wzz2 compared to nonmucoid isolates...
February 19, 2019: MBio
Takashi Okanda, Ryo Takahashi, Tomoko Ehara, Kiyofumi Ohkusu, Nobuhiko Furuya, Tetsuya Matsumoto
INTRODUCTION: Biofilm formation is an important issue in the healthcare industry, but conventional disinfectants are not effective for biofilms formed in the hospital environment and on medical instruments. In this study, aim at determine the effectiveness of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) on biofilm removal and the disinfection of biofilm-forming Pseudomonas aeruginosa. METHODS: Mucoid and non-mucoid strains were used for biofilm formation. Biofilms were incubated with SAEW and the reduction in biofilm volume was determined based on the optical density...
February 16, 2019: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Kiira Susanna Vuoristo, Lasse Fredriksen, Maren Oftebro, Magnus Øverlie Arntzen, Olav Andreas Aarstad, Runar Stokke, Ida H Steen, Line Degn Hansen, Reidar Barfod Schüller, Finn Lillelund Aachmann, Svein J Horn, Vincent G H Eijsink
Enzymatic depolymerization of seaweed polysaccharides is gaining interest for the production of functional oligosaccharides and fermentable sugars. We describe a thermostable alginate lyase belonging to Polysaccharide Lyase family 7 (PL7), which can be used to degrade brown seaweed, Saccharina latissima, at conditions also suitable for a commercial cellulase cocktail (Cellic CTec2). This enzyme, AMOR_PL7A, is a β-D-mannuronate specific (EC endo-acting alginate lyase, which degrades alginate and poly-mannuronate within a broad range of pH, temperature and salinity...
February 20, 2019: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Mouhamad Khoder, Henry K Gbormoi, Ali Ryan, Ayman Karam, Raid G Alany
In this study, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and alginate (ALG) conjugates were synthesized by the Maillard reaction in order to evaluate their potential to develop controlled release drug delivery systems. The progress of the Maillard reaction was evidenced using ultraviolet (UV) absorbance, determination of BSA remaining free amino groups, and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). BSA-ALG conjugates possessed enhanced and tunable viscosity, foamability and foam stability. Foam generated from BSA-ALG conjugate solution was used to prepare floating gastroretentive calcium ALG beads...
February 15, 2019: Pharmaceutics
Benlee Yap, Anna Kontos, Yvonne Pamula, James Martin, Declan Kennedy, Wayne Sampson, Craig Dreyer
BACKGROUND: Residual snoring in children with obstructive sleep disordered breathing (SDB) may continue post-adenotonsillectomy. This study aims to identify baseline dentofacial differences in children with SDB using routine orthodontic records that might aid effective early intervention for the upper airway to prevent continued obstruction. METHODS: Children (6-16 years) with clinically diagnosed SDB from a paediatric Otolaryngology Clinic who required adenotonsillectomy were participants (n = 10)...
January 6, 2019: Sleep Medicine
Liguo Shen, Yicheng Zhang, Weiming Yu, Renjie Li, Minglei Wang, Qianhong Gao, Jianxi Li, Hongjun Lin
This study proposed a novel strategy to improve performance of inherently hydrophobic poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membrane. The proposed strategy combined radiation grafting of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and electroless nickel plating. After a 5 min plating by using this modification strategy, the water contact angle of the modified membrane decreased from 75.5° to 47.1°, and water content ratio increased from 61.4% to 109.9%. The modified PVDF-g-PAA-Ag@Ni membrane presented 100% flux recovery and reduced fouling propensity when filtrating 0...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Jie Zhang, Jihong Hu, Datong Wu, Jianfeng Ma, Yongxin Tao, Yong Qin, Yong Kong
Sodium alginate (SA) was electrodeposited onto the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE), and then l-lysine (l-Lys), l-alanine (l-Ala) and l-cysteine (l-Cys) were simultaneously introduced to the surface of SA via electrostatic attractions. γ-MnO2 film was deposited potentiostatically onto the multi-templates immobilized SA from an aqueous mixture of K2 SO4 and MnSO4 . The templates of l-Lys, l-Ala and l-Cys were then oxidized and removed by cyclic voltammetry (CV) while maintaining the crystalline structures of SA and MnO2 ...
