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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30776723/reports-of-rationing-from-the-neglected-realm-of-capital-investment-responses-to-resource-constraint-in-the-english-national-health-service
#1
Iestyn Williams, Kerry Allen, Gunveer Plahe
Health systems around the world face financial pressures that can affect sustainability and patient outcomes, and there is a vast literature devoted to the allocation of scarce health care resources. Capital spending - for example on estates, equipment and information technology - is an important but often neglected area of this literature. This study explores the constraints on the allocation of capital budgets in health care, before addressing the question: what is the role of priority setting and rationing in responses to these constraints? The paper presents findings from interviews conducted with senior finance professionals in 30 National Health Service local provider organisations across England...
February 13, 2019: Social Science & Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30776623/modeling-the-provision-of-air-quality-regulation-ecosystem-service-provided-by-urban-green-spaces-using-lichens-as-ecological-indicators
#2
Paula Matos, Joana Vieira, Bernardo Rocha, Cristina Branquinho, Pedro Pinho
The UN Sustainable Development Goals states that urban air pollution must be tackled to create more inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable cities. Urban green infrastructures can mitigate air pollution, but a crucial step to use this knowledge into urban management is to quantify how much air-quality regulation can green spaces provide and to understand how the provision of this ecosystem service is affected by other environmental factors. Considering the insufficient number of air quality monitoring stations in cities to monitor the wide range of natural and anthropic sources of pollution with high spatial resolution, ecological indicators of air quality are an alternative cost-effective tool...
February 2, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30776598/overexploitation-hazards-and-salinization-risks-in-crucial-declining-aquifers-chemo-isotopic-approaches
#3
R Bagheri, A Nosrati, H Jafari, H G M Eggenkamp, M Mozafari
Bastam region is overusing its groundwater resources stocks. The groundwater levels, and hydrogeochemical data during a 14-year period (2002-2016) and isotopic composition (2016) of the 22 groundwater samples were investigated to determine the hydrogeological regime of Bastam Plain and identify the geochemical processes that control the groundwater quality. This plain is situated in a semi-arid region of northern Iran, mainly recharging from the carbonate Mountains in the north and southwest. In general, overexploitation of the groundwater due to low precipitation and changing precipitation regime has destructive effects on the hydrogeological setting and flow regime of Bastam crucial aquifer, including the decline of the groundwater level with rate of 0...
February 10, 2019: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30776553/environmental-sustainability-of-anaerobic-digestion-of-household-food-waste
#4
Peter C Slorach, Harish K Jeswani, Rosa Cuéllar-Franca, Adisa Azapagic
Consumers are the leading producers of food waste (FW) in developed countries and the majority of household FW is still embedded in general waste where it is incinerated or landfilled. There is increasing awareness in the value of collecting FW as a separate waste stream for production of compost or recovery of energy through anaerobic digestion (AD). This study focuses on AD to evaluate the life cycle environmental sustainability of recovering energy and fertilisers from household FW in the UK. The analysis is carried out for two different functional units: i) treatment of 1 tonne of FW, which is compared to incineration and landfilling; and ii) generation of 1 MWh of electricity, which is compared to other electricity generation options...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Environmental Management
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30776469/the-nested-enzyme-within-enterocyte-newe-turnover-model-for-predicting-dynamic-drug-and-disease-effects-on-the-gut-wall
#5
Adam S Darwich, Howard J Burt, Amin Rostami-Hodjegan
Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models provide a framework for in vitro-in vivo extrapolation of metabolic drug clearance. Many of the concepts in PBPK can have consequential impact on more mechanistic systems pharmacology models. In the gut wall, turnover of enzymes and enterocytes are typically lumped into one rate constant that describes the time dependent enzyme activity. This assumption may influence predictability of any sustained and dynamic effects such as mechanism-based inhibition (MBI), particularly when considering translation from healthy to gut disease...
