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Erik W Baars, Helmut Kiene, Gunver S Kienle, Peter Heusser, Harald J Hamre
OBJECTIVES: The objective was to evaluate the scientific status of anthroposophic medicine (AM) according to demarcation criteria proposed in contemporary philosophy of science. DESIGN: Criteria for what is science were retrieved from eight publications in the philosophy of science, focusing either on science in medicine or on the demarcation between science and pseudoscience or non-science. Criteria were combined, redundancies were excluded, and the final set of criteria was ordered in a logical sequence...
October 2018: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
Haiquan Huang, Peng Zhou, Stephen Crain
This study investigated 5-year-old Mandarin-speaking children's comprehension of wh-questions, universal statements and free choice inferences. Previous research has found that Mandarin-speaking children assign a universal interpretation to sentences with a wh-word (e.g., shei 'who') followed by the adverbial quantifier dou 'all' (Zhou in Appl Psycholinguist 36:411-435, 2013). Children also compute free choice inferences in sentences that contain a modal verb in addition to a wh-word and dou (Zhou, in: Nakayama, Su, Huang (eds...
December 2018: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
M Sandy Hershcovis, Namita Bhatnagar
In 3 experiments, we examined how customers react after witnessing a fellow customer mistreat an employee. Drawing on the deontic model of justice, we argue that customer mistreatment of employees leads witnesses (i.e., other customers) to leave larger tips, engage in supportive employee-directed behaviors, and evaluate employees more positively (Studies 1 and 2). We also theorize that witnesses develop less positive treatment intentions and more negative retaliatory intentions toward perpetrators, with anger and empathy acting as parallel mediators of our perpetrator- and target-directed outcomes, respectively...
November 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
Shira Elqayam, Meredith R Wilkinson, Valerie A Thompson, David E Over, Jonathan St B T Evans
Faced with moral choice, people either judge according to pre-existing obligations (deontological judgment), or by taking into account the consequences of their actions (utilitarian judgment). We propose that the latter coheres with a more general cognitive mechanism - deontic introduction, the tendency to infer normative ('deontic') conclusions from descriptive premises (is-ought inference). Participants were presented with vignettes that allowed either deontological or utilitarian choice, and asked to draw a range of deontic conclusions, as well as judge the overall moral rightness of each choice separately...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Daniele Chiffi, Renzo Zanotti
Possibility is one of the most common modalities in reasoning and argumentation. Various kinds of modal concepts have been identified in philosophical and logical discussion of the metaphysics of modality. We focus here on the concept of clinical possibility. A critical analysis of what is intended as clinical possibility has not yet received sufficient examination, although the concept is extensively used in clinical reasoning. We present arguments to emphasize some desirable features associated with the concept of clinical possibility...
August 2016: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
Jane O'Reilly, Karl Aquino, Daniel Skarlicki
This research takes a moral perspective to studying third parties' reactions to injustice as a function of their moral identity. Drawing from theories of deontic justice, moral intuition, moral heuristics, and moral identity, we develop and test a model of the moral underpinnings of third parties' reactions to injustice. First, we compare third parties' responses with interpersonal, distributive, and procedural justice violations. We hypothesize that third parties are more likely to intuit that interpersonal justice violations are morally wrong, compared with distributive and procedural justice violations...
February 2016: Journal of Applied Psychology
Philip E Tetlock, Gregory Mitchell
Conceptual distinctions that loom large to philosophers-such as the distinction between utilitarian and deontic decision norms-may be far less salient to most other mortals. Building on an intuitive-politician model of judgment and choice and on the empirical work reported by Bennis, Medin, and Bartels (2010, this issue), we argue that the overriding goal of most decision makers in the paradigms under scrutiny is to offer judgments that are readily defensible and that reinforce their social identities as both cognitively flexible (responsive to evidence and cost-benefit considerations) and morally principled (prepared to defend sacred values and censure those who do not)...
March 2010: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
Corrado Corradi-Dell'Acqua, Francesco Turri, Laurence Kaufmann, Fabrice Clément, Sophie Schwartz
Forming and updating impressions about others is critical in everyday life and engages portions of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dMPFC), the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and the amygdala. Some of these activations are attributed to "mentalizing" functions necessary to represent people's mental states, such as beliefs or desires. Evolutionary psychology and developmental studies, however, suggest that interpersonal inferences can also be obtained through the aid of deontic heuristics, which dictate what must (or must not) be done in given circumstances...
September 2015: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Shira Elqayam, Valerie A Thompson, Meredith R Wilkinson, Jonathan St B T Evans, David E Over
Humans have a unique ability to generate novel norms. Faced with the knowledge that there are hungry children in Somalia, we easily and naturally infer that we ought to donate to famine relief charities. Although a contentious and lively issue in metaethics, such inference from "is" to "ought" has not been systematically studied in the psychology of reasoning. We propose that deontic introduction is the result of a rich chain of pragmatic inference, most of it implicit; specifically, when an action is causally linked to a valenced goal, valence transfers to the action and bridges into a deontic conclusion...
September 2015: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Nicola Canessa, Giuseppe Pantaleo, Chiara Crespi, Alessandra Gorini, Stefano F Cappa
We used the "standard" and "switched" social contract versions of the Wason Selection-task to investigate the neural bases of human reasoning about social rules. Both these versions typically elicit the deontically correct answer, i.e. the proper identification of the violations of a conditional obligation. Only in the standard version of the task, however, this response corresponds to the logically correct one. We took advantage of this differential adherence to logical vs. deontical accuracy to test the different predictions of logic rule-based vs...
