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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30897205/origins-of-cd4-circulating-and-tissue-resident-memory-t-cells
#1
REVIEW
Quynh P Nguyen, Tianda Deng, Deborah A Witherden, Ananda W Goldrath
In response to infection, naive CD4+ T cells proliferate and differentiate into several possible effector subsets, including conventional T helper effector cells (TH 1, TH 2, TH 17), T regulatory cells (Treg ), and T follicular helper cells (TFH ). Once infection is cleared, a small population of long-lived memory cells remain which mediate immune defenses against reinfection. Memory T lymphocytes have classically been categorized into central memory cell (TCM ) and effector memory cell (TEM ) subsets, both of which circulate between blood, secondary lymphoid organs, and in some cases non-lymphoid tissues...
March 21, 2019: Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30897138/two-photon-fluorescence-and-second-harmonic-generation-characterization-of-extracellular-matrix-remodeling-in-post-injury-murine-temporomandibular-joint-osteoarthritis
#2
David A Reed, Mamoru Yotsuya, Polina Gubareva, Peter T Toth, Andrew Bertagna
End stage temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJ-OA) is characterized by fibrillations, fissures, clefts, and erosion of the mandibular condylar cartilage. The goal of this study was to define changes in pericellular and interterritorial delineations of the extracellular matrix (ECM) that occur preceding and concurrent with the development of this end stage degeneration in a murine surgical instability model. Two-photon fluorescence (TPF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy was used to evaluate TMJ-OA mediated changes in the ECM...
2019: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30893601/nanoscale-subsynaptic-domains-underlie-the-organization-of-the-inhibitory-synapse
#3
Kevin C Crosby, Sara E Gookin, Joshua D Garcia, Katlin M Hahm, Mark L Dell'Acqua, Katharine R Smith
Inhibitory synapses mediate the majority of synaptic inhibition in the brain, thereby controlling neuronal excitability, firing, and plasticity. Although essential for neuronal function, the central question of how these synapses are organized at the subsynaptic level remains unanswered. Here, we use three-dimensional (3D) super-resolution microscopy to image key components of the inhibitory postsynaptic domain and presynaptic terminal, revealing that inhibitory synapses are organized into nanoscale subsynaptic domains (SSDs) of the gephyrin scaffold, GABAA Rs and the active-zone protein Rab3-interacting molecule (RIM)...
March 19, 2019: Cell Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30893443/factors-related-to-medication-self-management-in-african-american-older-women
#4
Julie L Ellis, Christine R Kovach, Michael Fendrich, Oluwatoyin Olukotun, Vanessa K Baldwin, Weiming Ke, Barbara Nichols
Individuals with multiple chronic diseases are often prescribed medications for each condition and thus must manage a drug regimen. Medication self-management is challenging for most individuals with chronic diseases, but it can be especially difficult for African American older women. This study investigated how medical mistrust, caregiver role strain, and other relevant variables may be associated with medication self-management behaviors (MSMB) among African American older women, and whether goal congruence and self-efficacy mediated the relationship between the predictor variables and MSMB...
March 1, 2019: Research in Gerontological Nursing
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30893100/the-changing-concepts-in-the-neuropathology-of-acquired-demyelinating-central-nervous-system-disorders
#5
Hans Lassmann
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Research on multiple sclerosis (MS) pathogenesis and therapy is to a large extent driven by results obtained in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). This approach provided deep insights into the mechanism of brain inflammation and immune mediated tissue injury and, thus, most of our currently established therapies for MS patients have been developed with profound contributions of experimental autoimmune research. Recent data, which are summarized in this review article, however, show important differences between EAE and MS...