February 16, 2019: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Cao Jin, Cheng Jin, Xi Siyu, Qi Xueyong, Shen Song, Ge Yanru
Targeted delivery of bioactive compounds such as proteins to the colon has numerous advantages for the therapeutic treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. The present study sought to fabricate alginate/chitosan microcapsules containing IL-1Ra (Alg/Chi/IL-1Ra MC) via a single-step electrospraying method. Two important factors of efficacy were measured-the pH-responsiveness of the microcapsule and the in-vitro drug release profile. The DSS-induced colitis mouse model was used to evaluate the therapeutic effect of the Alg/Chi/IL-1Ra microcapsules, with results showing the protective effect of the Alg/Chi microcapsules for the passage of IL-1Ra through the harsh environment of the upper gastrointestinal tract...
February 16, 2019: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Jacob Witten, Tahoura Samad, Katharina Ribbeck
Binding of small molecules to mucus membranes in the body has an important role in human health, as it can affect the diffusivity and activity of any molecule that acts in a mucosal environment. The binding of drugs, and of toxins and signaling molecules from mucosal pathogens, is of particular clinical interest. Despite the importance of mucus-small molecule binding, there is a lack of data revealing the precise chemical features of small molecules that lead to mucus binding. We developed a novel equilibrium dialysis assay to measure the binding of libraries of small molecules to mucin and other mucus components, substantially increasing the throughput of small molecule binding measurements...
February 19, 2019: Biomacromolecules
Oju Jeon, Yu Bin Lee, Thomas J Hinton, Adam W Feinberg, Eben Alsberg
Cell-laden microgels have been used as tissue building blocks to create three-dimensional (3D) tissues and organs. However, traditional assembly methods can not be used to fabricate functional tissue constructs with biomechanical and structural complexity. In this study, we present directed assembly of cell-laden dual-crosslinkable alginate microgels comprised of oxidized and methacrylated alginate (OMA). Cell-laden OMA microgels can be directly assembled into well-defined 3D shapes and structures under low-level ultraviolet light...
June 2019: Materials today. Chemistry
Luane Ferreira Garcia, Monike Fabiane Alves Ribeiro Lacerda, Douglas Vieira Thomaz, Jhéssica Cavalcante de Souza Golveia, Maria das Graças Cabral Pereira, Eric de Souza Gil, Fernando Schimidt, Mariângela Fontes Santiago
Laccase extract (LE) from Pycnoporus sanguineus was immobilized on calcium and copper alginate-chitosan beads and applied for the removal of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2). Effects of immobilization conditions such as: sodium alginate (SA) concentration; LE/SA ratio and chitosan/ion (Ca+2 or Cu+2 ) ratio on the immobilization yield were investigated. Immobilized LE on Ca-beads and Cu-beads was then used to degrade an EE2 solution. The optimal conditions for LE immobilization on Ca-beads were: 1.5% (w/v) SA, 1:5 (v/v) LE/SA and 3:7 (v/v) chitosan/ion (Ca+2 )...
February 19, 2019: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
Zhilu Rao, Shumin Liu, Ruiyue Wu, Guanglin Wang, Zhixiang Sun, Liangjiu Bai, Wenxiang Wang, Hou Chen, Huawei Yang, Donglei Wei, Yuzhong Niu
In this manuscript, dual network self-healing alginate/guar gum hydrogels with polydopamine-type microcapsules from mesoporous silica nanoparticles were facilely prepared through one-pot method. Glutaraldehyde (GA) was used as a crosslinking agent to crosslink guar gum and sodium alginate, respectively. Metal-ligand interactions as reversible non-covalent bond make the dual network hydrogels have a high degree of self-healing ability, which FeCl3 ·6H2 O was coordinated with sodium alginate and polydopamine on the surface of microcapsules, respectively...
February 15, 2019: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Justyna Kozłowska, Weronika Prus, Natalia Stachowiak
Most peeling products (exfoliators) available on the market, used in cosmetic and aesthetic dermatology applications, contain synthetic microbeads as abrasive agents. After being released into the natural environment, these non-biodegradable microparticles have an adverse impact on it, especially on aquatic ecosystems. Cosmetics consisting of solid plastic particles will be prohibited in the European Union from 2020. Therefore, there is a great need to develop effective abrasive substances for cosmetic industry...
