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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30877200/cellular-sensing-by-phase-separation-using-the-process-not-just-the-products
#1
Haneul Yoo, Catherine Triandafillou, D Allan Drummond
In cells, phase separation creates two distinct liquid phases from a single mixed liquid phase, like oil droplets separating from water. Considerable attention has focused on how the products of phase separation-the resulting droplets-might act as biological compartments, bioreactors, filters, and membraneless organelles. Here we expand this perspective, reviewing recent results showing how cells instead use the process of phase separation to sense intracellular and extracellular changes. We review case studies in phase-separation-based sensing and discuss key features, such as extraordinary sensitivity, which make the process of phase separation ideally suited to meet a range of sensory challenges cells encounter...
March 15, 2019: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30866921/effect-of-linoleic-acid-on-ischemic-heart-disease-and-its-risk-factors-a-mendelian-randomization-study
#2
Jie V Zhao, C Mary Schooling
BACKGROUND: The role of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in ischemic heart disease (IHD) is controversial, and dietary guidelines vary. Observationally, lower saturated fat intake and higher intake of vegetable oils rich in linoleic acid (LA), the main n-6 PUFA, is associated with lower IHD and diabetes; however, randomized controlled trials have not fully corroborated these benefits. We assessed how genetically predicted LA affected IHD and its risk factors, including diabetes, lipids, and blood pressure...
March 14, 2019: BMC Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30866181/single-cell-oil-production-from-undetoxified-arundo-donax-l-hydrolysate-by-cutaneotrichosporon-curvatus
#3
Nicola Di Fidio, Federico Liuzzi, Silvio Mastrolitti, Roberto Albergo, Isabella De Bari
The use of low-cost substrates represents one key issue to make single cell oil production sustainable. Among low-input crops, Arundo donax L . is a perennial herbaceous rhizomatous grass containing both C5 and C6 carbohydrates. The scope of the present work was to investigate and optimize the production of lipids by the oleaginous yeast Cutaneotrichosporon curvatus from undetoxified lignocellulosic hydrolysates of steam-pretreated A. donax . The growth of C. curvatus was first optimized in synthetic media, similar in terms of sugar concentration to hydrolysates, by applying the response surface methodology (RSM) analysis...
February 28, 2019: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30863163/a-modified-method-for-isolating-human-quiescent-pancreatic-stellate-cells
#4
Fu-Tao Meng, Mei Huang, Fang-Fang Fan, Feng Shao, Chao Wang, Qiang Huang
Background: This study explored a simple, high-yield method for isolating quiescent human pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) to provide sufficient and reliable raw materials for PSC-related studies. Materials and methods: Single-cell suspensions were prepared from normal human pancreatic tissue specimens using the gentleMACS™ tissue processor, which enhanced the yield and viability of the suspensions. Percoll density gradient centrifugation was then performed to isolate quiescent normal PSCs (NPSCs)...
2019: Cancer Management and Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30844230/optimizing-the-fluorescent-properties-of-nano-emulsions-for-single-particle-tracking-in-live-cells
#5
Xinyue Wang, Nicolas Anton, Pichandi Ashokkumar, Halina Anton, Tkhe Kyong Fam, Thierry F Vandamme, Andrey S Klymchenko, Mayeul Collot
Nano-emulsions (NEs) are biocompatible lipid nanoparticles composed of an oily core stabilized by a surfactant shell. It is acknowledged that the surface decoration with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), through the use of non-ionic surfactants, confers a high stealth in biological medium with reduced non-specific interactions. Tracking individual NEs by fluorescence microscopy techniques would lead to a better understanding of their behavior in cells and thus require the development of bright single particles with enhanced photostability...
March 7, 2019: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30820256/draft-genome-sequence-of-the-oleaginous-yeast-apiotrichum-porosum-syn-trichosporon-porosum-dsm-27194
#6
Olga Gorte, Habibu Aliyu, Anke Neumann, Katrin Ochsenreither
Here, we present the draft genome sequence of Apiotrichum porosum DSM 27194 generated on PacBio platform. Characterization of this oleaginous yeast originally collected from the grassland in Karlsruhe Germany, revealed potential for its utilization as a source of single cell oil (SCO) and gluconic acid (GA). The availability of the genome sequence provides a valuable resource for the elucidation of the genetic processes determining SCO and GA biosynthesis.