March 19, 2019: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30892968/acute-hypobaric-hypoxia-mediated-biochemical-metabolic-shuffling-and-differential-modulation-of-s1pr-sphk-in-cardiac-and-skeletal-muscles
#6
Babita Rahar, Sonam Chawla, Rajkumar Tulswani, Shweta Saxena
AIM: High altitude exposure alters biochemical, metabolic, and physiological features of heart and skeletal muscles, and hence has pathological consequences in these tissues. Central to these hypoxia-associated biochemical/metabolic shuffling are energy deficit accumulation of free radicals and ensuing oxidative damage in the tissue. Recent preclinical/clinical studies indicate sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) axis, comprising S1P G protein coupled receptors (S1PR1-5 ) and its synthesizing enzyme-sphingosine kinase (SphK) to have key regulatory roles in homeostatic cardiac and skeletal muscle biology...
March 2019: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30892966/cardiotrophin-1-is-an-anti-inflammatory-cytokine-and-promotes-il-4-induced-m2-macrophage-polarization
#7
David Carneros, Eva M Santamaría, Eduardo Larequi, Jose Miguel Vélez-Ortiz, Mercedes Reboredo, Uxua Mancheño, María Jesús Perugorria, Plácido Navas, Manuel Romero-Gómez, Jesús Prieto, Sandra Hervás-Stubbs, Matilde Bustos
Macrophages play a central role in tissue remodeling, repair, and resolution of inflammation. Macrophage polarization to M1 or M2 activation status may determine the progression or resolution of the inflammatory response. We have previously reported that cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1) displays both cytoprotective and metabolic activities. The role of CT-1 in inflammation remains poorly understood. Here, we employed recombinant CT-1 (rCT-1) and used CT-1-null mice and myeloid-specific CT-1 transgenic mice to investigate whether CT-1 might play a role in the modulation of the inflammatory response...
March 20, 2019: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30892936/cyp1b1-deficient-retinal-astrocytes-are-more-proliferative-and-migratory-and-are-protected-from-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation
#8
Juliana Falero-Perez, Christine M Sorenson, Nader Sheibani
Astrocytes (AC) are the most abundant cells in the central nervous system. Retinal AC play an important role in maintaining the integrity of retinal neurovascular function, and their dysfunction contributes to the pathogenesis of various eye diseases including diabetic retinopathy. Cytochrome p450 1B1 (CYP1B1) expression in the neurovascular structures of the central nervous system including AC has been reported. We previously showed that CYP1B1 expression is a key regulator of redox homeostasis in retinal vascular cells...
March 20, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30892894/understanding-color-tuning-and-reversible-oxidation-of-conjugated-azomethines
#9
Sophie Bishop, Marie-Hélène Tremblay, Alexandra Gellé, W G Skene
With the aim of achieving reversible oxidation and color tuning, the effect of the central aromatic on the spectroscopic, electrochemical, and spectrochemical properties of a series of electrochromic azomethine triads was investigated. The absorption of the alkylated thiophene derivatives was blue-shifted relative to their unalkylated counterparts when the central aromatic was either a bi- or terthiophene. It was further found that the alkylated thiophene derivatives had larger Stokes shifts than their unsubstituted counterparts...
March 20, 2019: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30892718/sustained-submaximal-contraction-yields-biphasic-modulation-of-soleus-post-activation-depression-in-healthy-humans
#10
Preeti D Oza, Shauna Dudley-Javoroski, Richard K Shields
The amplitude of the H-reflex during the development and progression of fatigue reflects a complex interplay between central and peripheral factors. The purpose of this study is to characterize H-reflex homosynaptic post-activation depression (PAD) in an on-line fashion during a sustained submaximal fatigue task. The task required a high motor output in order to increase the likelihood of creating partial muscle ischemia with accumulation of fatigue metabolites, an important potential inhibitory influence upon the H-reflex during the progression of fatigue...