February 15, 2019: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30776407/tocophersolan-stabilized-lipid-nanocapsules-with-high-drug-loading-to-improve-the-permeability-and-oral-bioavailability-of-curcumin
#6
Pradnya Bapat, Rohan Ghadi, Dasharath Chaudhari, Sameer S Katiyar, Sanyog Jain
The present investigation highlights the development of D-α-Tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (Tocophersolan; TPGS) stabilized lipid nanocapsules for enhancing the oral bioavailability and permeability of curcumin (CUR). Lipid nanocapsules were optimized for different lipids, different concentrations of TPGS and different drug: lipid ratio and were further lyophilized. Subsequently, they were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, Transmission electron microscopy and also evaluated for in vitro release study, Caco-2 cell uptake study, ex vivo intestinal permeability and in vivo pharmacokinetic performance...
February 15, 2019: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30776352/antioxidants-and-improved-regrowth-procedure-facilitated-cryoconservation-of-paphiopedilum-insigne-wall-ex-lindl-an-endangered-slipper-orchid
#7
Reema Vareen Diengdoh, Suman Kumaria, Meera Chettri Das
Orchids and their sustainability are very important issues that need global conservation efforts. Paphiopedilum insigne (an endangered orchid), is one of the most excessively exploited species of orchids and is mentioned in the IUCN Red List and Appendix I of CITES. The prospect for conservation and commercialization of this species would be strengthened with the development of improved cryopreservation techniques. This study reports on successful cryopreservation of protocorms of P.insigne after cryopreservation using vitrification (Vit) and encapsulation-vitrification (E-Vit) techniques...
February 15, 2019: Cryobiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30776339/early-intra-acinar-events-in-pathogenesis-of-pancreatitis
#8
Ashok Saluja, Vikas Dudeja, Rajinder Dawra, Raghuwansh P Sah
Premature activation of digestive enzymes in the pancreas has been linked to development of pancreatitis for more than a century. Recent development of novel models to study the role of pathologic enzyme activation has led to advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of pancreatic injury. Co-localization of zymogen and lysosomal fraction occurs early after pancreatitis causing stimulus. Cathepsin B activates trypsinogen in these co-localized organelles. Active trypsin increases permeability of these organelles resulting in leakage of cathepsin B into the cytosol leading to acinar cell death...
February 15, 2019: Gastroenterology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30776055/clinical-outcomes-of-escalation-vs-early-intensive-disease-modifying-therapy-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis
#9
Katharine Harding, Owain Williams, Mark Willis, James Hrastelj, Anthony Rimmer, Fady Joseph, Valentina Tomassini, Mark Wardle, Trevor Pickersgill, Neil Robertson, Emma Tallantyre
Importance: Uncertainty remains about how aggressively to treat early multiple sclerosis. High-efficacy disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) are often reserved for individuals expressing poor prognostic features at baseline. Objective: To analyze long-term outcomes in a population-based cohort according to initial treatment strategy. Design, Setting and Participants: In this cohort study, data were derived from January 1998 to December 2016, and analysis was performed in January 2017...
February 18, 2019: JAMA Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30776029/route-towards-sustainable-smart-sensors-ferroelectric-polyvinylidene-fluoride-based-materials-and-their-integration-in-flexible-electronics
#10
REVIEW
Barbara Stadlober, Martin Zirkl, Mihai Irimia-Vladu
With the advent of the Internet of Everything (IoE) era, our civilization and future generations will employ an unimaginable complex array of electronics and sensors in daily life. Ferroelectric polymers represent a core group of materials supporting the fast development of IoE, and their functionality, straightforward processing and unmatched versatility make them prime candidates for integration in multifaceted devices. Since they are highly selective, highly responsive, highly scalable, self-powering and compatible with flexible and stretchable substrates, they can be easily integrated with various electronics into numerous stand-alone objects and even into skin as sensors for monitoring diverse mechanical, thermal and vital parameters...
