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Birthweight for gestational age

Khadijah I Ismail, Ailish Hannigan, Peter Kelehan, Brendan Fitzgerald, Keelin O'Donoghue, Amanda Cotter
INTRODUCTION: Individual placental and umbilical cord morphometry have been previously identified to have an association with fetal growth. This study aims to identify which of the morphometric measurements in combination are associated with pregnancies with small for gestational age (SGA) infants using digital imaging of the delivered placenta. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study examined 1005 placentas from consecutively delivered singleton pregnancies in a tertiary center...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Ciara M E Reynolds, Brendan Egan, Niamh Daly, Aoife McKeating, Sharon R Sheehan, Michael J Turner
Background: The adverse effects of smoking on neonatal outcomes, such as small-for-gestational-age (SGA), has been extensively studied however, the consequences of smoking combined with alcohol and/or drug use is less clear. Methods: This retrospective observational study analyzed clinical and sociodemographic details of 40156 women who delivered a singleton baby between the years 2011 and 2015. Results: Compared with women who had never smoked, smokers who did not engage in alcohol or drug use had an odds ratio (OR) of delivering a baby who was SGA of 3...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Public Health
Sine Berntsen, Viveca Söderström-Anttila, Ulla-Britt Wennerholm, Hannele Laivuori, Anne Loft, Nan B Oldereid, Liv Bente Romundstad, Christina Bergh, Anja Pinborg
Worldwide, more than 7 million children have now been born after ART: these delivery rates are steadily rising and now comprise 2-6% of births in the European countries. To achieve higher pregnancy rates, the transfer of two or more embryos was previously the gold standard in ART. However, recently the practise has moved towards a single embryo transfer policy to avoid multiple births. The positive consequences of the declining multiple birth rates after ART are decreasing perinatal risks and overall improved health for the ART progeny...
February 12, 2019: Human Reproduction Update
Amihai Rottenstreich, Gabriel Levin, Misgav Rottenstreich, Yossef Ezra, Ram Elazary, Uriel Elchalal
BACKGROUND: The effect of bariatric surgery (BS) on twin pregnancy outcomes is unclear. OBJECTIVES: We examined associations of BS with maternal and perinatal outcomes among women with twin gestation. SETTING: A university hospital. METHODS: A retrospective case-control study of twin deliveries during 2006 through 2017. The study group comprised all women with twin pregnancy who had undergone BS and delivered during the study period...
January 25, 2019: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
Juan Carlos Bustos, Alvaro Herrera, Waldo Sepulveda
OBJECTIVE: To analyze placental vascular resistance and the role of placental insufficiency in the etiology of reduced fetal growth in fetuses with trisomy 21 as determined by umbilical artery (UA) Doppler velocimetry. METHODS: Second- and third-trimester UA Doppler ultrasound studies were performed in fetuses with trisomy 21 at the time of clinically indicated obstetric ultrasound assessment. The UA pulsatility index (PI) and half-peak systolic velocity deceleration time (hPSV-DT) were measured and recorded...
February 10, 2019: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Rebecca F Slykerman, Mugdha V Joglekar, Anandwardhan A Hardikar, Sarang N Satoor, John M D Thompson, Alicia Jenkins, Edwin A Mitchell, Rinki Murphy
BACKGROUND: Previous studies indicate that low birth weight and exposure to maternal stress during pregnancy may result in shortened telomeres in infants. Shorter telomere length has in turn been linked with accelerated ageing and with age-related diseases. This study aimed to investigate the association between pregnancy and birth factors and relative telomere length in offspring at 11 years of age. METHODS: Participants were aged 11 years enrolled in the Auckland Birthweight Collaborative Study at birth (n = 380)...
February 7, 2019: Gene
Nobuaki Michihata, Daisuke Shigemi, Yusuke Sasabuchi, Hiroki Matsui, Taisuke Jo, Hideo Yasunaga
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether Japanese Kampo medicines, including Sho-hange-kabukuryou-to, Touki-syakuyaku-san, and Hange-kouboku-to, are safe for fetuses, and whether these medicines reduce hospitalizations and medical costs in pregnant women with hyperemesis gravidarum. METHODS: We used the Japan Medical Data Center database to extract data for pregnant women (aged ≥19 years) admitted to obstetric clinics or hospitals for delivery between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2016...
