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K Wang, L Luo, Z Z He
Auditory neuropathy (AN) is a hearing disorder where cochlear inner hair cell and/or the auditory nerve function is disrupted while outer hair cell function is normal. It can affect people of all ages, from infancy to adulthood. People with auditory neuropathy may have normal hearing threshold, or hearing loss ranging from mild to severe; they always have poor speech-perception abilities. It is a heterogeneous disorder which can have either congenital or acquired causes. AN may result from specific loss of cochlear inner hair cells, disordered release of neurotransmitters by inner hair cell ribbon synapses, deafferentation accompanying loss of auditory nerve fibers, neural dys-synchrony or conduction block as a result of demyelination of nerve fibers and auditory nerve hypoplasia...
February 7, 2019: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
H L Zhang, X C Gong, X J Hao, J Deng, H Y Liu, D Wu, X X Huo, R Guo
Objective: To investigate the hearing loss and speech disorders in the elderly, to analyze the risk factors of the elderly deafness, as well as to provide reference for the clinical research of the elderly deafness. Methods: From March 2016 to March 2018, 913 elderly people, who were tested for hearing and speech disorders, were examined by a unified questionnaire to investigate the demographic data of the subjects and the related factors of deafness, and the hearing and speech recognition tests were carried out...
February 7, 2019: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
T X Diao, Q H Han, H J Shan, X Q Wu, Y J Lin, Q Li, G H Wang, Y Y Jing, X Ma, M Shen, L S Yu, L Han, Y X Wang
Objective: To investigate the correlation between age-related hearing loss and cognitive impairment. Methods: 201 elderly patients, who were admitted to the Department of Otorhinolaryngology of Peking University People's Hospital from March 1, 2017 to March 31, 2017, were evaluated with hearing screening and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Scale. Among them, 101 were female and 100 were male, aged 60-90 years old. Taking the cognitive level as the dependent variable, and taking the age, sex, education, occupation, marital status, residence, and average hearing loss (average hearing threshold of 500, 1 000, 2 000, and 4 000 Hz), as well as the length of conscious hearing loss as the independent variables, the single factor analysis and multivariate linear regression analysis were used to screen the main factors affecting the cognitive level of the elderly...
February 7, 2019: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
N Sai, W J Han, M M Wang, X Qin, T Zhang, W D Shen, J Liu, P Dai, S M Yang, D Y Han
Objective: To elucidate the clinical behavior, causes of misdiagnosis, surgical management, and outcomes of facial nerve schwannomas (FNS). Methods: A retrospective review in Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital from January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2015 was carried out and evaluated 110 patients with FNS, including 50 males and 60 females, aged 16-67 years old. The appropriate surgical strategy was selected based on each patient's clinical manifestations, facial nerve function, and imaging characteristics...
February 7, 2019: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
Jing-Ye Wu, Qiang Yuan, Ya-Jun Liu, Yu-Qing Sun, Yong Zhang, Wei Tian
OBJECTIVES: Percutaneous transfacet screw fixation (pTSF) is a minimally invasive posterior fixation technique supplementing oblique lateral interbody fusion (OLIF) for lumbar spinal disorders. Accurate screw insertion is difficult to achieve and technically demanding under 2-D fluoroscopy. Recently developed robot-assisted spinal surgery demonstrated a high level of accuracy of pedicle screw insertion and a low complication rate. No published study has reported this combination technique...
February 18, 2019: Orthopaedic Surgery
Jane Macnaughton, Keziah Latham, Marta Vianya-Estopa
PURPOSE: To evaluate outcome measures of the Participation and Activity Inventory (PAI) in a sample of adults with acquired visual impairment entering vision rehabilitation. Both Priority Scores, indicating level of rehabilitative need, and Person Measures, indicating goal difficulty, were considered. METHODS: Participants were newly registered adults with visual impairment within Leicestershire, United Kingdom. The importance and difficulty of 48 goals of the PAI were assessed, as were demographic factors, clinical visual function (visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, reading function) and psychosocial function (adjustment to visual loss, depression, anxiety and fear of falling)...