March 20, 2019: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30891923/an-increase-in-membrane-cholesterol-by-graphene-oxide-disrupts-calcium-homeostasis-in-primary-astrocytes
#11
Mattia Bramini, Martina Chiacchiaretta, Andrea Armirotti, Anna Rocchi, Deepali D Kale, Cristina Martin, Ester Vázquez, Tiziano Bandiera, Stefano Ferroni, Fabrizia Cesca, Fabio Benfenati
The use of graphene nanomaterials (GNMs) for biomedical applications targeted to the central nervous system is exponentially increasing, although precise information on their effects on brain cells is lacking. In this work, the molecular changes induced in cortical astrocytes by few-layer graphene (FLG) and graphene oxide (GO) flakes are addressed. The results show that exposure to FLG/GO does not affect cell viability or proliferation. However, proteomic and lipidomic analyses unveil alterations in several cellular processes, including intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+ ]i ) homeostasis and cholesterol metabolism, which are particularly intense in cells exposed to GO...
March 20, 2019: Small
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30891616/regenerative-potential-of-adipocytes-in-hypertrophic-scars-is-mediated-by-myofibroblast-reprogramming
#12
Katharina Hoerst, Lenie van den Broek, Gerrit Erdmann, Oliver Klein, Uwe von Fritschen, Susan Gibbs, Sarah Hedtrich
Abnormal scarring is a major challenge in modern medicine. The central role of myofibroblasts and TGF-β signaling in scarring is widely accepted, but effective treatment options are missing. Autologous fat grafting is a novel approach that has led to significant improvements in the functionality and appearance of scar tissue. While the underlying mechanism is unknown, the potential role of paracrine effects of adipocytes has been discussed. Hence, with the aim of unraveling the regenerative potential of adipocytes, their effects on in vitro differentiated myofibroblasts and on fibroblasts from hypertrophic scars were investigated...
March 19, 2019: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30891164/extracellular-vesicles-derived-from-natural-killer-cells-use-multiple-cytotoxic-proteins-and-killing-mechanisms-to-target-cancer-cells
#13
Chun-Hua Wu, Jingbo Li, Li Li, Jianping Sun, Muller Fabbri, Alan S Wayne, Robert C Seeger, Ambrose Y Jong
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are secreted membrane vesicles, which play complex physiological and pathological functions in intercellular communication. Recently, we isolated natural killer (NK) cell-derived EVs (NK-EVs) from ex vivo expansion of NK cell cultures. The isolated NK-EVs contained cytotoxic proteins and several activated caspases, and they induced apoptosis in target cells. In this report, the protein levels of cytotoxic proteins from NK-EV isolates were analysed by ELISA. The mean values of perforin (PFN, 550 ng/mL), granzyme A (GzmA, 185 ng/mL), granzyme B (GzmB, 23...
2019: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30891040/pak1-kinase-promotes-activated-t-cell-trafficking-by-regulating-the-expression-of-l-selectin-and-ccr7
#14
Ana Dios-Esponera, Nicolas Melis, Bhagawat C Subramanian, Roberto Weigert, Lawrence E Samelson
Normal function of the adaptive immune system requires trafficking of T cells between the blood and lymphoid organs. Lymphocyte homing to lymph nodes requires that they cross endothelial barriers present in blood vessels and lymphatics. This multi-step process requires a remodeling of the lymphocyte plasma membrane, which is mediated by the dynamic re-arrangement of the actin cytoskeleton. Pak1 plays a central role in cell morphology, adhesion and migration in various cell types. Here we demonstrate that Pak1 is required for activated CD4+ T cell trafficking to lymph nodes...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30890917/novel-approach-to-elucidate-human-baroreflex-regulation-at-the-brainstem-level-pharmacological-testing-during-fmri
#15
Darius A Gerlach, Jorge Manuel, Alex Hoff, Hendrik Kronsbein, Fabian Hoffmann, Karsten Heusser, Heimo Ehmke, André Diedrich, Jens Jordan, Jens Tank, Florian Beissner
Introduction: Brainstem nuclei govern the arterial baroreflex, which is crucial for heart rate and blood pressure control. Yet, brainstem function is difficult to explore in living humans and is therefore mostly studied using animal models or postmortem human anatomy studies. We developed a methodology to identify brainstem nuclei involved in baroreflex cardiovascular control in humans by combining pharmacological baroreflex testing with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Materials and Methods: In 11 healthy men, we applied eight repeated intravenous phenylephrine bolus doses of 25 and 75 μg followed by a saline flush using a remote-controlled injector during multiband functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) acquisition of the whole brain including the brainstem...
