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Bone regeneration

Ju Fang, Pengfei Li, Xiong Lu, Liming Fang, Xiaoying Lv, Fuzeng Ren
The design of hydrogels with adequate mechanical properties and excellent bioactivity, osteoconductivity, and capacity for osseointegration is essential to bone repair and regeneration. However, it is challenging to integrate all these properties into one bone scaffold. Herein, we developed a strong, tough, osteoconductive hydrogel by a facile one-step micellar copolymerization of acrylamide and urethacrylate dextran (Dex-U), followed by the in situ mineralization of hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanocrystals. We show that the soft, flexible, and hydrophobically associated polyacrylamide (PAAm) network is strengthened by the stiff crosslinked Dex-U phase, and that the mineralized HAp simultaneously improves the mechanical properties and osteoconductivity...
February 14, 2019: Acta Biomaterialia
Casper Falster, Simon Stockmann Poulsen, Arne Michael Storaas, Henrik Morville Schroeder, Jesper Hoeg Vinther, Moustapha Kassem, Uffe Joergensen
BACKGROUND: Bone fractures are a common cause of hospital admission. Currently, treatment consists of conservative regimens or operation. However, regenerative medicine introduces a possible new addition to established treatments. Evidence suggests that application of autologous mesenchymal stem cells can enhance bone regeneration, by differentiating into osteoblasts. This study investigates whether mesenchymal stem cells, isolated from bone marrow in sites of trauma or osteoarthritis, exhibit reduced proliferation and osteogenic differentiation in-vitro, compared to stem cells isolated from non-traumatic and non-osteoarthritic sites...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Orthopaedic Science: Official Journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association
Shipin Zhang, Kristeen Ye Wen Teo, Shang Jiunn Chuah, Ruenn Chai Lai, Sai Kiang Lim, Wei Seong Toh
The efficacy of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapies is increasingly attributed to paracrine secretion, particularly exosomes. In this study, we investigated the role of MSC exosomes in the regulation of inflammatory response, nociceptive behaviour, and condylar cartilage and subchondral bone healing in an immunocompetent rat model of temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJ-OA). We observed that exosome-mediated repair of osteoarthritic TMJs was characterized by early suppression of pain and degeneration with reduced inflammation, followed by sustained proliferation and gradual improvements in matrix expression and subchondral bone architecture, leading to overall joint restoration and regeneration...
February 8, 2019: Biomaterials
Johannes Fw Greiner, Martin Gottschalk, Nadine Fokin, Björn Büker, Bernhard Peter Kaltschmidt, Axel Dreyer, Thomas Vordemvenne, Christian Kaltschmidt, Andreas Hütten, Barbara Kaltschmidt
Bone regeneration is a highly orchestrated process crucial for endogenous healing procedures after accidents, infections or tumor therapy. Changes in surface nanotopography are known to directly affect the formation of osteogenic cell types, although no direct linkage to the endogenous nanotopography of bone was described so far. Here we show the presence of pores of 31.93±0.97 nm diameter on the surface of collagen type I fibers, the organic component of bone, and demonstrate these pores to be sufficient to induce osteogenic differentiation of adult human stem cells...
February 13, 2019: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Petra Chocholata, Vlastimil Kulda, Vaclav Babuska
The present article describes the state of the art in the rapidly developing field of bone tissue engineering, where many disciplines, such as material science, mechanical engineering, clinical medicine and genetics, are interconnected. The main objective is to restore and improve the function of bone tissue by scaffolds, providing a suitable environment for tissue regeneration and repair. Strategies and materials used in oral regenerative therapies correspond to techniques generally used in bone tissue engineering...
February 14, 2019: Materials
Charlotte Piard, Hannah Baker, Timur Kamalitdinov, John P Fisher
Bone tissue engineers are facing a daunting challenge when attempting to fabricate bigger constructs intended for use in the treatment of large bone defects, which is the vascularization of the graft. Cell-based approaches and, in particular, the use of in vitro coculture of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been one of the most explored options. We present in this paper an alternative method to mimic the spatial pattern of HUVECs and hMSCs found in native osteons based on the use of extrusion-based 3D bioprinting (3DP)...
February 15, 2019: Biofabrication
Weiguang Wang, Boyang Huang, Jae Jong Byun, Paulo Bártolo
Biomanufacturing is a relatively new research domain focusing on the use of additive manufacturing technologies, biomaterials, cells and biomolecular signals to produce tissue constructs for tissue engineering. For bone regeneration, researchers are focusing on the use of polymeric and polymer/ceramic scaffolds seeded with osteoblasts or mesenchymal stem cells. However, the design of high-performance scaffolds in terms of mechanical, cell-stimulation and biological performance is still required. This is the first paper investigating the use of an extrusion additive manufacturing system to produce poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), PCL/graphene nanosheet (GNS) and PCL/carbon nanotube (CNT) scaffolds for bone applications...
