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"developmental ontogeny"

Sofiane Hamidi, Guojun Sheng
Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) is a morphogenetic process of cells that adopt an epithelial organization in their developmental ontogeny or homeostatic maintenance. Abnormalities in EMT regulation result in many malignant tumors in the human body. Tumors associated with the hematopoietic system, however, are traditionally not considered to involve EMT and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are generally not associated with epithelial characteristics. In this review, we discuss the ontogeny and homeostasis of adult HSCs in the context of EMT intermediate states...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Biochemistry
Christine A Nalepa
Subsocial wood feeding cockroaches in the genus Cryptocercus , the sister group of termites, retain their symbiotic gut flagellates during the host molting cycle, but in lower termites, closely related flagellates die prior to host ecdysis. Although the prevalent view is that termite flagellates die because of conditions of starvation and desiccation in the gut during the host molting cycle, the work of L.R. Cleveland in the 1930s through the 1960s provides a strong alternate hypothesis: it was the changed hormonal environment associated with the origin of eusociality and its concomitant shift in termite developmental ontogeny that instigates the death of the flagellates in termites...
December 18, 2017: Microorganisms
Kara R Vogel, Garrett R Ainslie, Erwin E Jansen, Gajja S Salomons, Jean-Baptiste Roullet, K Michael Gibson
We explored the utility of neural stem cells (NSCs) as an in vitro model for evaluating preclinical therapeutics in succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase-deficient (SSADHD) mice. NSCs were obtained from aldh5a1+/+ and aldh5a1-/- mice (aldh5a1 = aldehyde dehydrogenase 5a1 = SSADH). Multiple parameters were evaluated including: (1) production of GHB (γ-hydroxybutyrate), the biochemical hallmark of SSADHD; (2) rescue from cell death with the dual mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) inhibitor, XL-765, an agent previously shown to rescue aldh5a1-/- mice from premature lethality; (3) mitochondrial number, total reactive oxygen species, and mitochondrial superoxide production, all previously documented as abnormal in aldh5a1-/- mice; (4) total ATP levels and ATP consumption; and (5) selected gene expression profiles associated with epilepsy, a prominent feature in both experimental and human SSADHD...
2017: PloS One
Bidisha Pal, Bikul Das
Human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) resides in their niches in close proximity to hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). These naïve MSCs have tremendous potential in regenerative therapeutics, and may also be exploited by cancer and infectious disease agents. Hence, it is important to study the physiological and pathological roles of naïve MSC. However, our knowledge of naïve MSCs is limited by lack of appropriate isolation and in vitro culture methods. Established culture methods use serum rich media, and serial passaging for retrospective isolation of MSCs...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
J M Rasmussen, S Entringer, F Kruggel, D M Cooper, M Styner, J H Gilmore, S G Potkin, P D Wadhwa, C Buss
BACKGROUND: The importance of energy homeostasis brain circuitry in the context of obesity is well established, however, the developmental ontogeny of this circuitry in humans is currently unknown. Here, we investigate the prospective association between newborn gray matter (GM) volume in the insula, a key brain region underlying energy homeostasis, and change in percent body fat accrual over the first six months of postnatal life, an outcome that represents among the most reliable infant predictors of childhood obesity risk...
September 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Miaomiao Zhang, Wenhao Bo, Fang Xu, Huan Li, Meixia Ye, Libo Jiang, Chaozhong Shi, Yaru Fu, Guomiao Zhao, Yuejiao Huang, Kirk Gosik, Dan Liang, Rongling Wu
The coordination of shoots and roots is critical for plants to adapt to changing environments by fine-tuning energy production in leaves and the availability of water and nutrients from roots. To understand the genetic architecture of how these two organs covary during developmental ontogeny, we conducted a mapping experiment using Euphrates poplar (Populus euphratica), a so-called hero tree able to grow in the desert. We geminated intraspecific F1 seeds of Euphrates Poplar individually in a tube to obtain a total of 370 seedlings, whose shoot and taproot lengths were measured repeatedly during the early stage of growth...
June 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Brenden W Smith, Elizabeth A Stanford, David H Sherr, George J Murphy
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand activated transcription factor that increases the expression of detoxifying enzymes upon ligand stimulation. Recent studies now suggest that novel endogenous roles of the AHR exist throughout development. In an effort to create an optimized model system for the study of AHR signaling in several cellular lineages, we have employed a CRISPR/CAS9 genome editing strategy in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to incorporate a reporter cassette at the transcription start site of one of its canonical targets, cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1)...