2019: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30890905/adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-can-be-enhanced-by-cold-challenge-independently-from-beigeing-effects
#16
Jong Whi Kim, Kyu Ri Han, Woosuk Kim, Hyo Young Jung, Sung Min Nam, Dae Young Yoo, In Koo Hwang, Je Kyung Seong, Yeo Sung Yoon
In this study, we investigated the effects of cold challenge on adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) and hippocampal gene expression and whether these are mediated by beigeing of peripheral fat tissues. Cold challenge (6 ± 2°C) for 1 and 4 weeks was found to induce beigeing effects in inguinal white adipose tissue based on hematoxylin and eosin staining as well as uncoupled protein-1 immunohistochemical staining. In the hippocampus, cold challenge for 1 or 4 weeks increased dentate gyrus neurogenesis and expression of genes related to AHN, including notch signaling, G protein-coupled receptor signaling, and adrenergic beta receptor-1...
2019: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30890613/more-evidence-of-collusion-a-new-prophage-mediated-viral-defense-system-encoded-by-mycobacteriophage-sbash
#17
Gabrielle M Gentile, Katherine S Wetzel, Rebekah M Dedrick, Matthew T Montgomery, Rebecca A Garlena, Deborah Jacobs-Sera, Graham F Hatfull
The arms race between bacteria and their bacteriophages profoundly influences microbial evolution. With an estimated 1023 phage infections occurring per second, there is strong selection for both bacterial survival and phage coevolution for continued propagation. Many phage resistance systems, including restriction-modification systems, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat-Cas (CRISPR-Cas) systems, a variety of abortive infection systems, and many others that are not yet mechanistically defined, have been described...
March 19, 2019: MBio
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30890602/ap-2-dependent-endocytic-recycling-of-the-chitin-synthase-chs3-regulates-polarized-growth-in-candida-albicans
#18
H C Knafler, I I Smaczynska-de Rooij, L A Walker, K K Lee, N A R Gow, K R Ayscough
The human fungal pathogen Candida albicans is known to require endocytosis to enable its adaptation to diverse niches and to maintain its highly polarized hyphal growth phase. While studies have identified changes in transcription leading to the synthesis and secretion of new proteins to facilitate hyphal growth, effective maintenance of hyphae also requires concomitant removal or relocalization of other cell surface molecules. The key molecules which must be removed from the cell surface, and the mechanisms behind this, have, however, remained elusive...
March 19, 2019: MBio
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30890584/vogt-koyanagi-harada-disease
#19
Duncan Street, Arul Sivaguru, Sreekanth Sreekantam, Susan P Mollan
Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease is a rare, multisystem, autoimmune disorder with numerous clinical manifestations, mediated through a T-helper 1 response against melanocytes in the eye, inner ear, central nervous system, hair and skin. We describe a 20-year-old British-Honduran man with recent worsening headache and photophobia, vomiting and visual blurring. On examination, his pupils reacted sluggishly and visual acuities were bilaterally reduced. Optical coherence tomography showed gross retinal swelling and neurosensory detachments...
March 19, 2019: Practical Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30890355/inflammatory-mediators-of-opioid-tolerance-implications-for-dependency-and-addiction
#20
REVIEW
Lori N Eidson, Anne Z Murphy
Each year, over 50 million Americans suffer from persistent pain, including debilitating headaches, joint pain, and severe back pain. Although morphine is amongst the most effective analgesics available for the management of severe pain, prolonged morphine treatment results in decreased analgesic efficacy (i.e., tolerance). Despite significant headway in the field, the mechanisms underlying the development of morphine tolerance are not well understood. The midbrain ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) is a primary neural substrate for the analgesic effects of morphine, as well as for the development of morphine tolerance...
March 16, 2019: Peptides
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