Read by QxMD icon Read

Critical ilness

Fengling Feng, Jin Zhao, Pingchao Li, Ruiting Li, Ling Chen, Caijun Sun
Antigen-specific T lymphocytes play a critical role in controlling viral infections. However, we report here that preexisting virus-specific T cell responses also contribute to promoting adenovirus (Ad) infection. Previously, we found that CD14+ monocytes from Ad-seropositive individuals exhibited an increased susceptibility to Ad infection, when compared with that of Ad-seronegative individuals. But the underlying mechanisms for this enhancement of viral infection are not completely clarified. In this study, we found that the efficacy of Ad infection into CD14+ monocytes was significantly decreased after CD3+ T lymphocytes depletion from PBMC samples of Ad-seropositive individuals...
February 13, 2019: Viruses
Yun Jin, Zhiwei Sun, Jiawei Geng, Lei Yang, Zhenyu Song, Haihan Song, Junfeng Wang, Jianzhong Tang
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common liver malignancy with dismal prognosis and limited treatment options. Natural killer (NK) cells are critical components of antitumor immunity due to their capacity to eliminate MHC class I-deficient cells. To evaluate the function of NK cells in HCC patients, circulating CD3- CD56+ NK cells were collected from HBV-associated HCC patients and healthy control individuals. Compared to NK cells from healthy controls, NK cells from HCC patients presented functional impairment, characterized by significantly reduced cytotoxicity, degranulation, and cytokine production...
February 16, 2019: International Immunopharmacology
Christian Neumann, Jonas Blume, Urmi Roy, Peggy P Teh, Ajithkumar Vasanthakumar, Alexander Beller, Yang Liao, Frederik Heinrich, Teresita L Arenzana, Jason A Hackney, Celine Eidenschenk, Eric J C Gálvez, Christina Stehle, Gitta A Heinz, Patrick Maschmeyer, Tom Sidwell, Yifang Hu, Derk Amsen, Chiara Romagnani, Hyun-Dong Chang, Andrey Kruglov, Mir-Farzin Mashreghi, Wei Shi, Till Strowig, Sascha Rutz, Axel Kallies, Alexander Scheffold
Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg cells) are crucial for the maintenance of immune homeostasis both in lymphoid tissues and in non-lymphoid tissues. Here we demonstrate that the ability of intestinal Treg cells to constrain microbiota-dependent interleukin (IL)-17-producing helper T cell (TH 17 cell) and immunoglobulin A responses critically required expression of the transcription factor c-Maf. The terminal differentiation and function of several intestinal Treg cell populations, including RORγt+ Treg cells and follicular regulatory T cells, were c-Maf dependent...
February 18, 2019: Nature Immunology
Virginie Tardif, Roshell Muir, Rafael Cubas, Marita Chakhtoura, Peter Wilkinson, Talibah Metcalf, Rana Herro, Elias K Haddad
Follicular helper T cells (Tfh) play critical roles instructing, and initiating T-cell dependent antibody responses. The underlying mechanisms that enhance their function is therefore critical for vaccine development. Here we apply gene array analysis identifying adenosine deaminase (ADA) as a key molecule that delineates a human Tfh helper program in proliferating circulating Tfh (cTfh) cells and Germinal Centers Tfh (GC-Tfh). ADA-1 expression and enzymatic activity are increased in efficient cTfh2-17/GC-Tfh cells...
February 18, 2019: Nature Communications
Sang Jun Han, Hongmei Li, Mihwa Kim, Vivette D'Agati, H Thomas Lee
Intestinal Paneth cells play a critical role in ischemic acute kidney injury (AKI) by releasing interleukin 17A (IL-17A). Because Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) activation degranulates Paneth cells and necrotic tubular epithelial cells release several damage associated molecular patterns that target TLR9, we tested the hypothesis that intestinal TLR9 deficiency would protect against ischemic AKI and associated remote intestinal and hepatic dysfunction by decreasing Paneth cell degranulation. We generated mice lacking TLR9 in intestinal epithelia (TLR9fl/fl Villin Cre mice) and compared them to wild type (TLR9fl/fl) mice following right nephrectomy and left ischemia/reperfusion...
February 15, 2019: Kidney International
Lixing Huang, Youyu Zhang, Rongchao He, Zhenghong Zuo, Zhuhua Luo, Wei Xu, Qingpi Yan
Pseudomonas plecoglossicida, a temperature dependent bacterial pathogen in fish, expresses rpoE gene that is sensitive to temperature and probably critical for pathogen virulence and disease development. In this study, the rpoE silence strain rpoE-RNAi-1 was constructed by gene knock-down. The rpoE-RNAi-1 displayed significant changes in biofilm formation, swarming motility, adhesion and virulence. Meanwhile, vaccination of grouper with rpoE-RNAi-1 led to a relative percent survival (RPS) value of 85% after challenged with the wild-type P...