March 2019: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
Matt Brubaker, Kristen Genter, Alexana Roshko, Paul Blanchard, Bryan Spann, Todd Harvey, Kris Bertness
Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV LEDs) fabricated from N-polar AlGaN/GaN core-shell nanowires with p-i-n structure produced electroluminescence at 365 nm with ~5x higher intensities than similar GaN homojunction LEDs. The improved characteristics were attributed to localization of spontaneous recombination to the nanowire core, reduction of carrier overflow losses through the nanowire shell, and elimination of current shunting. Poisson-drift-diffusion modeling indicated that a shell Al mole fraction of x=0...
February 18, 2019: Nanotechnology
Cecilia Analia Panek, Andrea Cecilia Bruballa, Gonzalo Ezequiel Pineda, Carlos De Brasi, Romina Jimena Fernández-Brando, María Pilar Mejías, María Victoria Ramos, Marina Sandra Palermo
Membrane expression of fractalkine (CX3 CL1)-receptor (CX3 CR1) is relevant in monocytes (Mo) because CX3 CR1-CX3 CL1 interactions might participate on both, homeostatic and pathologic conditions. We have previously demonstrated that CX3 CR1 levels are decreased during culture and when Mo are differentiated into dendritic cells, but enhanced when differentiated into macrophages. Regarding soluble factors, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) accelerated the loss of CX3 CR1, while interleukin (IL)-10 and Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) prevented it...
February 15, 2019: Molecular Immunology
J A Molina-Bolívar, F Galisteo-González, C Carnero Ruiz, M Medina-O'Donnell, A Martínez, A Parra
Synthesis, characterization and spectroscopic investigation of maslinic acid labeled with fluorescent 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin is reported. It was found that the coumarin-maslinic derivative (MaCo) forms an excellent fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) pair with the tryptophan (Trp) residue of human serum albumin (HSA). This feature allowed for monitoring HSA conformational alterations by measuring the distance between donor (Trp) and acceptor (MaCo) through Förster energy transfer mechanism. Displacement experiments confirmed that MaCo binds to subdomain IIA of HSA with independence of temperature...
February 11, 2019: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
A J Khan, Y Li, J V Dinh, R Donalson, C L Hebenstreit, S Maguen
Suicide rates amongst women veterans are significantly higher than rates for their civilian counterparts. However, risk factors for suicide among women veterans remain unclear. The current study examined the impact of exposure to a number of military stressors (e.g., perceived life threat, killing in combat, military sexual trauma) on suicidal ideation (SI) in women veterans. A total of 403 women veterans responded to mailed self-report surveys, 383 (ages 24-70 years) returned fully completed surveys and were included in analyses, and 16% of those included endorsed current SI...
February 11, 2019: Psychiatry Research
Derin M Thomas, Nicholas S Fisher
137 Cs bioaccumulation and retention in seven different marine animal species, including crustaceans, mollusc larvae, and fish larvae were compared under different temperature conditions (10 °C, 18 °C and 25 °C). Replicate animals were experimentally exposed to 0.5 nM 137 Cs dissolved in filtered seawater for 3 days, and their 137 Cs contents were periodically measured using gamma spectrometry. Among the seven species, 137 Cs bioconcentration factors ranged from 14 to 239 at the end of the exposure periods...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Sheng Xu, Jerry Yongqiang Chen, Qishi Zheng, Ngai Nung Lo, Shi-Lu Chia, Keng Jin Darren Tay, Hee Nee Pang, Luming Shi, Edwin Shih Yen Chan, Seng Jin Yeo
INTRODUCTION: Blood loss in Total Joint Arthroplasty can be significant and often under-estimated. This study aims to investigate the safety and efficacy of different routes of tranexamic acid (TXA) administration in reducing blood transfusion after Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA) and Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA). The secondary aim is to find the safest and most efficacious route and dose of TXA. MATERIAL AND METHODS: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and OpenGrey were systemically searched for randomised controlled trials investigating the efficacy and/or safety of TXA for THA and/or TKA...
February 11, 2019: Thrombosis Research
Diego Clemente de Souza, Henrique de Luca Vahia de Abreu, Pedro Vitoriano de Oliveira, Luciane Portas Capelo, Maria Rita Passos-Bueno, Luiz Henrique Catalani
Octacalcium phosphate (OCP) was synthesized yielding a combination of OCP and hydroxyapatite (HA) with a ratio of 90:10 (OCP/HA). A method was developed to functionalize the surface of the apatite using lauroyl chloride to improve the dispersion of the mineral phase in a poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) polymeric matrix. Infrared spectra and thermal gravimetric analysis confirmed the presence of laurate on the surface of calcium phosphate (CaP) particles. Neat HA particles were also functionalized with lauryl chloride for comparative purposes...
