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Memory Clinic

Dara S Manoach, Robert Stickgold
There is overwhelming evidence that sleep is crucial for memory consolidation. Patients with schizophrenia and their unaffected relatives have a specific deficit in sleep spindles, a defining oscillation of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) Stage 2 sleep that, in coordination with other NREM oscillations, mediate memory consolidation. In schizophrenia, the spindle deficit correlates with impaired sleep-dependent memory consolidation, positive symptoms, and abnormal thalamocortical connectivity. These relations point to dysfunction of the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), which generates spindles, gates the relay of sensory information to the cortex, and modulates thalamocortical communication...
February 20, 2019: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
András Salamon, Péter Faragó, Viola Luca Németh, Noémi Szépfalusi, Emese Horváth, Andrea Vass, Zsuzsanna Bereczky, János Tajti, László Vécsei, Péter Klivényi, Dénes Zádori
Hereditary hemorrhagic teleangiectasia (HHT, Osler-Rendu-Weber disease) is an autosomal dominantly inherited disorder caused by the mutation of several possible genes and characterized by malformations of the arteriovenous system in multiple organs. The clinical diagnosis is based on the Curaçao criteria ((1) spontaneous, recurrent epistaxis; (2) teleangiectasias in characteristic sites (lips, oral cavity, nose, fingers); (3) visceral lesions (gastrointestinal, pulmonary, cerebral, spinal); (4) affected first degree relative)...
January 30, 2019: Ideggyógyászati Szemle
Yasuyuki Honjo, Hajime Takechi
BACKGROUND: Early detection and diagnosis is critical in enhancing treatment outcomes for those with cognitive disease. However, most Japanese patients are averse to visiting mental health clinics or taking cognitive screening examinations. A new simple screening test is needed that is acceptable to patients and encourages them to visit a memory clinic if indicated. METHODS: We developed a brief screening examination, consisting of four common Japanese old stories, for detection of cognitive disease...
February 20, 2019: Psychogeriatrics: the Official Journal of the Japanese Psychogeriatric Society
Clémence Tomadesso, Julie Gonneaud, Stéphanie Egret, Audrey Perrotin, Alice Pélerin, Robin de Flores, Vincent de la Sayette, Béatrice Desgranges, Gaël Chételat, Renaud La Joie
Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is a clinical entity with various potential etiologies including but not limited to Alzheimer's disease. We examined whether a positive ([18F]Florbetapir) beta amyloid positron emission tomography scan, supporting underlying Alzheimer's disease pathophysiology, was associated with specific memory deficits in 48 patients with aMCI (33 beta amyloid positive, 15 beta amyloid negative). Memory was evaluated using an autobiographical fluency task and a word-list learning task with 2 different encoding types (shallow/incidental versus deep/intentional)...
January 31, 2019: Neurobiology of Aging
Johanna Breuer, Tilman Schneider-Hohendorf, Patrick Ostkamp, Sebastian Herich, Sanjay Rakhade, Irina Antonijevic, Luisa Klotz, Heinz Wiendl, Nicholas Schwab
Integrin α2β1, also known as Very Late Antigen (VLA)-2, is a collagen-binding molecule expressed constitutively on platelets. Vatelizumab, a monoclonal antibody targeting the α2 subunit (CD49b) of VLA-2, was recently investigated for its safety and efficacy during a Phase 2 clinical study in multiple sclerosis patients, as integrin-mediated collagen binding at the site of inflammation is central to a number of downstream pro-inflammatory events. In the course of this study, we could show that VLA-2 is expressed ex vivo on platelets, platelet-T-cell aggregates, as well as a small population of highly activated memory T cells...
February 19, 2019: International Immunology
Yan-Hong Meng, Pan-Pan Wang, Ya-Xue Song, Jian-Hua Wang
Recently, several randomized controlled trials on the use of cholinesterase inhibitors or memantine as treatments for cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (CIND-PD), Parkinson's disease with dementia (PDD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) were completed. The present study provided a meta-analysis of these studies to evaluate the efficacy of cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine on CIND-PD, PDD and DLB. The Cochrane Library, Pubmed, Embase and Web of Science databases were searched to retrieve eligible studies...
