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Human milk fortified

Kevin R Nicholas, Vengama Modepalli, Ashalyn P Watt, Lyn A Hinds, Amit Kumar, Christophe Lefevre, Julie A Sharp
Significantly preterm and low-birthweight (LBW) babies have diminished lung and gut development, generally fail to thrive, have increased mortality and higher frequency of mature-onset disease. Mothers often cannot breastfeed, and babies receive either formula or pasteurized donor milk, which may further limit the baby's recovery. New approaches are required to manage the early stages of neonatal development. The tammar wallaby, an Australian marsupial, has a short gestation and a simple placenta, and gives birth to an altricial young equivalent to a final trimester human embryo...
2019: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Chenxi Cai, Zhengxiao Zhang, Maria Morales, Yanan Wang, James Friel
Knowledge about the development of the preterm infant gut microbiota is emerging and is critical to their health. Very-low-birth-weight (VLBW; birth weight, <1500 g) infants usually have special dietary needs while showing increased oxidative stress related to intensive care. This prospective cohort study assessed the effect of feeding practice on gut microbiome development and oxidative stress in preterm infants. Fecal samples were collected from each infant in the early (1-2 weeks of enteral feeding) and late (2-4 weeks of enteral feeding) feeding stages...
March 6, 2019: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Klaudyna Borewicz, Maria Suarez-Diez, Christine Hechler, Roseriet Beijers, Carolina de Weerth, Ilja Arts, John Penders, Carel Thijs, Arjen Nauta, Cordula Lindner, Ellen Van Leusen, Elaine E Vaughan, Hauke Smidt
Gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota composition differs between breastfed and formula-fed infants. Today's infant formulas are often fortified with prebiotics to better mimic properties of human milk with respect to its effect on GI microbiota composition and function. We used Illumina HiSeq sequencing of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments to investigate the composition of faecal microbiota in 2-12 week old infants receiving either breastmilk, infant formulas fortified with prebiotics, or mixed feeding. We compared these results with results from infants fed traditional formulas used in the Netherlands in 2002-2003, which contained no added prebiotics...
February 21, 2019: Scientific Reports
Mariana M Oliveira, Davi C Aragon, Vanessa S Bomfim, Tânia M B Trevilato, Larissa G Alves, Anália R Heck, Francisco E Martinez, José S Camelo
Breast milk is considered the gold standard nutritional resource for very low birth weight (VLBW) infants in terms of nutrients and protective factors. If mother's milk is not available, the second choice is donated and fortified human milk (HM) from the Human Milk Bank (HMB). This study hypothesized that HM could be lyophilized and used as an additive to increase the levels of macronutrients and micronutrients available to VLBW infants. This study aimed to constitute a lyophilized HM concentrate and determine the osmolality and the concentration of macronutrients and micronutrients in HM samples at "baseline" and in "HM concentrates", analyzed immediately (HMCI), and after 3 (HMC3m) and 6 (HMC6m) months of freezing...
2019: PloS One
Claude Billeaud, Carole Boué-Vaysse, Leslie Couëdelo, Philippe Steenhout, Jonathan Jaeger, Cristina Cruz-Hernandez, Laurent Ameye, Jacques Rigo, Jean-Charles Picaud, Elie Saliba, Nicholas P Hays, Frédéric Destaillats
We thank Bernard and colleagues for their careful reading and interest in our article Effects on Fatty Acid Metabolism of a New Powdered Human Milk Fortifier Containing Medium-Chain Triacylglycerols and Docosahexaenoic Acid in Preterm Infants [...].
February 15, 2019: Nutrients
Pitiporn Siripattanapipong, Buranee Yangthara, Sopapan Ngerncham
BACKGROUND: The nutritional content of preterm human milk (HM) can be increased by adding human milk fortifier (HMF). Premature formula (PF) has been used as an alternative to HMF due to the high cost of HMF in some countries. However, the osmolality of HM after fortification remains a matter of concern. AIM: To evaluate the osmolality of fortified preterm HM. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study. HM was collected from 28 mothers of infants with a gestational age of <32 weeks or birthweight <1500 g...
