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Adverse drug

Mingzhu Ni, Binbin Zhang, Jianan Zhao, Qin Feng, Jinghua Peng, Yiyang Hu, Yu Zhao
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is becoming a worldwide health problem, but no approved medical treatment exists so far. Nuclear receptors are one of the drug targets for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Among them, liver X receptor (LXR) has been studied in recent years in tumors, metabolic diseases and inflammatory diseases, but its physiological and pharmacological effects in the treatment of NASH are controversial. Activation of LXR has the potential to modulate cholesterol homeostasis, induce anti-inflammatory effects and increase insulin sensitivity, but liver lipid deposition and hypertriglyceridemia are also increased...
March 18, 2019: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy
Nobutsune Ishikawa, Yuichi Tateishi, Hiroo Tani, Yoshiyuki Kobayashi, Masao Kobayashi
BACKGROUND: Perampanel (PER) is a new antiepileptic drug (AED) with a novel mechanism of action. Investigations of the efficacy and safety of PER in pediatric and adult patients have increased recently. Although the clinical usefulness and pharmacokinetics of PER have been investigated in adolescent and adult populations, similar studies have not been performed in children. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients treated with PER for more than 6 months in the Department of Pediatrics, Hiroshima University Hospital, between September 2016 and November 2018...
March 18, 2019: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Matthew T Finn, Björn Redfors, Dimitri Karmpaliotis, Ajay J Kirtane, Philip Green, Thomas McAndrew, Mengdan Liu, Michael B Cloney, Bernhard Witzenbichler, Giora Weisz, Thomas D Stuckey, Bruce R Brodie, Michael J Rinaldi, Franz-Josef Neumann, D Christopher Metzger, Timothy D Henry, David A Cox, Peter L Duffy, Ernest L Mazzaferri, Roxana Mehran, Gregg W Stone
BACKGROUND: Chronic total occlusion (CTO) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) typically requires a greater number of stents and longer stent length than non-CTO PCI, placing these patients at greater risk for adverse ischemic events. We sought to determine whether the association between high platelet reactivity (HPR) and the risk of ischemic events is stronger after CTO than non-CTO PCI. METHODS: Patients undergoing successful PCI in the multicenter ADAPT-DES study were stratified according to whether they underwent PCI of a CTO...
February 20, 2019: American Heart Journal
Linghong Guo, Yuanyuan Hu, Xi Chen, Qingfang Li, Benling Wei, Xuelei Ma
BACKGROUND: Palbociclib is a small-molecule, cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and 6 inhibitor, which prevents phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma (Rb) protein and inhibits cell-cycle progression from G1 to S phase. We performed this meta-analysis to estimate the safety and efficacy of palbociclib in cancer patients from clinical trials. METHODS: PubMed and EMBASE were searched for eligible studies. Adverse events (AE) of grade ≥3 and all-grade (1-5) were extracted to calculate event rates...
March 21, 2019: Cancer Medicine
Karen Hughes, Mark A Bellis, Dinesh Sethi, Rachel Andrew, Yongjie Yon, Sara Wood, Kat Ford, Adriana Baban, Larisa Boderscova, Margarita Kachaeva, Katarzyna Makaruk, Marija Markovic, Robertas Povilaitis, Marija Raleva, Natasa Terzic, Milos Veleminsky, Joanna Włodarczyk, Victoria Zakhozha
BACKGROUND: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) can increase risks of health-harming behaviours and poor health throughout life. While increases in risk may be affected by resilience resources such as supportive childhood relationships, to date few studies have explored these effects. METHODS: We combined data from cross-sectional ACE studies among young adults (n = 14 661) in educational institutions in 10 European countries. Nine ACE types, childhood relationships and six health outcomes (early alcohol initiation, problem alcohol use, smoking, drug use, therapy, suicide attempt) were explored...
March 20, 2019: European Journal of Public Health
Jessica Mendes Nadal, Guilherme Dos Anjos Camargo, Andressa Novatski, William Roger Macenhan, Daniele Toniolo Dias, Fernanda Malaquias Barboza, Amanda Lyra, João Ricardo Roik, Josiane Padilha de Paula, Aloisi Somer, Paulo Vitor Farago
Adapalene (ADAP) is an important drug widely used in the topical treatment of acne. It is a third-generation retinoid and provides keratolytic, anti-inflammatory, and antiseborrhoic action. However, some topical adverse effects such as erythema, dryness, and scaling have been reported with its commercial formula. In this sense, the microencapsulation of this drug using polyesters can circumvent its topical side effects and can lead to the enhancement of drug delivery into sebaceous glands. The goal of this work was to obtain ADAP-loaded poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) microparticles prepared by a simple emulsion/solvent evaporation method...