February 7, 2019: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
Alison Chu, David Casero, Shanthie Thamotharan, Madhuri Wadehra, Amy Cosi, Sherin U Devaskar
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) enhances risk for adult onset cardiovascular disease (CVD). The mechanisms underlying IUGR are poorly understood, though inadequate blood flow and oxygen/nutrient provision are considered common endpoints. Based on evidence in humans linking IUGR to adult CVD, we hypothesized that in murine pregnancy, maternal late gestational hypoxia (LG-H) exposure resulting in IUGR would result in (1) placental transcriptome changes linked to risk for later CVD, and 2) adult phenotypes of CVD in the IUGR offspring...
February 4, 2019: Scientific Reports
J Dekker, F J Stenning, L J F B Willms, T Martherus, S B Hooper, A B Te Pas
AIM: To determine the time between adjustment of FiO2 at the oxygen blender and the desired FiO2 reaching the preterm infant during respiratory support at birth. METHODS: This observational study was performed using a NeopuffTM T-piece Resuscitator attached to either a test lung (during initial bench tests) or a face mask during the stabilization of infants at birth. FiO2 was titrated following resuscitation guidelines. The duration for the desired FiO2 to reach either the test lung or face mask was recorded, both with and without leakage...
January 29, 2019: Resuscitation
Anca Ciobanu, Angeliki Rouvali, Argyro Syngelaki, Ranjit Akolekar, Kypros H Nicolaides
BACKGROUND: Small for gestational age (SGA) neonates are at increased risk of perinatal mortality and morbidity, but the risks can be substantially reduced if the condition is identified prenatally, because in such cases close monitoring and appropriate timing of delivery and prompt neonatal care can be undertaken. The traditional approach of identifying pregnancies with SGA fetuses is maternal abdominal palpation and serial measurements of symphysial-fundal height, but the detection rate of this approach is less than 30%...
January 29, 2019: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Joyce A Martin, Brady E Hamilton, Michelle J K Osterman, Anne K Driscoll, Patrick Drake
Objectives-This report presents 2017 data on U.S. births according to a wide variety of characteristics. Trends in fertility patterns and maternal and infant characteristics are described and interpreted. Methods-Descriptive tabulations of data reported on the birth certificates of the 3.86 million births that occurred in 2017 are presented. Data are presented for maternal age, livebirth order, race and Hispanic origin, marital status, tobacco use, prenatal care, source of payment for the delivery, method of delivery, gestational age, birthweight, and plurality...
November 2018: National Vital Statistics Reports
Marcela C Castillo, Nurain M Fuseini, Katelyn Rittenhouse, Joan T Price, Bethany L Freeman, Humphrey Mwape, Jennifer Winston, Ntazana Sindano, Courtney Baruch-Gravett, Benjamin H Chi, Margaret P Kasaro, James A Litch, Jeffrey S A Stringer, Bellington Vwalika
Background: Sub-Saharan Africa bears a disproportionate burden of preterm birth and other adverse outcomes. A better understanding of the demographic, clinical, and biologic underpinnings of these adverse outcomes is urgently needed to plan interventions and inform new discovery.  Methods: The Zambian Preterm Birth Prevention Study (ZAPPS) is a prospective observational cohort established at the Women and Newborn Hospital (WNH) in Lusaka, Zambia. We recruit pregnant women from district health centers and the WNH and offer ultrasound examination to determine eligibility...
December 4, 2018: Gates open research
Ulrika K Andersson-Hall, Evelina A J Järvinen, Marja H Bosaeus, Carolina E Gustavsson, Ellen J Hårsmar, C Aimon Niklasson, Kerstin G Albertsson-Wikland, Agneta B Holmäng
BACKGROUND: To determine how maternal obesity or gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) affect infant body size and body composition during the first year of life. METHODS: Eighty three normal-weight (NW) women, 26 obese (OB) women, and 26 women with GDM were recruited during pregnancy. Infant body composition was determined by air-displacement plethysmography at 1 and 12 weeks, and anthropometric measurements made until 1 year of age. RESULTS: Girl infants born to OB women and women with GDM had a higher body-fat percentage (BF%) at 1 and 12 weeks of age than girls born to NW women...
December 10, 2018: Pediatric Research
Hanna Åmark, Magnus Westgren, Martina Persson
INTRODUCTION: Infants born large for gestational age (LGA) have increased risks of adverse perinatal outcomes. Maternal obesity, defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30, is one of the most prevalent risk factors for LGA and the proportion of pregnancies complicated by obesity is increasing. Early identification of women with BMI ≥ 30 at increased risk of giving birth to an LGA infant may open possibilities for prevention, aiming at decreasing the incidence of LGA. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A population-based cohort study using information from the first trimester screening database, which was cross-linked with the Swedish Medical Birth Register...