2019: Journal of Genomics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30817050/essential-oils-inhibit-the-bovine-respiratory-pathogens-mannheimia-haemolytica-pasteurella-multocida-and-histophilus-somni-and-have-limited-effects-on-commensal-bacteria-and-turbinate-cells-in-vitro
#7
S Amat, D Baines, E Timsit, J Hallewell, T W Alexander
AIMS: The objective of this study was to determine antimicrobial activities of essential oils (EOs) against bovine respiratory disease (BRD) pathogens and nasopharyngeal commensal bacteria, as well as cytotoxicity in bovine turbinate (BT) cells in vitro. METHODS AND RESULTS: The chemical composition of 16 EOs was determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. All EOs were first evaluated for growth inhibition of a single BRD pathogen Mannheimia haemolytica serotype 1 strain (L024A)...
February 28, 2019: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30809219/changes-in-trophic-groups-of-protists-with-conversion-of-rainforest-into-rubber-and-oil-palm-plantations
#8
Garvin Schulz, Dominik Schneider, Nicole Brinkmann, Nur Edy, Rolf Daniel, Andrea Polle, Stefan Scheu, Valentyna Krashevska
Protists, abundant but enigmatic single-celled eukaryotes, are important soil microbiota providing numerous ecosystem functions. We employed high-throughput sequencing of environmental DNA, targeting the V4 region of the 18S rRNA gene, to characterize changes in their abundance, species richness, and community structure with conversion of lowland rainforest into rubber agroforest (jungle rubber), and rubber and oil palm plantations; typical agricultural systems in Sumatra, Indonesia. We identified 5,204 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at 97% identity threshold of protists from 32 sites...
2019: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30807684/adaptation-of-desulfovibrio-alaskensis-g20-to-perchlorate-a-specific-inhibitor-of-sulfate-reduction
#9
Misha G Mehta-Kolte, Magdalena K Stoeva, Anchal Mehra, Steven A Redford, Matthew D Youngblut, Grant Zane, Patrick Grégoire, Hans K Carlson, Judy Wall, John D Coates
Hydrogen sulfide produced by sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRM) poses significant health and economic risks, particularly during oil recovery. Previous studies identified perchlorate as a specific inhibitor of SRM. However, constant inhibitor addition to natural systems results in new selective pressures. Consequently, we investigated the ability of Desulfovibrio alaskensis G20 to evolve perchlorate resistance. Serial transfers in increasing concentrations of perchlorate led to robust growth in the presence of 100mM inhibitor...
February 26, 2019: Environmental Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30796515/osmophores-of-caryocar-brasiliense-caryocaraceae-a-particular-structure-of-the-androecium-that-releases-an-unusual-scent
#10
Elder Antônio Sousa Paiva, Stefan Dötterl, Orlando Cavalari De-Paula, Clemens Schlindwein, Letícia Silva Souto, Narah Costa Vitarelli, Claudia Inês da Silva, Sidnei Mateus, Isabel Alves-Dos-Santos, Denise Maria Trombert Oliveira
Caryocar brasiliense is a flagship species of the Brazilian Cerrado. It produces flowers with a strong peculiar scent, which are pollinated by bats and occasionally moths with short mouthparts. However, the cues responsible for attracting these nocturnal pollinators remain unknown. We aimed to identify osmophores of C. brasiliense, describe the ultrastructure of the cells involved in the synthesis and release of floral odour, and identify the constituents of the floral bouquet. We performed field observations and histochemical and ultrastructural analyses of flowers focusing on the androecium...
February 22, 2019: Protoplasma
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30790754/removal-of-petroleum-hydrocarbons-and-sulfates-from-produced-water-using-different-bioelectrochemical-reactor-configurations
#11
Gunda Mohanakrishna, Riyadh I Al-Raoush, Ibrahim M Abu-Reesh, Khaled Aljaml
Produced water (PW) is a wastewater generated in large quantities from the extraction of oil and gas. PW found to have high amounts of dissolved solids (TDS) and residual petroleum hydrocarbons causing considerable damage to the environment. PW also contains sulfates in significant amounts, due to which treating this wastewater is essential prior to discharge. The present study was aimed for bioelectrochemical treatment of PW and simultaneous bioelectrogenesis in the two most studied configurations viz., single and dual chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs)...