2016: Stem Cells International
Marissa E Wechsler, Brian P Hermann, Rena Bizios
Mesenchymal stem cells, precursors that can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes, have tremendous potential for derivation of cells with specific (e.g., osteogenic) phenotypes for tissue engineering and tissue regeneration applications. To date, the predominant strategy to achieve directed differentiation of MSCs into osteoblasts was to recapitulate the normal developmental ontogeny of osteoblasts using growth factors (e.g., bone morphogenetic proteins). In contrast, the effects of biophysical stimuli alone on such outcomes remain, at best, partially understood...
December 28, 2015: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
Tongqing Zhou, Rebecca M Lynch, Lei Chen, Priyamvada Acharya, Xueling Wu, Nicole A Doria-Rose, M Gordon Joyce, Daniel Lingwood, Cinque Soto, Robert T Bailer, Michael J Ernandes, Rui Kong, Nancy S Longo, Mark K Louder, Krisha McKee, Sijy O'Dell, Stephen D Schmidt, Lillian Tran, Zhongjia Yang, Aliaksandr Druz, Timothy S Luongo, Stephanie Moquin, Sanjay Srivatsan, Yongping Yang, Baoshan Zhang, Anqi Zheng, Marie Pancera, Tatsiana Kirys, Ivelin S Georgiev, Tatyana Gindin, Hung-Pin Peng, An-Suei Yang, James C Mullikin, Matthew D Gray, Leonidas Stamatatos, Dennis R Burton, Wayne C Koff, Myron S Cohen, Barton F Haynes, Joseph P Casazza, Mark Connors, Davide Corti, Antonio Lanzavecchia, Quentin J Sattentau, Robin A Weiss, Anthony P West, Pamela J Bjorkman, Johannes F Scheid, Michel C Nussenzweig, Lawrence Shapiro, John R Mascola, Peter D Kwong
The site on the HIV-1 gp120 glycoprotein that binds the CD4 receptor is recognized by broadly reactive antibodies, several of which neutralize over 90% of HIV-1 strains. To understand how antibodies achieve such neutralization, we isolated CD4-binding-site (CD4bs) antibodies and analyzed 16 co-crystal structures -8 determined here- of CD4bs antibodies from 14 donors. The 16 antibodies segregated by recognition mode and developmental ontogeny into two types: CDR H3-dominated and VH-gene-restricted. Both could achieve greater than 80% neutralization breadth, and both could develop in the same donor...
June 4, 2015: Cell
Ashish Mehta, Chrishan J A Ramachandra, Glen L Sequiera, Yuliansa Sudibyo, Manasi Nandihalli, Pearly J A Yong, Cai Hong Koh, Winston Shim
Cardiomyocytes (CMs) derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) offer immense value in studying cardiovascular regenerative medicine. However, intrinsic biases and differential responsiveness of hPSCs towards cardiac differentiation pose significant technical and logistic hurdles that hamper human cardiomyocyte studies. Tandem modulation of canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling pathways may play a crucial role in cardiac development that can efficiently generate cardiomyocytes from pluripotent stem cells...
November 2014: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Emanuele Azzoni, Valentina Conti, Lara Campana, Arianna Dellavalle, Ralf H Adams, Giulio Cossu, Silvia Brunelli
The embryonic endothelium is a known source of hematopoietic stem cells. Moreover, vessel-associated progenitors/stem cells with multilineage mesodermal differentiation potential, such as the 'embryonic mesoangioblasts', originate in vitro from the endothelium. Using a genetic lineage tracing approach, we show that early extra-embryonic endothelium generates, in a narrow time-window and prior to the hemogenic endothelium in the major embryonic arteries, hematopoietic cells that migrate to the embryo proper, and are subsequently found within the mesenchyme...
May 2014: Development
Susan I Vear, Gregory D Ayers, Sara L Van Driest, Robert F Sidonio, Charles Michael Stein, Richard H Ho
The influence of genetic variation on warfarin dose requirement is limited for paediatric patients. We performed a retrospective, cross-sectional study to examine the effect of variant CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotypes on warfarin dose in 100 children. Those with VKORC1 genotype AA required 48% of the dose of homozygous wild-type (GG, P < 0·0001). Patients with any variant CYP2C9 allele required 71% of the dose for wild-type (P = 0·001). The effect of variant VKORC1 alleles tended to vary with age, suggesting developmental ontogeny may influence warfarin sensitivity...
June 2014: British Journal of Haematology
Guihua Jiang, Julie Di Bernardo, Cynthia J DeLong, André Monteiro da Rocha, K Sue O'Shea, Shaun M Kunisaki
The reliable derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from a noninvasive autologous source at birth would facilitate the study of patient-specific in vitro modeling of congenital diseases and would enhance ongoing efforts aimed at developing novel cell-based treatments for a wide array of fetal and pediatric disorders. Accordingly, we have successfully generated iPSCs from human fetal chorionic somatic cells extracted from term pregnancies by ectopic expression of OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and cMYC. The isolated parental somatic cells exhibited an immunophenotypic profile consistent with that of chorionic mesenchymal stromal cells (CMSCs)...