January 28, 2019: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
Monica Tous, Marcela Villalobos, Lucia Iglesias, Sílvia Fernández-Barrés, Victoria Arija
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy may influence adverse outcomes in offspring. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies was to assess the association between low prenatal concentrations of 25(OH)D (by using three different cut-off levels), preterm birth (PTB) and anthropometric and neurodevelopmental outcomes in offspring. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Studies reporting data on the association between maternal vitamin D concentrations and offspring outcomes identified through a systematic review of scientific literature published in PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus and the Cochrane Library databases up to April 2017...
January 25, 2019: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Kazumichi Fujioka, Kosuke Nishida, Mariko Ashina, Shinya Abe, Sachiyo Fukushima, Toshihiko Ikuta, Shohei Ohyama, Ichiro Morioka, Kazumoto Iijima
BACKGROUND: Small for gestational age (SGA) babies experience fetal growth restriction because of placental insufficiency, and aberrant fetal growth has been linked to DNA methylation in the placenta. An imprinted gene encoding retrotransposon-like protein 1 (RTL1) is regulated by DNA methylation in the promoter region and plays a key role in placental development. We therefore investigated the DNA methylation status of RTL1 in the placenta of infants with severe SGA. METHODS: We extracted DNA from the placenta of appropriate for gestational age (AGA; gestational age 35 ± 6 weeks, birthweight 2292 ± 1006 g; n = 12), SGA (birthweight z-score ≤-2 SD, 33 ± 5 weeks, 1373 ± 580 g; n = 11), and severe SGA (birthweight z-score ≤-3 SD, 33 ± 4 weeks, 1145 g ± 423 g; n = 7) infants, and we determined the methylation rates of five CpG sites in the CG4 (82,275,427-82,275,737 in NT_026437 sequence, NCBI database) region of the RTL1 promoter by pyrosequencing...
January 5, 2019: Pediatrics and Neonatology
Irina Meledin, Hilla Tzur-Sebton, Iris Noyman, Michael Friger, Guy Hazan, Eilon Shany
BACKGROUND: The incidence of seizures in the neonatal period is thought to be high due to a lower seizure threshold of the immature brain. Data on seizures in extremely premature infants are scarce. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine whether seizures are an independent risk factor for in-hospital death and to determine the incidence of seizures in extremely premature infants. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study. Included were infants born under 28 weeks' gestation and monitored with amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG) over the first 3 days of life...
January 22, 2019: Neonatology
Tamara I Herrera, María C Vaz Ferreira, Alberto Toso, Luis Villarroel, Fernando Silvera, José M Ceriani-Cernadas, José L Tapia
BACKGROUND: Antenatal corticosteroids (ACS) during preterm labour reduce neonatal mortality and morbidity. Evidence on preterm multiple pregnancies is limited and contradictory. OBJECTIVE: Compare the effect of ACS on very low birth weight infant's (VLBW) mortality and morbidity among singleton and multiple pregnancies. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study, employing prospectively collected data, of infants 23 to 34 weeks' gestation and 500 to 1500 g born at the Neocosur Neonatal Network centers during 2007-2016...
January 18, 2019: Early Human Development
A Pels, O C Knaven, B J Wijnberg-Williams, M J C Eijsermans, S M Mulder-de Tollenaer, C S H Aarnoudse-Moens, C Koopman-Esseboom, J van Eyck, J B Derks, W Ganzevoort, A G van Wassenaer-Leemhuis
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to explore developmental outcomes at five years after early-onset fetal growth restriction (FGR). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective data analysis of prospective follow-up of patients of three Dutch centres, who participated in a twenty centre European randomized controlled trial on timing of delivery in early-onset FGR. Developmental outcome of very preterm infants born after extreme FGR is assessed at (corrected) age of five...
January 11, 2019: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Nayu Ikeda, Nobuo Nishi
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To assess longitudinal changes in the first incidence of overweight and obesity and associated factors from preschool to primary school age in Japan. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We obtained individual-level data from the "Longitudinal Survey of Newborns in the 21st Century" on children born in Japan in 2001. This analysis included 15,427 children (7951 boys and 7476 girls) with complete anthropometric data reported annually from age 42 months to 12 years...
January 18, 2019: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
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