February 13, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30760744/biosynthetic-investigation-of-%C3%AE-lactones-in-sextonia-rubra-wood-using-in-situ-tof-sims-ms-ms-imaging-to-localize-and-characterize-biosynthetic-intermediates
#12
Tingting Fu, Emeline Houël, Nadine Amusant, David Touboul, Grégory Genta-Jouve, Serge Della-Negra, Gregory L Fisher, Alain Brunelle, Christophe Duplais
Molecular analysis by parallel tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) imaging contributes to the in situ characterization of biosynthetic intermediates which is crucial for deciphering the metabolic pathways in living organisms. We report the first use of TOF-SIMS MS/MS imaging for the cellular localization and characterization of biosynthetic intermediates of bioactive γ-lactones rubrynolide and rubrenolide in the Amazonian tree Sextonia rubra (Lauraceae). Five γ-lactones, including previously reported rubrynolide and rubrenolide, were isolated using a conventional approach and their structural characterization and localization at a lateral resolution of ~400 nm was later achieved using TOF-SIMS MS/MS imaging analysis...
February 13, 2019: Scientific Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30741332/tepidicella-baoligensis-sp-nov-a-novel-member-of-betaproteobacterium-isolated-from-an-oil-reservoir
#13
Jing You, Yongbin Li, Shan Hong, Jing Wang, Jiliang Yu, Bozhong Mu, Xiaochen Ma, Yanfen Xue
A Gram-negative, non-pigmented, aerobic bacterium, designated strain B18-50T was isolated from oil-well production water in Baolige oilfield, China. The strain was able to grow at pH 6.5-10.5 (optimum at pH 7.5-8.5), in 0-3% (w/v) NaCl (optimum at 0-0.5%, w/v) and at 20-60 °C (optimum at 45 °C). Cells of the isolate were motile with a single polar flagellum and non-spore-forming rods. Organic acids and amino acids were used as carbon and energy sources, but sugars and polyols were not assimilated. The major cellular fatty acids were C16:0 , C16:1 ω6c/ω7c, and C18:1 ω7c...
February 11, 2019: Current Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30691287/anti-biofilm-efficacy-of-single-and-binary-treatments-based-on-plant-essential-oils-against-escherichia-coli-persistent-in-food-processing-facilities
#14
Daniel Vázquez-Sánchez, Juliana Antunes Galvão, Marina Rodrigues Mazine, Eduardo Micotti da Gloria, Thais Maria Ferreira de Souza Vieira
The efficacy of single and combined treatments based on plant essential oils was investigated against Escherichia coli strains persistent in food-processing facilities. Surface materials (stainless steel and polystyrene), disinfectants (peracetic acid and sodium hypochlorite), and conditions (25 ℃, frequency of sanitizing of 24 h) commonly present in the food industry were also used to reach a more realistic approach. Thyme and pepper-rosmarin oils were significantly ( P < 0.05) very effective against planktonic cells and biofilms formed by strains E6 and E7, respectively, followed by peracetic acid...
January 28, 2019: Food Science and Technology International
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30672918/single-step-assembly-of-asymmetric-vesicles
#15
Laura R Arriaga, Yuting Huang, Shin-Hyun Kim, Juan L Aragones, Roy Ziblat, Stephan A Koehler, David A Weitz
Asymmetric vesicles are membranes in which amphiphiles are asymmetrically distributed between each membrane leaflet. This asymmetry dictates chemical and physical properties of these vesicles, enabling their use as more realistic models of biological cell membranes, which also are asymmetric, and improves their potential for drug delivery and cosmetic applications. However, their fabrication is difficult as the self-assembly of amphiphiles always leads to symmetric vesicles. Here, we report the use of water-in-oil-in-oil-in-water triple emulsion drops to direct the assembly of the two leaflets to form asymmetric vesicles...