February 15, 2019: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Insup Noh, Nahye Kim, Hao Nguyen Tran, Jaehoo Lee, Chibum Lee
Background: After recognition of 3D printing and injectable hydrogel as a critical issue in tissue/organ engineering and regenerative medicine society, many hydrogels as bioinks have been developed worldwide by using polymeric biomaterials such as gelatin, alginate, hyaluronic acid and others. Even though some gels have shown good performances in 3D bioprinting, still their performances do not meet the requirements enough to be used as a bioink in tissue engineering. Method: In this study, a hydrogel consisting of three biocompatible biomaterials such as hyaluronic acid (HA), hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA) and gelatin-methacryloyl, i...
2019: Biomaterials Research
Chih-Yao Chui, Andrea Bonilla-Brunner, Jacob Seifert, Sonia Contera, Hua Ye
Alginate microbeads are extensively used in tissue engineering as microcarriers and cell encapsulation vessels. In this study, we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) based indentation using 20 µm colloidal probes to assess the local reduced elastic modulus (E * ) using a novel method to detect the contact point based on the principle of virtual work, to measure microbead mechanical stability under cell culture conditions for 2 weeks. The bead diameter and swelling were assessed in parallel. Alginate beads swelled up to 150% of their original diameter following addition of cell culture media...
January 30, 2019: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Xiaoyi Xu, Hang Zhou, Xi Chen, Bin Wang, Zhaoxia Jin, Fangying Ji
A strain KL (Klebsiella sp.), with a high polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) degradation efficiency, was isolated and purified. Immobilization of strain KL using a boric acid-CaCl2 cross-linking method based on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-sodium alginate (SA)-nano alumina (ALNPs) composite was investigated for removal of phenanthrene (PHE), fluoranthene (FLA), and pyrene (PYR) in soil washing effluent. The concentration of PVA, SA, and ALNPs in immobilized beads had significant effects on the physicochemical properties and biodegradation performance...
February 1, 2019: Chemosphere
Michail E Klontzas, Supachai Reakasame, Raquel Silva, Jose C F Morais, Spyros Vernardis, Robert J MacFarlane, Manolis Heliotis, Eleftherios Tsiridis, Nicki Panoskaltsis, Aldo R Boccaccini, Athanasios Mantalaris
Oxidized alginate hydrogels are appealing alternatives to natural alginate due to their favourable biodegradability profiles and capacity to self-crosslink with amine containing molecules facilitating functionalization with extracellular matrix cues, which enable modulation of stem cell fate, achieve highly viable 3-D cultures, and promote cell growth. Stem cell metabolism is at the core of cellular fate (proliferation, differentiation, death) and metabolomics provides global metabolic signatures representative of cellular status, being able to accurately identify the quality of stem cell differentiation...
February 14, 2019: Acta Biomaterialia
Alireza Shahin-Shamsabadi, P Ravi Selvaganapathy
Bioprinting is rapidly developing to be a powerful tool in tissue engineering for both whole tissue printing and development of in vitro models that can be used in drug discovery, toxicology and as in vitro bioreactors. Nevertheless, the ability to create complex 3D culture systems with different types of cells, extracellular matrices integrated with perfusable channels has been a challenge. Here we develop an approach that combines xurography of a scaffold material (cellulose) with extrusion printing of bioinks on it, followed by assembly in a layer by layer fashion to create complex 3D culture systems that could be used as in vitro models of biological processes...
February 15, 2019: Biofabrication
Zhihua Chai, Lixiao Ma, Ruiting Meng, Shan Liu, Yanxia Wang
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were prepared by a solvothermal method using sodium alginate (SA) as both, the reductant and stabilizer. The formation of SA-AuNPs was confirmed by UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. SA-AuNPs were functionalized with fluorescent 3-(dansylamino)phenylboronic acid (DAPB) moieties, through interactions between boronic acids and diol groups. The fluorescence resonance energy transfer from DAPB to AuNPs quenched the fluorescence of DAPB...
February 7, 2019: Carbohydrate Research
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