2019: PloS One
Aline F Bonetti, Walleri C Reis, Antonio M Mendes, Inajara Rotta, Fernanda S Tonin, Fernando Fernandez-Llimos, Roberto Pontarolo
BACKGROUND: Transitions of care can contribute to medication errors and other adverse drug events. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of pharmacist-led discharge counseling on hospital readmission and emergency department visits through a systematic review and meta-analysis. EDATA SOURCES: Lectronic searches were performed in PubMed, Scopus, and DOAJ (Directory of Open Access Journals), along with a manual search (July 2017)...
March 20, 2019: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
Maged Y Argalious, John Steib, Nikolas Daskalakis, Guangmei Mao, Minwei Li, Sherif Armanyous, Eric Roselli
BACKGROUND: Data on testosterone replacement therapy and cardiovascular outcomes are conflicting, with the Food and Drug Administration requiring prescription testosterone preparations to indicate a possible increased cardiovascular risk. Whether patients on testosterone replacement therapy undergoing cardiac surgery have an increased risk of postoperative in-hospital mortality and cardiovascular events remains unknown. We therefore sought to identify the impact of testosterone replacement on the incidence of a composite of postoperative in-hospital mortality and cardiovascular events in men undergoing cardiac surgery...
March 14, 2019: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Denis Dupoiron
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Intrathecal drug delivery systems (IDDS) for cancer pain remain little employed despite a high level of efficiency even though the technique is widely recommended. This review aims to summarize recent advances in IDDS for cancer patients. RECENT FINDINGS: The respective roles of catheter positioning, volume and flow rate in diffusion of intrathecal treatments, as well as the individual roles of blood pressure, heart rate, and amplitude of the respiratory movements in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) treatment dispersion, are now well established...
March 20, 2019: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
Susan L Ford, Yu Lou, Nicole Lewis, Kostapanos Michalis, Ronald D'Amico, William Spreen, Parul Patel
BACKGROUND: Cabotegravir (CAB) is an integrase strand transfer inhibitor in development as a long-acting injectable formulation, with an oral formulation used during a safety lead-in period. Tuberculosis (TB)/HIV co-infection is common, often requiring simultaneous treatment. Rifabutin (RBT) is an alternative antimycobacterial agent for TB and a moderate inducer of cytochrome P450 and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase isoenzymes. This study evaluated the impact of RBT on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of oral CAB...
March 21, 2019: Antiviral Therapy
Joana Urzal, Ana Bárbara Pedro, Inês Ferraz Oliveira, Inês Romero, Miguel Achega, Iuri Correia, Fernando Aldomiro, João Augusto
INTRODUCTION: Polypharmacy is often observed in elderly patients and is associated with an increased risk of adverse drug reactions, side effects and interactions. Clinicians should be alert to inappropriate drug prescribing and reduce polypharmacy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Observational, longitudinal, retrospective and descriptive study in an internal medicine ward in a Portuguese hospital. Polypharmacy was defined as the use of five or more different medicines. The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of polypharmacy and inappropriate prescribing at admission and discharge in an internal medicine ward, according to deprescribing...
February 28, 2019: Acta Médica Portuguesa
I Casal-Beloy, M A García-Novoa, M García-González, I Rey Simó
The DRESS syndrome (drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms) is a serious pharmacodermia which must be taken into account when establishing an optimal early treatment to prevent a systemic and potentially lethal evolution. Pharmacodermias are the third most frequent cause of adverse effects during surgical hospitalization, after nosocomial infections and intraoperative complications. In most cases, they pose a challenge to the surgeon, since their onset is nonspecific and, therefore, can be easily mistaken for a surgery complication...
March 21, 2019: Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra
A Lafuma, F-E Cotté, C Le Tourneau, C Emery, A-F Gaudin, E Torreton, J Gourmelen, J Bonastre
AIMS: Overall survival (OS) of patients with recurrent or metastatic (R/M) squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) is extremely poor. New therapeutic options emerge but need to establish their economic value. The objective was to describe the direct and related costs of R/M SCCHN in France. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We selected all adult patients treated with chemotherapy for R/M SCCHN between 01/01/2009 and 12/31/2014 from the permanent sample of the French national health insurance database (EGB)...