February 6, 2019: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Cristina Corno, Paola Perego
Metastatic dissemination of tumor cells represents a major obstacle towards cancer cure. Tumor cells with metastatic capacity are often resistant to chemotherapy. Experimental efforts revealed that the metastatic cascade is a complex process that involves multiple positive and negative regulators. In this respect, several metastasis suppressor genes have been described. Here, we review the role of the metastasis suppressor KiSS1 in regulation of metastasis and in response to antitumor agents. Physiologically, KiSS1 plays a key role in the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis regulating puberty and reproductive functions...
February 11, 2019: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
Lorena Gonzalez-Gil, Marta Carballa, Philippe F-X Corvini, Juan M Lema
Biotransformation of many organic micropollutants (OMPs) in sewage treatment plants is incomplete leading to their release into the environment. Recent findings suggest that thermodynamic aspects of the reaction as chemical equilibrium limit biotransformation, while kinetic parameters have a lower influence. Reversibility of enzymatic reactions might result in a chemical equilibrium between the OMP and the transformation product, thus impeding a total removal of the compound. To the best of our knowledge, no study has focused on proving the reversible action of enzymes towards OMPs so far...
February 11, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Natalia Bustamante-Ara, Luis Villarroel, Fabio Paredes, Andrea Huidobro, Catterina Ferreccio
BACKGROUND: Aging presents an emerging health and social challenge. We report the prevalence of frailty, its association with chronic diseases and the risk of hospitalization or death within 29 months. METHODS: Cross-sectional and prospective study. From 2014 to 2017, we examined frailty in an agricultural population in Chile. We enrolled 619 individuals aged 60-74 years from the Maule Cohort. Measured frailty prevalence, based the presence of ≥3 of the five factors (unintentional weight loss, weakness, slowness, self-reported exhaustion, low physical activity)...
February 10, 2019: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Beibei Zhang, Zhixia Zhuang, Xiaoru Wang, Huabin Huang, Qi Fu, Qingpi Yan
Pseudomonas plecoglossicida is a highly pathogenic bacterium for maricultured fish and causes serious losses. A transcriptional regulator gene RK21_RS10315 was found up-regulated during the whole infection process, which was confirmed by qRT-PCR. Five shRNA were designed to silence RK21_RS10315 gene, and the gene expression was reduced up to 96.1%. Compared with the counterpart infected with wild type strain, the infection of RK21_RS10315-RNAi strain resulted in the death time delay, and 90% reduction in mortality of Epinephelus coioides, as well as the alleviation in the symptoms of E...
February 15, 2019: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Amanda C Marshall, Antje Gentsch, Anna-Lucia Blum, Christina Bröring, Simone Schütz-Bosbach
Interoceptive signalling has been shown to contribute to action regulation and action experience. Here, we assess whether motor behaviour can be influenced by anticipated homeostatic feeling states induced through different predictable contexts. Participants performed a reward incentive paradigm in which accurate responses increased (gain) or avoided the depletion (averted loss) of a credit score. Across two types of blocks, we varied the predictability of the outcome state. In predictable blocks, a cue signalled a gain, loss or control trial (motor response did not affect the credit score)...
February 16, 2019: NeuroImage
Anastasios Tranoulis, Dimitra Georgiou, Moiad Alazzam, Jane Borley
OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the efficacy and safety of laparoscopic uterine artery occlusion (LUAO) during laparoscopic myomectomy (LM) on the intra- and post-operative morbidity and to assess its impact on leiomyomas recurrence rate. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science and Cochrane Database were searched for relevant references from inception until December 2018, in line with PRISMA guidelines. METHODS OF STUDY SELECTION: Two authors screened for study eligibility and extracted data...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
Gincy George, V P Snijesh, Sowmya Bekshe Lokappa, Jobin Varkey
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a complex neurodegenerative movement disorder that primarily results due to the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra region. Studying gene expression in the substantia nigra region would potentially unravel disease-relevant protein-protein interactions. METHODS: In this study we have used network science approach to prioritize candidate genes by focussing on differentially expressed genes (DEGs) that interact with established PD associated-genes (PDAG)...
February 15, 2019: Gene
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