February 15, 2019: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Ningxin Zhu, Xanthippi Chatzistavrou, Lihong Ge, Man Qin, Petros Papagerakis, Yuanyuan Wang
Dental caries is a bacteria-caused condition classified among the most common chronic diseases worldwide. Treatment of dental caries implies the use of materials having regenerative and anti-bacterial properties, and controlling inflammation is critical for successful endodontic regeneration. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to fabricate and characterize a novel composite incorporating sol-gel derived silver-doped bioactive glass (BG) in a chitosan (CS) hydrogel at a 1:1 weight ratio(Ag-BG/CS)...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Dentistry
Sanooj Soni, Kieran P O'Dea, Ying Ying Tan, Kahori Cho, Eiko Abe, Rosalba Romano, Jiang Cui, Daqing Ma, Padmini Sarathchandra, Michael R Wilson, Masao Takata
Cellular stress or injury induces release of endogenous danger signals such as ATP, which plays a central role in activating immune cells. ATP is essential for the release of nonclassically secreted cytokines such as IL-1β but, paradoxically, has been reported to inhibit the release of classically secreted cytokines such as TNF. Here, we reveal that ATP does switch off soluble TNF (17 kDa) release from LPS-treated macrophages, but rather than inhibiting the entire TNF secretion, ATP packages membrane TNF (26 kDa) within microvesicles (MVs)...
February 18, 2019: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Lumin Zhang, Arevik Mosoian, Myron E Schwartz, Sander S Florman, Ganesh Gunasekaran, Thomas Schiano, M Isabel Fiel, Wei Jiang, Qi Shen, Andrea D Branch, Meena B Bansal
IL-1β is an important mediator of innate inflammatory responses and has been shown to contribute to liver injury in a number of etiologies. HIV patients have increased necroinflammation and more rapid fibrosis progression in chronic liver injury compared to non-HIV-infected patients. As the resident liver macrophage is critical to the IL-1β response to microbial translocation in chronic liver disease, we aim to examine the impact of HIV-1 and LPS stimulation on the IL-1β response of the resident hepatic macrophages...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Yongjun Sui, George K Lewis, Yichuan Wang, Kurt Berckmueller, Blake Frey, Amiran Dzutsev, Diego Vargas-Inchaustegui, Venkatramanan Mohanram, Thomas Musich, Xiaoying Shen, Anthony DeVico, Timothy Fouts, David Venzon, James Kirk, Robert C Waters, James Talton, Dennis Klinman, John Clements, Georgia D Tomaras, Genoveffa Franchini, Marjorie Robert-Guroff, Giorgio Trinchieri, Robert C Gallo, Jay A Berzofsky
It is widely believed that protection against acquisition of HIV or SIV infection requires anti-envelope (anti-Env) antibodies, and that cellular immunity may affect viral loads but not acquisition, except in special cases. Here we provide evidence to the contrary. Mucosal immunization may enhance HIV vaccine efficacy by eliciting protective responses at portals of exposure. Accordingly, we vaccinated macaques mucosally with HIV/SIV peptides, modified vaccinia Ankara-SIV (MVA-SIV), and HIV-gp120-CD4 fusion protein plus adjuvants, which consistently reduced infection risk against heterologous intrarectal SHIVSF162P4 challenge, both high dose and repeated low dose...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Courtney B Crayne, Sabrin Albeituni, Kim E Nichols, Randy Q Cron
Synonymous with secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is a term used by rheumatologists to describe a potentially life-threatening complication of systemic inflammatory disorders, most commonly systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Clinical and laboratory features of MAS include sustained fever, hyperferritinemia, pancytopenia, fibrinolytic coagulopathy, and liver dysfunction. Soluble interleukin-2 receptor alpha chain (sCD25) and sCD163 may be elevated, and histopathology often reveals characteristic increased hemophagocytic activity in the bone marrow (and other tissues), with positive CD163 (histiocyte) staining...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
Yanfeng Gao, Shuang Zhou, Lizhi Pang, Juechen Yang, Han John Li, Xiongwei Huo, Steven Y Qian
The thunder god vine (Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. F) is traditionally used for inflammation-related diseases in traditional Chinese medicine. In recent years, celastrol (a natural compound from the root of the thunder god vine) has attracted great interest for its potential anticancer activities. The free radical nitric oxide (NO) is known to play a critical role in colorectal cancer growth by promoting tumour angiogenesis. However, how celastrol influences the NO pathway and its mechanism against colorectal cancer is largely unknown...