March 2019: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Joseph E Dunsmoor, Marijn C W Kroes, Jian Li, Nathaniel D Daw, Helen B Simpson, Elizabeth A Phelps
Standard fear extinction relies on the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) to form a new memory given the omission of threat. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in humans, we investigated whether replacing threat with novel neutral outcomes (instead of just omitting threat) facilitates extinction by engaging the vmPFC more effectively than standard extinction. Computational modeling of associability (indexing surprise strength and dynamically modulating learning rates) characterized skin conductance responses (SCR) and vmPFC activity during novelty-facilitated but not standard extinction...
February 19, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Lei Si, John A Eisman, Tania Winzenberg, Kerrie M Sanders, Jacqueline R Center, Tuan V Nguyen, Andrew J Palmer
INTRODUCTION: Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease that is characterised by reduced bone strength and increased fracture risk. Osteoporosis-related fractures impose enormous disease and economic burden to the society. Although many treatments and health interventions are proven effective to prevent fractures, health economic evaluation adds evidence to their economic merits. Computer simulation modelling is a useful approach to extrapolate clinical and economic outcomes from clinical trials and it is increasingly used in health economic evaluation...
February 18, 2019: BMJ Open
Maximilian Kiebs, René Hurlemann, Julian Mutz
INTRODUCTION: Non-surgical brain stimulation techniques may be considered as alternative or add-on treatments for patients with major depressive disorder who failed to respond to pharmacological interventions. Electroconvulsive therapy has been shown to be highly effective in reducing depressive symptoms but stakeholders remain concerned about adverse cognitive effects. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation may be associated with more benign adverse effect profiles and may indeed improve certain cognitive functions such as memory and attention...
February 19, 2019: BMJ Open
Kasim L Qureshi, Rachel Upthegrove, Emma Toman, Vijay Sawlani, David James Davies, Antonio Belli
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a large civilian population with traumatic brain injury (TBI), and to assess whether brain injury severity is correlated with PTSD symptoms. DESIGN: Observational, cross-sectional study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Outpatient clinic in a major UK trauma centre and secondary care hospital. Estimates of PTSD prevalence are based on 171 sampled individuals attending TBI clinic within an 18-month period...
February 19, 2019: BMJ Open
Jolien Janssen, Paula S Koekkoek, Geert-Jan Biessels, Jaap L Kappelle, Guy E H M Rutten
OBJECTIVES: To assess changes in depressive symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) after screening for cognitive impairment in people with type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study, part of the Cognitive Impairment in Diabetes (Cog-ID) study. SETTING: Participants were screened for cognitive impairment in primary care. People suspected of cognitive impairment (screen positives) received a standardised evaluation at a memory clinic...
January 17, 2019: BMJ Open
Ariane Ballard, Christelle Khadra, Samara Adler, Evelyne D Trottier, Benoit Bailey, Naveen Poonai, Jean Théroux, Sylvie Le May
INTRODUCTION: Needle-related procedures are considered as the most important source of pain and distress in children in hospital settings. Considering the physiological and psychological consequences that could result from these procedures, management of pain and distress through pharmacological and non-pharmacological methods is essential. Therefore, it is important to have interventions that are rapid, easy-to-use and likely to be translated into clinical practice for routine use. The aim of this study will be to determine whether a device combining cold and vibration (Buzzy) is non-inferior to a topical anaesthetic (liposomal lidocaine 4% cream) for pain management of children undergoing needle-related procedures in the emergency department...
January 15, 2019: BMJ Open
Véronique Latreille, Kim C Willment, Rani A Sarkis, Milena Pavlova
Obstructive sleep apnea affects up to 30% of patients with epilepsy. As obstructive sleep apnea represents a clinical risk factor for cognitive deficits, its occurrence in epilepsy patients may exacerbate cognitive deficits associated with this condition. However, the cognitive burden of obstructive sleep apnea in epilepsy remains poorly understood. We conducted a retrospective record review of adults with epilepsy who underwent a polysomnography and a neuropsychological assessment at Brigham and Women's Hospital...
February 18, 2019: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
Elien Vanderveren, Patricia Bijttebier, Dirk Hermans
Autobiographical memories consist of different features that have been shown to relate to psychological well-being and psychopathology. Two such characteristics show quite some overlap, namely memory coherence and memory specificity, although their association has never been investigated before. In this study, we examined the association between memory coherence and memory specificity in a sample of first-year psychology students. Additionally, to gain more insight into the relation between memory coherence and psychopathology, we investigated the association with known correlates of memory specificity, namely internalizing symptoms and rumination...