January 23, 2019: Lab on a Chip
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30653307/environmental-benefits-of-novel-non-human-food-inputs-to-salmon-feeds
#16
Jessica Couture, Roland Geyer, Jon Øvrum Hansen, Brandon Kuczenski, Margareth Øverland, Joseph Palazzo, Christian Sahlmann, Hunter S Lenihan
Global population growth and changing diets increase the importance, and challenges, of reducing the environmental impacts of food production. Farmed seafood is a relatively efficient way to produce protein and has already overtaken wild fisheries. The use of protein-rich food crops, such as soy, instead of fishmeal in aquaculture feed diverts these important protein sources away from direct human consumption and creates new environmental challenges. Single cell proteins (SCPs), including bacteria and yeast, have recently emerged as replacements for plant-based proteins in salmon feeds...
January 17, 2019: Environmental Science & Technology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30640021/sustainable-enzymatic-approaches-in-a-fungal-lipid-biorefinery-based-in-sugarcane-bagasse-hydrolysate-as-carbon-source
#17
Ana Karine F Carvalho, Heitor B S Bento, Cristiano E R Reis, Heizir F De Castro
Single cell oil (SCO) was produced from enzymatically hydrolysed sugarcane bagasse by Mucor circinelloides. The fungus was cultured in the hydrolysate medium rich in glucose and xylose being able to assimilate both sugars simultaneously, attaining satisfactory values of lipid accumulation (25 wt%). The main concepts addressed herein were the utilization of these lipids for the production of (i) ethyl esters of fuel grade, and (ii) concentrate of polyunsaturated fatty acids for nutraceutical applications. It was noticed that the fungal lipids also contained carotenoids and that the fungal biomass presented lipolytic activity...
January 2, 2019: Bioresource Technology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30637631/the-metabolism-and-genetic-regulation-of-lipids-in-the-oleaginous-yeast-yarrowia-lipolytica
#18
REVIEW
Didiana Gálvez-López, Bianca Chávez-Meléndez, Alfredo Vázquez-Ovando, Raymundo Rosas-Quijano
The biotechnological potential of Yarrowia lipolytica, as a single cell oil-producing microorganism, is presented in this review. Although initially this yeast species was considered as a lipid-degrading, recently, it was reclassified as a lipid-producing microorganism, since it has been reported to be capable of accumulating diverse desirable fatty acids after metabolic pathway engineering. In the first part of the present document, a general revision of the oil metabolic pathways and the capacity of oil production in Y...
November 29, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30626189/microfluidic-formation-of-hydrogel-microcapsules-with-a-single-aqueous-core-by-spontaneous-cross-linking-in-aqueous-two-phase-system-atps-droplets
#19
Takaichi Watanabe, Ibuki Motohiro, Tsutomu Ono
We report a simple process to fabricate monodisperse tetra-arm poly(ethylene glycol) (tetra-PEG) hydrogel microcapsules with an aqueous core and a semi-permeable hydrogel shell through the formation of aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) droplets consisting of dextran (DEX)-rich core and tetra-PEG macromonomer-rich shell, followed by spontaneous cross-end coupling reaction of tetra-PEG macromonomers in the shell. Different from conventional techniques, this process enables for the continuous production of hydrogel microcapsules from water-in-oil emulsion droplets under mild conditions in the absence of radical initiators and external stimuli such as heating and ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation...
January 10, 2019: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30624061/ultrasensitive-and-simultaneous-detection-of-two-cytokines-secreted-by-single-cell-in-microfluidic-droplets-via-magnetic-field-amplified-sers
#20
Dan Sun, Fanghao Cao, Weiqing Xu, Qidan Chen, Wei Shi, Shuping Xu
A surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-microfluidic droplet platform for the rapid, ultrasensitive and simultaneous detection of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) secreted by a single cell is presented. The high throughput water-in-oil droplets containing individual cell along with four kinds of immune-particles (antibody-conjugated silver nanoparticles or magnetic beads, AgNPs@Ab1 and MNs@Ab2) in each were achieved by a cross-typed microfluidic chip, and then they were captured by a collection channel array for SERS measurements...
January 9, 2019: Analytical Chemistry
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