February 11, 2019: Paediatrics and International Child Health
Klara McClunan, Daniel Gerhardus Nel, Muhammad Ali Dhansay, Evette van Niekerk
BACKGROUND: Human breast milk (HBM) is considered inadequate in meeting protein requirements, especially for very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, which could affect body composition. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to determine the effect of HBM on body composition of HIV-exposed and unexposed preterm VLBW and extremely low birth weight infants. The secondary objectives were to ascertain the effect breast milk fortification and days nil per os (NPO) have on body composition...
February 4, 2019: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
Ashley John, Ruichen Sun, Lisa Maillart, Andrew Schaefer, Erin Hamilton Spence, Maryanne T Perrin
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The composition of human milk varies widely and impacts the ability to meet nutrient requirements for preterm infants. The purpose of this study is to use a large dataset of milk composition from donors to a milk bank to: (1) describe the macronutrient variability in human milk and how it contributes to the ability to meet the protein and calorie targets for the preterm infant using fortification with commercially available multi-nutrient fortifiers; (2) assess how temporal versus subject effects explain macronutrient variability; (3) determine how macronutrient variability contributes to the nutrient distribution in pooled donor milk...
2019: PloS One
Rebecca Hoban, Michael E Schoeny, Anita Esquerra-Zwiers, Tanyaporn K Kaenkumchorn, Gina Casini, Grace Tobin, Alan H Siegel, Kousiki Patra, Matthew Hamilton, Jennifer Wicks, Paula Meier, Aloka L Patel
Mother's own milk (MOM) reduces the risk of morbidities in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. When MOM is unavailable, donor breastmilk (DM) is used, with unclear impact on short- and long-term growth. This retrospective analysis compared anthropometric data at six time points from birth to 20⁻24 months corrected age in VLBW infants who received MOM supplements of preterm formula ( n = 160) versus fortified DM ( n = 161) during neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) hospitalization. The cohort was 46% female; mean birth weight and gestational age (GA) were 998 g and 27...
January 22, 2019: Nutrients
Weijia Zheng, Jeong-Min Choi, A M Abd El-Aty, Kyung-Hee Yoo, Da-Hee Park, Seong-Kwan Kim, Young-Sun Kang, Ahmet Hacımüftüoğlu, Jing Wang, Jae-Han Shim, Ho-Chul Shin
Pesticides, which are used as plant protection products, can enter the food chain, and exposure to these xenobiotics can cause a wide array of health problems in humans. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to develop an analytical method for the simultaneous determination of residual spinosad (sum of spinosyn A and D), temephos, and piperonyl butoxide in porcine muscle, egg, milk, eel, flatfish and shrimp (sampling period: February to June, 2018) using liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)...
January 21, 2019: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
Ann Carolin Longardt, Andrea Loui, Christoph Bührer, Monika Berns
BACKGROUND: Milk curd obstruction as a cause of intestinal obstruction has been known since 1959, but has nearly disappeared. However, in recent years it has experienced a revival in small premature infants. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics of milk curd obstruction (lactobezoar) in preterm infants. METHODS: Data of preterm infants with milk curd obstruction cared for at a large tertiary neonatal intensive care unit between 2012 and 2016 were retrieved from the electronic registry and paper records...
January 15, 2019: Neonatology
Robert L Beverly, Mark A Underwood, David C Dallas
Over the course of milk digestion, native milk proteases and infant digestive proteases fragment intact proteins into peptides with potential bioactivity. This study investigated the release of peptides over three hours of gastric digestion in 14 preterm infant sample sets. The peptide content was extracted and analyzed from milk and gastric samples via Orbitrap tandem mass spectrometry. The relative ion intensity (abundance) and count of peptides in each sample were compared over time and between infants fed milk fortified with bovine milk fortifier and infants fed unfortified milk...
January 14, 2019: Journal of Proteome Research
David J Ellingson, Jeffrey J Shippar, Thomas J Vennard, Cian Moloney, Deborah O'Connor, Jonathan O'Regan, Adrienne McMahon, Michael Affolter
Background : There is a need for a standardized method for quantification of lactoferrin in infant formulas, and manufacturers have started fortifying lactoferrin to mimic the higher levels found in human milk. A variety of current methods exist, but specificity and accuracy are challenging with the infant formula matrix. The use of signature peptides and MS is becoming more prevalent in the realm of analytical chemistry for quantification of proteins. Objective : The objective of this work was to develop and validate a method through a single-laboratory validation for quantification of lactoferrin in milk-based infant formula and begin to lay the foundation for a standardized method...
