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Adipokines and cardiovascular disease

Pierre-Emmanuel Noly, Pauline Labbé, Nathalie Thorin-Trescases, Annik Fortier, Albert Nguyen, Eric Thorin, Michel Carrier
OBJECTIVES: A strong relationship between high circulating angiopoietin-like 2 (ANGPTL2) levels, a proinflammatory adipokine, and cardiovascular diseases has been reported. Our objective was to determine whether plasma ANGPTL2 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels change postoperatively in patients who underwent heart valve surgery and/or coronary artery bypass grafting. We hypothesized that a corrective cardiac surgery would decrease ANGPTL2 levels. METHODS: In 47 prospectively recruited patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (n = 16), valve replacement (n = 16), or both (n = 15), we measured plasma ANGPTL2 and hs-CRP levels preoperatively, at 24 hours, at 3 to 5 days (hospital discharge), and at 30 to 90 days (follow-up) after surgery...
January 8, 2019: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Yunting Wang, Xiaoya Zheng, Xin Xie, Wenjie Qian, Lingmin Zhang, Wei Ren
OBJECTIVE: Adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD) patients have an increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Adipsin as an adipokine that is significantly correlated with metabolism disease, especially in people with obesity. The objective of our study was to compare AGHD patients with healthy subjects to evaluate whether adipsin levels are closely related to glycolipid metabolism and cardiovascular risks in AGHD patients. METHODS: Our study included 88 AGHD patients and 88 age-, weight- and BMI-matched healthy subjects...
January 18, 2019: Endocrine Practice
Mariko Hayashi, Tomoaki Morioka, Masami Hatamori, Yoshinori Kakutani, Yuko Yamazaki, Masafumi Kurajoh, Koka Motoyama, Katsuhito Mori, Shinya Fukumoto, Atsushi Shioi, Tetsuo Shoji, Masanori Emoto, Masaaki Inaba
AIMS: Omentin is an adipokine that has protective effects against cardiovascular damage. Previous studies showed an inverse relationship between omentin and obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to investigate the association between omentin and vascular endothelial function in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS: The subjects were 425 patients with T2D and 223 non-diabetic controls. Fasting plasma omentin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the endothelium-dependent, flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) was measured by ultrasonography...
January 11, 2019: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Lucile Dollet, Juleen R Zierath
Disruption of circadian rhythmicity induced by prolonged light exposure, altered sleep patterns and shift work is associated with the development of obesity and related metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. White and brown adipose tissue activity shows circadian rhythmicity, with daily variations in the regulation of metabolic processes such as lipolysis, glucose and lipid uptake, and adipokine secretion. The role of the circadian clock in the regulation of the energy homeostasis has raised interest in clock-related strategies to mitigate metabolic disturbances associated with type 2 diabetes, including "resynchronizing" metabolism through diet or targeting a particular time of a day to potentiate the effect of a pharmacological or physiological treatment...
January 7, 2019: Journal of Physiology
Kyumin Shim, Radhika Gulhar, Ishwarlal Jialal
INTRODUCTION: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a disorder defined by having three of five features: increased waist circumference (WC), hypertriglyceridemia, decreased high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, hypertension and an elevated blood glucose (BG). Metabolic Syndrome ( MetS) affects 35% of American adults and significantly increases risk for Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and type-2 diabetes (T2DM). An understanding of the metabolome will help elucidate the pathogenesis of MetS and lead to better management...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
Vittorio Emanuele Bianchi
Low plasma testosterone (T) levels correlated with metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular diseases, and increased mortality risk. T exerts a significant effect on the regulation of adipose tissue accumulation, and in the glucose and lipids metabolism. Adipocytes are the primary source of the most important adipokines responsible for inflammation and chronic diseases. This review aims to analyze the possible effect of T on the regulation of the proinflammatory cytokines secretion. A systematic literature search on MEDLINE, Google Scholar, and Cochrane using the combination of the following keywords: "testosterone" with "inflammation," "cytokines," "adiponectin, CRP, IL-1B, IL-6, TNFα, leptin" was conducted...