January 31, 2019: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
S M Naqvi, J Gansau, D Gibbons, C T Buckley
Priming towards a discogenic phenotype and subsequent cryopreservation of microencapsulated bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) may offer an attractive therapeutic approach for disc repair. It potentially obviates the need for in vivo administration of exogenous growth factors, otherwise required to promote matrix synthesis, in addition to providing 'off-the-shelf' availability. Cryopreserved and primed BMSC microcapsules were evaluated in an in vitro surrogate co-culture model system with nucleus pulposus (NP) cells under intervertebral disc (IVD)-like culture conditions and in an ex vivo bovine organ culture disc model...
February 15, 2019: European Cells & Materials
Akihiro Nishiguchi, Tetsushi Taguchi
An injectable bone may serve as a minimally invasive therapy for large orthopedic defects and osteoporosis and an alternative to allografting and surgical treatment. However, conventional bone substitutes lack the desirable biodegradability, bioresponsibility, and functionality to regulate the bone regeneration process. Here, we report an injectable, bioresponsive bone composed of bisphosphonate-modified nanocellulose (pNC) as a bone substitute for bone regeneration. Composites composed of nano-fibrillated cellulose and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) mimic bone structures in which apatite reinforces collagen fibrils...
February 15, 2019: Biomacromolecules
Haojiang Li, Shi Shen, Haitao Fu, Zhenyong Wang, Xu Li, Xiang Sui, Mei Yuan, Shuyun Liu, Guiqin Wang, Quanyi Guo
The inflammatory response to chronic injury affects tissue regeneration and has become an important factor influencing the prognosis of patients. In previous stem cell treatments, it was revealed that stem cells not only have the ability for direct differentiation or regeneration in chronic tissue damage but also have a regulatory effect on the immune microenvironment. Stem cells can regulate the immune microenvironment during tissue repair and provide a good "soil" for tissue regeneration. In the current study, the regulation of immune cells by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the local tissue microenvironment and the tissue damage repair mechanisms are revealed...
2019: Stem Cells International
Ihsène Taïhi, Ali Nassif, Juliane Isaac, Benjamin Philippe Fournier, François Ferré
A large array of therapeutic procedures is available to treat cartilage disorders caused by trauma or inflammatory disease. Most are invasive and may result in treatment failure or development of osteoarthritis due to extensive cartilage damage from repeated surgery. Despite encouraging results of early cell therapy trials that used chondrocytes collected during arthroscopic surgery, these approaches have serious disadvantages, including morbidity associated with cell harvesting and low predictive clinical outcomes...
2019: Stem Cells International
Fatih Karayürek, Ela Tules Kadiroğlu, Yusuf Nergiz, Neslihan Coşkun Akçay, Selçuk Tunik, Berna Ersöz Kanay, Ersin Uysal
AIM: The current study was based on the hypothesis that the use of PRF with bone graft materials might increase bone regeneration and focus on the histopathological and immunohistochemical aspects following application of PRF with autogenous graft, xenograft and B-TCP in a rabbit model. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was performed on the twenty-eight male New Zealand divided into four group. Two defects with a diameter 10 mm were opened in calvarium. After PRF preparation, right defects were evaluated as empty defect or graft group, and left defects were evaluated as PRF test group...
January 22, 2019: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
Yu He, Lingjia Yu, Jieying Liu, Yaqian Li, Yuanhao Wu, Zhenfei Huang, Di Wu, Hai Wang, Zhihong Wu, Guixing Qiu
The reconstruction of large bone defects remains a significant challenge for orthopedists. Three-dimensional-printed (3DP) scaffold is considered a promising repair material. Static magnetic field (SMF) treatment is an effective and noninvasive therapeutic method to improve bone regeneration. However, the osteogenic effect of SMF on human bone-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) in 3DP scaffolds, as well as its potential mechanism, are unclear. In this study, the osteogenic effect of SMF on hBMSCs in a 3DP scaffold was investigated in vitro and in vivo...
