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exosomes diabetes Alzheimer

Eun Suk Song, David W Rodgers, Louis B Hersh
Insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) functions in the catabolism of bioactive peptides. Established roles include degrading insulin and the amyloid beta peptide (Aβ), linking it to diabetes and Alzheimer's disease. IDE is primarily located in the cytosol, and a longstanding question is how it gains access to its peptide substrates. Reports suggest that IDE secreted by an unconventional pathway participates in extracellular hydrolysis of insulin and Aβ. We find that IDE release from cultured HEK-293 or BV-2 cells represents only ~1% of total cellular IDE, far less than has been reported previously...
February 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Cornelia M Wilson, Thomas Naves, Hussein Al Akhrass, François Vincent, Boris Melloni, François Bonnaud, Fabrice Lalloué, Marie-Odile Jauberteau
The neurotensin receptor-3 also known as sortilin was the first member of the small family of vacuolar protein sorting 10 protein domain (Vps10p) discovered two decades ago in the human brain. The expression of sortilin is not confined to the nervous system but sortilin is ubiquitously expressed in many tissues. Sortilin has multiple roles in the cell as a receptor or a co-receptor, in protein transport of many interacting partners to the plasma membrane, to the endocytic pathway and to the lysosomes for protein degradation...
January 2016: Communicative & Integrative Biology
Dimitrios Kapogiannis, Adam Boxer, Janice B Schwartz, Erin L Abner, Arya Biragyn, Umesh Masharani, Lynda Frassetto, Ronald C Petersen, Bruce L Miller, Edward J Goetzl
Insulin resistance causes diminished glucose uptake in similar regions of the brain in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). Brain tissue studies suggested that insulin resistance is caused by low insulin receptor signaling attributable to its abnormal association with more phospho (P)-serine-type 1 insulin receptor substrate (IRS-1) and less P-tyrosine-IRS-1. Plasma exosomes enriched for neural sources by immunoabsorption were obtained once from 26 patients with AD, 20 patients with DM2, 16 patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and matched case control subjects...
February 2015: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
María-Paz Marzolo, Pamela Farfán
Since the discovery of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and its association with familial hypercholesterolemia in the early 1980s, a family of structurally related proteins has been discovered that has apolipoprotein E as a common ligand, and the broad functions of its members have been described. LRP2, or megalin, is a member of the LDLR family and was initially called gp330. Megalin is an endocytic receptor expressed on the apical surface of several epithelial cells that internalizes a variety of ligands including nutrients, hormones and their carrier proteins, signaling molecules, morphogens, and extracellular matrix proteins...
2011: Biological Research
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