February 18, 2019: Chemical Society Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30775534/individualized-fracture-risk-assessment-state-of-the-art-and-room-for-improvement
#11
REVIEW
Tuan V Nguyen
Fragility fracture is a serious clinical event, because it is associated with increased risk of mortality and reduced quality of life. The risk of fracture is determined by multiple risk factors, and their effects may be interactional. Over the past 10 years, a number of predictive models (e.g., FRAX, Garvan Fracture Risk Calculator, and Qfracture) have been developed for individualized assessment of fracture risk. These models use different risk profiles to estimate the probability of fracture over 5- and 10-year period...
March 2018: Osteoporosis and Sarcopenia
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30775318/fibrosarcomatous-dermatofibrosarcoma-protuberans-from-scar-following-trauma
#12
Sang Wook Lee, Araya Zaesim, Amanda Jackson, Michael Borkat
Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is an uncommon soft tissue neoplasm of low metastatic potential notable for its progressive growth and high rate of local recurrence after surgical excision. Fibrosarcomatous transformation of DFSP (FS-DFSP) is a rare variant characterized by higher rates of local recurrence and metastasis. Trauma has been hypothesized as a potential risk factor for the development of DFSP, although clear evidence has been lacking. In this study, we report a case of FS-DFSP that was found arising from a previously stable scar following a traumatic injury...
October 2018: Autopsy & Case Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30775005/path-analyses-of-risk-factors-for-linear-growth-faltering-in-four-prospective-cohorts-of-young-children-in-ghana-malawi-and-burkina-faso
#13
Elizabeth L Prado, Elizabeth Yakes Jimenez, Stephen Vosti, Robert Stewart, Christine P Stewart, Jérôme Somé, Anna Pulakka, Jean Bosco Ouédraogo, Harriet Okronipa, Eugenia Ocansey, Brietta Oaks, Kenneth Maleta, Anna Lartey, Emma Kortekangas, Sonja Y Hess, Kenneth Brown, Jaden Bendabenda, Ulla Ashorn, Per Ashorn, Mary Arimond, Seth Adu-Afarwuah, Souheila Abbeddou, Kathryn Dewey
Stunting prevalence is an indicator of a country's progress towards United Nations' Sustainable Development Goal 2, which is to end hunger and achieve improved nutrition. Accelerating progress towards reducing stunting requires a deeper understanding of the factors that contribute to linear growth faltering. We conducted path analyses of factors associated with 18-month length-for-age z-score (LAZ) in four prospective cohorts of children who participated in trials conducted as part of the International Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements Project in Ghana (n=1039), Malawi (n=684 and 1504) and Burkina Faso (n=2619)...
2019: BMJ Global Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30774538/ensuring-effective-and-sustainable-radionuclide-delivery-and-its-impact-on-the-development-of-nuclear-medicine-in-the-developing-world-with-special-reference-to-nigeria
#14
REVIEW
T Akintunde Orunmuyi, M Mike Sathekge, R John Buscombe
Recent activities of Boko Haram, a local extremist group in Nigeria, raise concerns about a nuclear terrorist attack. Whereas nuclear medicine (NM) relies on the timely delivery of radioactive sources, a robust security structure that assures public safety is the backbone for its beneficial use. NM radionuclides have short half-lives and carry an insignificant risk for acts of terrorism. Yet, their importation and delivery in Nigeria receive undue scrutiny in a bid to implement a strict nuclear security regime...
January 2019: World Journal of Nuclear Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30774336/green-synthesis-of-multifunctional-peg-carboxylate-%C3%AF-back-bonded-gold-nanoconjugates-for-breast-cancer-treatment
#15
Mani Gajendiran, Heejung Jo, Kyobum Kim, Sengottuvelan Balasubramanian
Background: Surface functionalization of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has emerged as a promising field of research with enormous biomedical applications. The folate (FA)-attached polymer-gold nanoconjugates play vital role in targeting the cancer cells. Methods: AuNPs were synthesized by using di- or tri-carboxylate-polyethylene glycol (PEG) polymers, including citrate-PEG (CPEG), malate-PEG (MAP), and tartrate-PEG (TAP), as a reducing and stabilizing agent. After synthesis of polymer-AuNPs, the freely available hydroxyl and carboxylate groups of CPEG, MAP, and TAP were used to attach a cancer cell-targeting agent, FA, via a 1-Ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide/N-hydroxy succinimide coupling reaction to obtain FA-CPEG-AuNP, FA-MAP-AuNP, and FA-TAP-AuNP nanocon-jugates, respectively...