January 1, 2019: Journal of the Endocrine Society
Stephen J Peterson, Joseph I Shapiro, Ellen Thompson, Shailendra Singh, Lu Liu, Jeremy A Weingarten, Kathleen O'Hanlon, Angelica Bialczak, Siddharth R Bhesania, Nader G Abraham
OBJECTIVE: High BMI predicts adverse cardiovascular outcomes and positively correlates with increased levels of adipokines. The relationship among BMI, IL-6, TNFα, adiponectin, and oxidized high-density lipoprotein (Ox-HDL) with circulating endothelial cells (CECs) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) has not been well studied. Elevated CEC levels have been described in both humans and mice with obesity and diabetes. Ox-HDL has been shown to be a potent driver of adipogenesis in vivo and in vitro...
January 2019: Obesity
Reenam Khan, Fernando Bril, Ken Cusi, Philip N Newsome
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has an estimated prevalence of 25% in the general population, and cirrhosis secondary to Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH) is predicted to become the leading cause of liver transplantation and yet there is a lack of effective licensed treatments. There is a close relationship between insulin resistance and NAFLD, with the prevalence of NAFLD being five-fold higher in patients with diabetes compared to patients without. Insulin resistance is implicated both in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and in disease progression from steatosis to NASH...
December 16, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Ramona F Stroescu, Otilia Mărginean, Teofana Bizerea, Mihai Gafencu, Adrian Voicu, Gabriela Doroș
Background Obesity is a chronic inflammatory disorder in which leptin, adiponectin and C-reactive protein (CRP) play an important role. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between markers of adiposity such as leptin, adiponectin and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in obese children, and to determine whether these adipokines are significant markers in defining metabolic syndrome (MetS) in pediatric population. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted over a period of 1 year, between July 2013 and June 2014, on 122 cases of obesity in children diagnosed at the Louis Ţurcanu Emergency Hospital for Children Timişoara, in the departments of Diabetes and Nutritional Diseases, Endocrinology and Cardiology...
December 8, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
Fengyang Huang, Blanca Estela Del-Río-Navarro, José Leija-Martinez, Saúl Torres-Alcantara, Eliseo Ruiz-Bedolla, Leticia Hernández-Cadena, Albino Barraza-Villarreal, Rodrigo Romero-Nava, Fausto Sanchéz-Muñoz, Santiago Villafaña, Laurence A Marchat, Enrique Hong
Obesity in adolescents is considered a major public health problem; combined interventional approaches such as omega-3 supplementation with lifestyle intervention (LI) might exert synergistic effects and exceed the impact of each individual strategy. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate if the supplementation of omega-3 with LI could improve metabolic and endothelial abnormality in obese adolescents with hypertriglyceridemia. The study involved sixty-nine adolescents with normal weight and seventy obese adolescents with hypertriglyceridemia...
November 7, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Larisa-Diana Mocan Hognogi, Cerasela-Mihaela Goidescu, Anca-Daniela Farcaş
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death among both women and men, but there is still a great percentage of misdiagnosis and lack of clearly defined criteria. Advances in biomolecular science have proven the crucial role of inflammation and, more importantly, the role of adipokines in mediating all stages of coronary artery disease. It has also been suggested that regional fat deposits, more precisely from thoracic region, have a major influence on the development of coronary artery disease by creating a local proatherogenic environment...
2018: Disease Markers
Jeehye Sung, Chi-Tang Ho, Yu Wang
Obesity is associated with low-grade chronic inflammation of adipose tissue, which leads to the development of metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer. Obesity and a high calorie diet are associated with altered endocrine and metabolic functions of adipose tissue, contributing to systemic inflammation as a result of the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines/adipokines into the circulation and metabolic endotoxemia. Furthermore, the accumulation of proinflammatory macrophages within the visceral adipose tissue may also be a major cause of chronic inflammation of adipocytes...
December 13, 2018: Food & Function
Chrysi Koliaki, Stavros Liatis, Alexander Kokkinos
A wealth of clinical and epidemiological evidence has linked obesity to a broad spectrum of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) including coronary heart disease, heart failure, hypertension, stroke, atrial fibrillation and sudden cardiac death. Obesity can increase CVD morbidity and mortality directly and indirectly. Direct effects are mediated by obesity-induced structural and functional adaptations of the cardiovascular system to accommodate excess body weight, as well as by adipokine effects on inflammation and vascular homeostasis...