December 17, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
Gopal Agrawal, Sanjay Wazir, Surender Kumar, Bir Singh Yadav, Manish Balde
Objectives: The objective of this study was to show the effects of routine vs. selective fortification of human milk (HM) on short-term growth and metabolic parameters. Methods: Single-centre retrospective pre-post cohort study in India. Preterm infants ≤32 weeks' gestation and weighing ≤1500 g were included. Routine fortification: pre-fixed feed volume (100 ml/kg/day in our unit) at which fortification was done. Selective fortification: feed volume was gradually optimized till 180-200 ml/kg/day...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Søren D Nielsen, Robert L Beverly, Mark A Underwood, David C Dallas
Digestion of milk proteins in the premature infant stomach releases functional peptides; however, which peptides are present has not been reported. Premature infants are often fed a combination of human milk and bovine milk fortifiers, but the variety of functional peptides released from both human and bovine milk proteins remains uncharacterized. This study applied peptidomics to investigate the peptides released in gastric digestion of mother's milk proteins and supplemental bovine milk proteins in premature infants...
2018: PloS One
Vijay Gupta, Grace Rebekah, Yesudas Sudhakar, Sridhar Santhanam, Manish Kumar, Niranjan Thomas
OBJECTIVE: To optimize growth in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, human milk fortification is standard of care in neonatal units of high income countries. However, commercial fortifiers may not be available or it may be too expensive in resource limited settings. As an alternative to using human milk fortifiers, we studied the effects of milk fortification with an infant formula on growth and biochemical parameters of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants Methods: We undertook a prospective, randomized controlled trial in the neonatal unit of a tertiary care hospital in south India...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Lyssa Lamport, Chelsea Hartman, Champa Codipilly, Barry Weinberger, Richard Schanler
BACKGROUND: Provision of human milk to premature infants optimizes outcomes, but it must be supplemented to meet their nutrient and caloric requirements for growth. Our objective was to quantify the osmolality of human milk mixed with commercially available human milk fortifiers (HMF) and powdered infant formula, as currently fed to premature infants, simulating standard neonatal intensive care unit feeding practices for mixing and refrigerator storage. METHODS: Expressed human milk (EHM) samples obtained from mothers of premature infants (≤32 weeks gestation) were mixed with standard commercial products, and osmolalities were quantified...
November 19, 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Nathalie Kreins, Rachel Buffin, Diane Michel-Molnar, Veronique Chambon, Pierre Pradat, Jean-Charles Picaud
Background: Fortification of human milk (HM) increases its osmolality, which is associated with an increased risk of necrotizing enterocolitis. The impact of new fortifiers on osmolality is not well-known, nor are the kinetics regarding the increase in osmolality. Aim: To determine the optimum fortifier composition for HM fortification by measuring the osmolality of fortified HM made with three powder multicomponent fortifiers (MCFs) and a protein fortifier (PF). Methods: The osmolality of HM was assessed at 2 (H2) and 24 (H24) h after fortification to compare the effects of MCF (MCF1-3) and PF used in quantities that ensured that infants' nutrient needs would be met (MCF: 4 g/100 ml HM; PF: 0...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Maria L Gianni, Paola Roggero, Fabio Mosca
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review the current available evidence on the metabolic fate of human milk proteins and their potential clinical implications for growth and body composition development vs. those of formula proteins in preterm infants. RECENT FINDINGS: The decreased content of human milk protein in preterm mothers throughout lactation might contribute to the reduced growth reported in exclusively human milk-fed infants compared with that of formula-fed infants...
January 2019: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Pasqua Piemontese, Nadia Liotto, Domenica Mallardi, Paola Roggero, Valeria Puricelli, Maria Lorella Giannì, Daniela Morniroli, Chiara Tabasso, Michela Perrone, Camilla Menis, Anna Orsi, Orsola Amato, Fabio Mosca
Introduction: Human milk is the optimal nutrition for preterm infants. When the mother's own milk is unavailable, donor human milk is recommended as an alternative for preterm infants. The association among early nutrition, body composition and the future risk of disease has recently attracted much interest. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of human milk on the body composition of preterm infants. Materials and Methods: Very low birth weight infants (VLBW: birth weight <1,500 g) with a gestational age (GA) between 26 and 34 weeks were included...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
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