September 18, 2014: Brain Research
Mor Peleg, John Fox, Vivek Patkar, David Glasspool, Ioannis Chronakis, Matt South, Svetlana Nassar, Jason L Gaglia, Hossein Gharib, Enrico Papini, Ralf Paschke, Daniel S Duick, Roberto Valcavi, Laszlo Hegedüs, Jeffrey R Garber
OBJECTIVE: Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) could have a more consistent and meaningful impact on clinician behavior if they were delivered as electronic algorithms that provide patient-specific advice during patient-physician encounters. We developed a computer-interpretable algorithm for U.S. and European users for the purpose of diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules that is based on the "AACE, AME, ETA Medical Guidelines for Clinical Practice for the Diagnosis and Management of Thyroid Nodules," a narrative, evidence-based CPG...
April 2014: Endocrine Practice
Denise Dellarosa Cummins
In their discussion of young children's deontic reasoning performance, Astington and Dack (2013) made the following claims: (1) Children need more cues to elicit cogent social norm reasoning than adults require, namely, explicit reference to authority; (2) Deontic reasoning improves with age, and this is evidence against a nativist view; (3) All evolutionary explanations of deontic reasoning advantages require positing a ''domain-specific deontic reasoning module."; and (4) young children excel at deontic reasoning because it is easier...
December 2013: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Denise Dellarosa Cummins
Dack and Astington (Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 110 2011 94-114) attempted to replicate the deontic reasoning advantage among preschoolers reported by Cummins (Memory & Cognition 24 1996 823-829) and by Harris and Nuñez (Child Development. 67 1996 572-1591). Dack and Astington argued that the apparent deontic advantage reported by these studies was in fact an artifact due to a methodological confound, namely, inclusion of an authority in the deontic condition only. Removing this confound attenuated the effect in young children but had no effect on the reasoning of 7-year-olds and adults...
November 2013: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Jessica Flanigan
In this essay, I argue that prescription drug laws violate patients' rights to self-medication. Patients have rights to self-medication for the same reasons they have rights to refuse medical treatment according to the doctrine of informed consent (DIC). Since we should accept the DIC, we ought to reject paternalistic prohibitions of prescription drugs and respect the right of self-medication. In section 1, I frame the puzzle of self-medication; why don't the same considerations that tell in favour of informed consent also justify a right of self-medication? In section 2, I show that the prescription drug system was historically motivated by paternalism...
October 2012: Journal of Medical Ethics
Sieghard Beller
The abstract deontic selection task was introduced by Cheng and Holyoak with the aim of demonstrating that people possess abstract reasoning schemas for processing deontic rules about what an individual must, must not, may, or need not do. Solving this task requires people to detect possible rule violators. The average solution rate across several studies, while being substantially higher than that with abstract nondeontic tasks, did not reach the level obtained with concrete deontic tasks. A task analysis based on the deontic principles by Beller uncovers several problems with the formulation of the original task...
2012: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Gregory S Berns, Emily Bell, C Monica Capra, Michael J Prietula, Sara Moore, Brittany Anderson, Jeremy Ginges, Scott Atran
Sacred values, such as those associated with religious or ethnic identity, underlie many important individual and group decisions in life, and individuals typically resist attempts to trade off their sacred values in exchange for material benefits. Deontological theory suggests that sacred values are processed based on rights and wrongs irrespective of outcomes, while utilitarian theory suggests that they are processed based on costs and benefits of potential outcomes, but which mode of processing an individual naturally uses is unknown...
March 5, 2012: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Fabrice Clément, Stéphane Bernard, Laurence Kaufmann
The objective of this paper is to discuss whether children have a capacity for deontic reasoning that is irreducible to mentalizing. The results of two experiments point to the existence of such non-mentalistic understanding and prediction of the behaviour of others. In Study 1, young children (3- and 4-year-olds) were told different versions of classic false-belief tasks, some of which were modified by the introduction of a rule or a regularity. When the task (a standard change of location task) included a rule, the performance of 3-year-olds, who fail traditional false-belief tasks, significantly improved...
November 2011: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Richard N Shiffman, George Michel, Richard M Rosenfeld, Caryn Davidson
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the feasibility of capturing the knowledge required to create guideline recommendations in a systematic, structured, manner using a software assistant. Practice guidelines constitute an important modality that can reduce the delivery of inappropriate care and support the introduction of new knowledge into clinical practice. However, many guideline recommendations are vague and underspecified, lack any linkage to supporting evidence or documentation of how they were developed, and prove to be difficult to transform into systems that influence the behavior of care providers...
January 2012: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
Nick Perham, Mike Oaksford
Three experiments investigated the contrasting predictions of the evolutionary and decision-theoretic approaches to deontic reasoning. Two experiments embedded a hazard management (HM) rule in a social contract scenario that should lead to competition between innate modules. A 3rd experiment used a pure HM task. Threatening material was also introduced into the antecedent, p, of a deontic rule, if p then must q. According to the evolutionary approach, more HM responses (Cosmides & Tooby, 2000) are predicted when p is threatening, whereas decision theory predicts fewer...
September 10, 2005: Cognitive Science
Lisa Ain Dack, Janet Wilde Astington
It is widely accepted that adults show an advantage for deontic over epistemic reasoning. Two published studies (Cummins, 1996b; Harris and Núñez, 1996, Experiment 4) found evidence of this "deontic advantage" in preschool-aged children and are frequently cited as evidence that preschoolers show the same deontic advantage as adults. However, neither study has been replicated, and it is not clear from either study that preschoolers were showing the deontic advantage under the same conditions as adults. The current research investigated these issues...
September 2011: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
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