March 21, 2019: Journal of Medical Economics
Renato De Vecchis, Carmelina Ariano, Silvia Soreca
INTRODUCTION: Sacubitril/valsartan used as an antihypertensive agent has not yet been completely assessed as regards its efficacy and safety. Thus, to investigate them in elderly hypertensive patients, a meta-analysis has been performed. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: The meta-analysis incorporated only randomized controlled trials(RCTs) in which sacubitril/valsartan was compared with a reference drug. The mean reductions in systolic blood pressure( msSBP) and diastolic blood pressure( msDBP) in the sitting position as well as the mean reductions in ambulatory systolic blood pressure(maSBP)and ambulatory diastolic blood pressure( maDBP),were assumed as efficacy endpoints...
March 18, 2019: Minerva Cardioangiologica
Kerry A Mullan, Alison Anderson, Patricia T Illing, Patrick Kwan, Anthony W Purcell, Nicole A Mifsud
Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are a common cause of hospital admissions (up to 19%), with the majority of cases due to off-target predictable drug effects (type A reactions). However, idiosyncratic drug-induced immune activated (type B) reactions contribute to a range of hypersensitivity reactions, with T-cell mediated type IV hypersensitivity reactions mainly manifesting as cutaneous ADRs (cADRs). Aromatic antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), used in the treatment of epilepsy as well as bipolar disorder or neuropathic pain, have been implicated as culprit drugs in a spectrum of pathologies ranging from mild maculopapular exanthema (MPE) to severe and life-threatening conditions including drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS), Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN)...
March 20, 2019: HLA
Jae-Eun Hyun, Hyun-Kyu Jang, Cheol-Yong Hwang, Seong-Chan Yeon
BACKGROUND: Sarcoptic mange in free-ranging raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) caused by Sarcoptes scabiei is a widespread zoonotic disease that causes severe skin lesions with significant morbidity and mortality. Fluralaner is a member of the isoxazoline chemical class and is an acaricide and insecticide widely used in flea, tick and mite infections of dogs (Canis lupus familiaris). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of orally administered fluralaner in free-ranging raccoon dogs naturally infected with sarcoptic mange...
March 21, 2019: Veterinary Dermatology
Leticia Varella, Akaolisa Samuel Eziokwu, Xuefei Jia, Megan Kruse, Halle C F Moore, George Thomas Budd, Jame Abraham, Alberto J Montero
PURPOSE: Real-world data are critical to demonstrate the reproducibility of evidence and external generalizability of randomized clinical trials. Palbociclib is an oral small-molecule inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6 that has been shown to improve progression-free survival (PFS) when combined with letrozole or fulvestrant in phase 3 clinical trials. We evaluated real-world outcomes in metastatic breast cancer patients who received palbociclib in combination with endocrine therapy in routine clinical practice...
March 20, 2019: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Justin Lewis, M Zarate, S Tran, T Albertson
INTRODUCTION: Antidotes are available to treat some specific poisonings; however, the mainstay of treatment for the poisoned patient remains supportive care. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is one of the most aggressive supportive measures available to manage poisoned patients. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the recommendation and use of ECMO in cases reported to the California Poison Control System (CPCS). METHODS: This retrospective chart review queried the CPCS database from 1997 to 2016 for cases containing the American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC) code for ECMO, and "ECMO" and "ECLS" free-text searches...
March 20, 2019: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
Kimia Kamelian, Katherine J Lepik, William Chau, Benita Yip, Wendy W Zhang, Viviane Dias Lima, Marjorie A Robbins, Conan Woods, Andrea Olmstead, Jeffrey B Joy, Rolando Barrios, P Richard Harrigan
Background: Integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) are highly efficacious and well tolerated antiretrovirals with fewer adverse side-effects relative to other classes of antiretrovirals. The use of INSTIs raltegravir, elvitegravir, and dolutegravir has increased dramatically over recent years. However, there is limited information about the evolution and prevalence of INSTI resistance mutations in clinical human immunodeficiency virus populations. Methods: Human immunodeficiency virus-1-positive individuals ≥19 years were included if they received ≥1 dispensed prescription of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in British Columbia between 2009 and 2016 (N = 9358)...
March 2019: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Fatemeh Izadpanah, Shekoufeh Nikfar, Freshteh Bakhshi Imcheh, Mina Amini, Marzieh Zargaran
Introduction and Objective: Medical errors and adverse events are among the major causes of avoidable deaths and costs incurred on health systems all over the world. Medical errors are among the main challenges threatening the safety of patients in all countries and one of the most common types of medical errors is medication errors. This study aimed to determine the frequency, type, and causes of medication errors in the emergency and pediatric wards of hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2017...
October 2018: Journal of Medicine and Life
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