February 18, 2019: Free Radical Research
Amaris Hui, Liane B Johnson, Rony Greemberg, Lynette Penney, Suzanne E Ramsey
Infant-onset bilateral sensorineural hearing loss is a key presenting symptom of the autoinflammatory cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome. Other symptoms include periodic fever, cold-induced urticaria-like rash, chronic aseptic meningitis, polyarticular arthralgias, and renal AA amyloidosis. Early recognition and treatment with interleukin-1 blockade are critical for preventing disabling or fatal complications. We describe a patient with severe cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome who presented at age 18 months with macrocephaly and moderate sensorineural hearing loss, later developing systemic sequelae...
January 28, 2019: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Gwenny M Verstappen, Frans G M Kroese, Hendrika Bootsma
A histologic hallmark of primary SS (pSS) is lymphocytic infiltration of the salivary and lacrimal glands, in particular by CD4+ T and B cells. In the early stages of the disease, infiltrates are dominated by CD4+ T cells, while B cell accumulation occurs at later stages. Activated T cells contribute to pathogenesis by producing pro-inflammatory cytokines and by inducing B cell activation, which results in the establishment of a positive feedback loop. In the inflamed glandular tissues, many different CD4+ effector subsets are present, including IFN-γ-producing Th1 cells, IL-17-producing Th17 cells and IL-21-producing T follicular helper cells...
February 15, 2019: Rheumatology
Vladimir Ramirez-Carrozzi, Naruhisa Ota, Arivazhagan Sambandam, Kit Wong, Jason Hackney, Nadia Martinez-Martin, Wenjun Ouyang, Rajita Pappu
IL-17 family cytokines are critical to host defense responses at cutaneous and mucosal surfaces. Whereas IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-17C induce overlapping inflammatory cascades to promote neutrophil-mediated immunity, IL-17E/IL-25 drives type 2 immune pathways and eosinophil activity. Genetic and pharmacological studies reveal the significant contribution these cytokines play in antimicrobial and autoimmune mechanisms. However, little is known about the related family member, IL-17B, with contrasting reports of both pro- and anti-inflammatory function in rodents...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Francesco Borriello, Maria Rosaria Galdiero, Gilda Varricchi, Stefania Loffredo, Giuseppe Spadaro, Gianni Marone
Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and inteleukin-3 (IL-3) have long been known as mediators of emergency myelopoiesis, but recent evidence has highlighted their critical role in modulating innate immune effector functions in mice and humans. This new wealth of knowledge has uncovered novel aspects of the pathogenesis of a range of disorders, including infectious, neoplastic, autoimmune, allergic and cardiovascular diseases. Consequently, GM-CSF and IL-3 are now being investigated as therapeutic targets for some of these disorders, and some phase I/II clinical trials are already showing promising results...
February 15, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Siyan Liu, Yuxuan Li, Liping Xia, Hui Shen, Jing Lu
OBJECTIVES: Angiogenesis in bone and osteogenesis appear to be closely linked, suggesting the existence of molecular crosstalk between pro-angiogenic molecules and osteoblasts. The pro-angiogenic molecules vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) with its receptors Flt-1, Flk-1 and fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 play a crucial role in born formation, an early and critical event in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Interleukin (IL)-35 is demonstrated to be an anti-inflammatory cytokine in RA...
February 11, 2019: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
Thi Thinh Nguyen, Trong Thuan Ung, Shinan Li, Sen Lian, Yong Xia, Sun Young Park, Young Do Jung
Metformin, an inexpensive, well-tolerated oral agent that is a commonly used first-line treatment for type 2 diabetes, has become the focus of intense research as a potential anticancer agent. In this study, we describe the inhibitory effect of metformin in interleukin 8 (IL-8) upregulation by lithocholic acid (LCA) in HCT116 colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. Pharmacological inhibition studies indicated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) were involved in LCA-induced IL-8 upregulation through activation of the transcription factor NF-κB...
February 14, 2019: Scientific Reports
Yuguang Liu, Ian Papautsky
This work presents a heterogeneous immunoassay using the integrated functionalities of a channel and droplets in a digital microfluidic (DMF) platform. Droplet functionality in DMF allows for the programmable manipulation of discrete sample and reagent droplets in the range of nanoliters. Pressure-driven channels become advantageous over droplets when sample must be washed, as the supernatant can be thoroughly removed in a convenient and rapid manner while the sample is immobilized. Herein, we demonstrate a magnetic bead-based, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using ~60 nL of human interleukin-6 (IL-6) sample...
February 5, 2019: Micromachines
Sofía D Castell, María F Harman, Gabriel Morón, Belkys A Maletto, María C Pistoresi-Palencia
It is well known that neutrophils are rapidly recruited to a site of injury or infection and perform a critical role in pathogen clearance and inflammation. However, they are also able to interact with and regulate innate and adaptive immune cells and some stimuli induce the migration of neutrophils to lymph nodes (LNs). Previously, we demonstrated that the immune complex (IC) generated by injecting OVA into the footpad of OVA/CFA immunized mice induced the migration of OVA+ neutrophils to draining LNs (dLNs)...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"