2019: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30774333/nac-loaded-electrospun-scaffolding-system-with-dual-compartments-for-the-osteogenesis-of-rbmscs-in-vitro
#16
Yuanjing Zhu, Fangfang Song, Yanyun Ju, Liyuan Huang, Lu Zhang, Chuliang Tang, Hongye Yang, Cui Huang
Purpose: In this study, we aimed to develop a unique N -acetyl cysteine (NAC)-loaded polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) electrospun system with separate compartments for the promotion of osteogenesis. Materials and methods: We first prepared solutions of NAC-loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs), PLGA, and NAC in N , N -dimethylformamide and tetrahydrofuran for the construction of the electrospun system. We then fed solutions to a specific injector for electrospinning...
2019: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30774288/factors-protecting-against-pressure-injuries-in-medically-underserved-adults-with-spinal-cord-injury-a-qualitative-study
#17
Alix G Sleight, Alison M Cogan, Valerie A Hill, Elizabeth A Pyatak, Jesus Díaz, Lucía I Floríndez, Jeanine Blanchard, Cheryl Vigen, Susan L Garber, Florence A Clark
Background: Pressure injuries negatively impact quality of life and participation for individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Objective: To examine the factors that may protect against the development of medically serious pressure injuries in adults with SCI. Methods: A qualitative analysis was conducted using treatment notes regarding 50 socioeconomically disadvantaged individuals who did not develop medically serious pressure injuries during a 12-month pressure injury prevention intervention program. Results: Eight types of potentially protective factors were identified: meaningful activity, motivation to prevent negative health outcomes, stability/resources, equipment, communication and self-advocacy skills, personal traits, physical factors, and behaviors/activities...
2019: Topics in Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30774160/anticipating-governance-challenges-in-synthetic-biology-insights-from-biosynthetic-menthol
#18
Barbara Ribeiro, Philip Shapira
This paper advances an anticipatory governance framework to investigate and prepare for the potential implications of an emerging technology. Within the growing domain of synthetic biology, we draw on an end-to-end assessment of biosynthetic menthol that incorporates consideration of multiple dimensions of production and use. Based on documentary analysis, available data, and interviews, our approach unfolds in three steps. First, we map the sociotechnical transition in menthol production, comparing existing agricultural and chemical production methods with new biosynthetic processes - or what we call the biological (bio) turn...
February 2019: Technological Forecasting and Social Change
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30773741/enhancing-electrocatalytic-water-splitting-by-strain-engineering
#19
REVIEW
Bo You, Michael T Tang, Charlie Tsai, Frank Abild-Pedersen, Xiaolin Zheng, Hong Li
Electrochemical water splitting driven by sustainable energy such as solar, wind, and tide is attracting ever-increasing attention for sustainable production of clean hydrogen fuel from water. Leveraging these advances requires efficient and earth-abundant electrocatalysts to accelerate the kinetically sluggish hydrogen and oxygen evolution reactions (HER and OER). A large number of advanced water-splitting electrocatalysts have been developed through recent understanding of the electrochemical nature and engineering approaches...
February 18, 2019: Advanced Materials
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30773705/high-performance-materials-for-3d-printing-in-chemical-synthesis-applications
#20
REVIEW
Frederik Kotz, Patrick Risch, Dorothea Helmer, Bastian E Rapp
3D printing has emerged as an enabling technology for miniaturization. High-precision printing techniques such as stereolithography are capable of printing microreactors and lab-on-a-chip devices for efficient parallelization of biological and biochemical reactions under reduced uptake of reactants. In the world of chemistry, however, up until now, miniaturization has played a minor role. The chemical and thermal stability of regular 3D printing resins is insufficient for sustaining the harsh conditions of chemical reactions...
February 18, 2019: Advanced Materials
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