November 3, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Karolina Janochova, Michal Haluzik, Marek Buzga
One of the most significant challenges of current medicine is the increasing prevalence of obesity worldwide that is accompanied by a wide range of chronic health complications and increased mortality. White adipose tissue actively contributes to metabolic regulation by production of a variety of hormones and cytokines, commonly referred to as adipokines. The spectrum and quantity of adipokines produced by the adipose tissue of obese patients is directly or indirectly involved in much obesity-related pathology (type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, inflammatory response)...
November 6, 2018: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
Amitabha Ray
Obesity is an important risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer and also a poor prognostic factor among cancer patients. Moreover, obesity is associated with a number of health disorders such as insulin resistance/type-2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and other cardiovascular diseases. Frequently, these health disorders exhibit as components/complications of the metabolic syndrome. Nevertheless, obesity-related diseases may coexist with postmenopausal breast cancer; and these comorbid conditions could be substantial...
October 26, 2018: World Journal of Clinical Cases
Ahmed Elhakeem, Rachel Cooper, Peter Whincup, Soren Brage, Diana Kuh, Rebecca Hardy
Background We examined associations of objectively measured physical activity ( PA ) and sedentary time with cardiovascular disease biomarkers at age 60 to 64 years. This included investigation of sex differences and the extent to which associations may be mediated by adiposity. Methods and Results Participants were 795 men and 827 women aged 60 to 64 years from the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development. Combined heart rate and movement sensors worn for 5 consecutive days were used to derive overall PA energy expenditure, kJ /kg per day) and time spent sedentary (<1...
August 21, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
D L Brovin, O D Belyaeva, S N Pchelina, A V Berezina, T L Karonova, E A Bazhenova, D A Kolodina, A S Bakulina, E A Polyakova, O V Listopad, E I Nikolaichuk, O A Berkovich, E I Baranova, E V SHlyakhto
OBJECTIVE: to investigate influence of different forms of adiponectin on carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in women with abdominal obesity (AO) in St.‑Petersburg. It has been recognized before that AO is associated with cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis, but mechanism of this association remains unclear. AO leads to imbalance of adipokines, in particularly decrease of adiponectin, which may lead to atherosclerotic lesion of carotid arteries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated 81 women with AO (IDF criteria, 2005) and 21 women with normal waist circumference...
June 2018: Kardiologiia
Anaïs Bouchara, Dan Yi, Myriam Pastural, Samuel Granjon, Jean-Christophe Selag, Maurice Laville, Walid Arkouche, Solenne Pelletier, Denis Fouque, Christophe O Soulage, Laetitia Koppe
Wasting has been associated with increased cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD). We investigated whether serum zinc-alpha2-glycoprotein (ZAG), a potent cachectic and lipid-mobilizing factor that is increased in patients with CKD, predicts clinical outcomes in patients on chronic hemodialysis. We quantified serum ZAG at baseline in a prospective cohort of 252 patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. Serum ZAG concentrations were inversely associated with serum albumin, creatinine, and triglycerides and, conversely, positively associated with age...
November 2018: Kidney International
Akramsadat Mortazavi, Ebrahim Nematipoor, Mahmoud Djalali, Seyed Ali Keshavarz, Simin Samavat, Mahnaz Zarei, Mohammad Hassan Javanbakht
Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Omega-3 fatty acids have been shown to have both anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory effects through inducing the expression and production of adipokines. Adipokines such as apelin, have been observed to play a protective role in the incidence and progression of CVD. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of omega-3 fatty acids supplementation on the serum apelin levels in patients with cardiovascular disease...
October 2018: Reports of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
Min Shi, Liang Ma, Ping Fu
Accumulating evidences indicated that obesity and metabolic syndrome were independent risk factors for the development and progression of kidney diseases. Apart from inflammation, lipotoxicity, and hemodynamic factors, adipokines have been proposed to play crucial roles in the relationship between kidney diseases and metabolic disorders. As one of key adipokines, fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), which is mainly expressed in adipocytes and macrophages, has recently been shown to be associated with renal dysfunction and kidney damage...
October 8, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
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