September 2014: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
Maria Teresa De Angelis, Filomena Russo, Fulvio D'Angelo, Antonella Federico, Marica Gemei, Luigi Del Vecchio, Michele Ceccarelli, Mario De Felice, Geppino Falco
The generation of pancreatic endocrine and exocrine functional precursors from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is an intriguing opportunity to address cell therapy challenges. The main goal of cellular regeneration is to derive, in vitro, pancreatic progenitor cells (PPCs) that retain the capacity to differentiate following the in vivo developmental ontogeny. In our work, we aim to refine the pancreatic in vitro cellular transitions, through the identification of the intrinsic factors that mark the pancreas budding process at embryonic stage 10...
April 2014: Stem Cell Reviews
Han Liu, Yu Lan, Jingyue Xu, Ching-Fang Chang, Samantha A Brugmann, Rulang Jiang
The tongue is a critical element of the feeding system in tetrapod animals for their successful adaptation to terrestrial life. Whereas the oral part of the mammalian tongue contains soft tissues only, the avian tongue has an internal skeleton extending to the anterior tip. The mechanisms underlying the evolutionary divergence in tongue skeleton formation are completely unknown. We show here that the odd-skipped related-1 (Osr1) transcription factor is expressed throughout the neural crest-derived tongue mesenchyme in mouse, but not in chick, embryos during early tongue morphogenesis...
November 12, 2013: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Younhee Ko, Seth A Ament, James A Eddy, Juan Caballero, John C Earls, Leroy Hood, Nathan D Price
To characterize gene expression patterns in the regional subdivisions of the mammalian brain, we integrated spatial gene expression patterns from the Allen Brain Atlas for the adult mouse with panels of cell type-specific genes for neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes from previously published transcriptome profiling experiments. We found that the combined spatial expression patterns of 170 neuron-specific transcripts revealed strikingly clear and symmetrical signatures for most of the brain's major subdivisions...
February 19, 2013: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Glen Lester Sequiera, Ashish Mehta, Ting Huay Ooi, Winston Shim
AIM: Reprogramming of somatic cells utilizing viral free methods provide a remarkable method to generate human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) for regenerative medicine. In this study, we evaluate developmental ontogeny of cardiomyocytes following induced differentiation of hiPSCs. MAIN METHODS: Fibroblasts were reprogrammed with episomal vectors to generate hiPSC and were subsequently differentiated to cardiomyocytes. Ontogenic development of cardiomyocytes was studied by real-time PCR...
January 17, 2013: Life Sciences
Jonathon Marks-Bluth, John E Pimanda
Haematopoiesis is one of the most intensively studied and best described systems in the body. However, knowledge of cell signalling pathways that drive haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) development and how they interact with each other and with transcription factors that specify HSCs is still rudimentary. In this review, we will highlight recent advances in the field relating to these questions and identify gaps that need to be filled. To this end, we will briefly describe the developmental ontogeny of HSCs and examine in detail the cell signalling pathways that have been implicated in HSC specification...
December 2012: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Natalia R Salvetti, Hugo H Ortega, Almudena Veiga-Lopez, Vasantha Padmanabhan
Prenatal testosterone (T) excess leads to reproductive dysfunctions in sheep, which include increased ovarian follicular recruitment and persistence. To test the hypothesis that follicular disruptions in T sheep stem from changes in the developmental ontogeny of ovarian proliferation and apoptotic factors, pregnant Suffolk sheep were injected twice weekly with T propionate or dihydrotestosterone propionate (DHT; a nonaromatizable androgen) from Days 30 to 90 of gestation. Changes in developmental expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), BCL2, BAX, activated CASP3, and FAS/FASLG were determined at Fetal Days 90 and 140, 22 wk, 10 mo, and 21 mo of age by immunocytochemisty...
July 2012: Biology of Reproduction
Yiming Xing, Aimin Li, Zea Borok, Changgong Li, Parviz Minoo
The airways of the mammalian lung are lined with highly specialized epithelial cell types that are the targets of airborne toxicants and injury. Notch signaling plays an important role in the ontogeny of airway epithelial cells, but its contributions to recruitment, expansion or differentiation of resident progenitor/stem cells, and repair and re-establishment of the normal composition of airway epithelium following injury have not been addressed. In this study, the role of a specific Notch receptor, Notch1, was investigated by targeted inactivation in the embryonic lung epithelium using the epithelial-specific Gata5-Cre driver line...
May 2012: Stem Cells
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