February 8, 2019: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Mitzi M Gonzales, Ramon A Durazo-Arvizu, Shruti Sachdeva, Terry G Unterman, Matthew J O'Brien, Linda C Gallo, Gregory A Talavera, Robert C Kaplan, Jianwen Cai, Neil Schneiderman, Rebeca A Espinoza Giacinto, Hector M González, Martha L Daviglus, Melissa Lamar
AIMS: Insulin resistance (IR) adversely impacts memory and executive functioning in non-Hispanic whites without diabetes. Less is known in Hispanics/Latinos, despite the fact that Hispanics/Latinos have higher rates of insulin resistance than non-Hispanic whites. We investigated the association between IR and cognition and its variation by age. METHODS: Data from 5,987 participants 45-74 years old without diabetes from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos...
February 16, 2019: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Anya Topiwala, Sana Suri, Charlotte Allan, Vyara Valkanova, Nicola Filippini, Claire E Sexton, Verena Heise, Enikő Zsoldos, Abda Mahmood, Archana Singh-Manoux, Clare E Mackay, Mika Kivimäki, Klaus P Ebmeier
BACKGROUND: There is significant heterogeneity in the clinical expression of structural brain abnormalities, including Alzheimer's disease biomarkers. Some individuals preserve their memory despite the presence of risk factors or pathological brain changes, indicating resilience. We aimed to test whether resilient individuals could be distinguished from those who develop cognitive impairment, using sociodemographic variables and neuroimaging. METHODS: We included 550 older adults participating in the Whitehall II study with longitudinal data, cognitive test results, and multi-modal MRI...
2019: PloS One
Talar W Markossian, Holly J Kramer, Nicholas J Burge, Ivan V Pacold, David J Leehey, Zhiping Huo, Julia Schneider, Benjamin Ling, Kevin T Stroupe
INTRODUCTION: The benefits of statin medications in patients receiving maintenance dialysis remains controversial and clinical trials overall have shown no benefit. Potential side effects of statin medications include myalgias, myopathy, and memory loss and risk of side effects associated with statin medications increase with higher statin doses. We examined statin use and statin dose among Veterans with dialysis dependent CKD. Such information may help clinicians modulate medication use and reduce pill burden in appropriate patients...
February 19, 2019: Hemodialysis International
Matthew G Hanna, Victor E Reuter, Meera R Hameed, Lee K Tan, Sarah Chiang, Carlie Sigel, Travis Hollmann, Dilip Giri, Jennifer Samboy, Carlos Moradel, Andrea Rosado, John R Otilano, Christine England, Lorraine Corsale, Evangelos Stamelos, Yukako Yagi, Peter J Schüffler, Thomas Fuchs, David S Klimstra, S Joseph Sirintrapun
Whole slide imaging is Food and Drug Administration-approved for primary diagnosis in the United States of America; however, relatively few pathology departments in the country have fully implemented an enterprise wide digital pathology system enabled for primary diagnosis. Digital pathology has significant potential to transform pathology practice with several published studies documenting some level of diagnostic equivalence between digital and conventional systems. However, whole slide imaging also has significant potential to disrupt pathology practice, due to the differences in efficiency of manipulating digital images vis-à-vis glass slides, and studies on the efficiency of actual digital pathology workload are lacking...
February 18, 2019: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
Scott Ayton, Yamin Wang, Ibrahima Diouf, Julie A Schneider, John Brockman, Martha Clare Morris, Ashley I Bush
Cortical iron has been shown to be elevated in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the impact of the directly measured iron on the clinical syndrome has not been assessed. We investigated the association between post-mortem iron levels with the clinical and pathological diagnosis of AD, its severity, and the rate of cognitive decline in the 12 years prior to death in subjects from the Memory and Aging Project (n = 209). Iron was elevated (β [SE] = 9.7 [2.6]; P = 3.0 × 10-4 ) in the inferior temporal cortex only in subjects who were diagnosed with clinical AD during life and had a diagnosis of AD confirmed post-mortem by standardized criteria...
February 18, 2019: Molecular Psychiatry
L S Chutko, A V Rozhkova, S Yu Surushkina, T I Anisimova, M D Didur
AIM: To study clinical manifestations of burnout. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 131 patients (38 men and 93 women) aged from 25 to 45 years. The control group consisted of 106 age-matched healthy people. Evaluation of the manifestations of burnout was carried out using the Boyko's questionnaire. For the objectification of the severity of asthenic disorders, the Subjective Scale of Asthenia (MFI-20) consisting of five subscales was used. Trait and state anxiety was assessed by Spilberger-Khanin test...
2019: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
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