February 14, 2019: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Elisa García, Roxana Rodríguez-Barrera, Vinnitsa Buzoianu-Anguiano, Adrian Flores-Romero, Emanuel Malagón-Axotla, Marco Guerrero-Godinez, Estefanía De la Cruz-Castillo, Laura Castillo-Carvajal, Monserrat Rivas-Gonzalez, Paola Santiago-Tovar, Ivis Morales, Cesar Borlongan, Antonio Ibarra
Spinal cord injury is a very common pathological event that has devastating functional consequences in patients. In recent years, several research groups are trying to find an effective therapy that could be applied in clinical practice. In this study, we analyzed the combination of different strategies as a potential therapy for spinal cord injury. Immunization with neural derived peptides (INDP), inhibition of glial scar formation (dipyridyl: DPY), as well as the use of biocompatible matrix (fibrin glue: FG) impregnated with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were combined and then its beneficial effects were evaluated in the induction of neuroprotection and neuroregeneration after acute SCI...
June 2019: Neural Regeneration Research
Hua Jia, Ying Wang, Jiao Chen, Jun-Ping Li, Huai-Qin Han, Xiao-Jie Tong, Zhong-Yi He, Wen-Zhi Ma
Peripheral nerve gaps often lead to interrupted innervation, manifesting as severe sensory and motor dysfunctions. The repairs of the nerve injuries have not achieved satisfactory curative effects in clinic. The transplantation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs)-laden acellular nerve xenografts (ANX) has been proven more effective than the acellular nerve allografting. Besides, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) can inhibit inflammation and apoptosis, and thus is conducive to the microenvironmental improvement of axonal regeneration...
February 14, 2019: Synapse
Yuejun Wang, Yunsong Liu, Min Zhang, Longwei Lv, Xiao Zhang, Ping Zhang, Yongsheng Zhou
BACKGROUND: Tissue inflammation is an important problem in the field of human adipose-derived stem cell (ASC)-based therapeutic bone regeneration. Many studies indicate that inflammatory cytokines are disadvantageous for osteogenic differentiation and bone formation. Therefore, overcoming inflammation would be greatly beneficial in promoting ASC-mediated bone regeneration. The present study aims to investigate the potential anti-inflammatory role of Prostaglandin G/H synthase 1 (PTGS1) during the osteogenic differentiation of ASCs...
February 13, 2019: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Maria Grazia Raucci, Ines Fasolino, Maria Caporali, Manuel Serrano-Ruiz, Alessandra Soriente, Maurizio Peruzzini, Luigi Ambrosio
Nowadays chemotherapy is the main treatment for osteosarcoma disease, even if limited by the lack of selectivity between healthy and cancer cells during the inhibition of cell division. Herein, we propose the use of few-layer black phosphorous (2D bP) as an alternative tool for osteosarcoma treatment and report how 2D bP can stimulate newly forming bone tissue generation after osteosarcoma resection. In our study, we have developed an in vitro model to evaluate the efficacy of 2D bP material with and without near-infrared light irradiation treatment and we have demonstrated that the presence of 2D bP without treatment inhibits the metabolic activity of osteosarcoma cells (SAOS-2), while inducing both the proliferation and the osteogenic differentiation of human pre-osteoblast cells (HOb) and mesenchymal stem (hMSC) cells...
February 13, 2019: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Xuesong Wang, Maohua Lin, Yunqing Kang
Inadequate oxygen and nutrient diffusion in a porous scaffold often resulted in insufficient formation of branched vasculatures, which hindered bone regeneration. In this study, interconnected porous beta-tricalcium phosphate (-TCP) scaffolds with different geometric designs of channels were fabricated and compared to discover the functionality of structure on facilitating nutrient diffusion for angiogenesis. In vitro fluid transportation and degradation of the scaffolds were performed. Cell infiltration, migration and proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) on the scaffolds were carried out under both static and dynamic culture conditions...
February 13, 2019: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Oliver Blume, Phil Donkiewicz, Michael Back, Teresa Born
OBJECTIVE: Various biomaterials have been successfully applied in alveolar bone regeneration, however, the reconstruction of extensive osseous defects remains challenging and is often unfeasible with granular grafting materials. Several studies have outlined allogenic bone blocks as valid alternative to autologous block grafting. CLINICAL CONSIDERATIONS: In this report, we demonstrate the regeneration of two large osseous defects in the maxilla with allogenic bone blocks made from human donor bone...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Esthetic and Restorative Dentistry
Chunxia Gao, Ke Zhao, Liwei Lin, Jinyu Wang, Yang Liu, Peizhi Zhu
Hydroxyapatite (HA), a typical inorganic component of bone, is a widely utilized biomaterial for bone tissue repair and regeneration due to its excellent properties. Inspired by the recent findings on the important roles of protein in biomineralization and natural structure of fish scales, keratin was chosen as a template for modulating the assembly of HA nanocrystals. A series of HA nanocrystals with different sizes were synthesized by adjusting the concentration of partially hydrolyzed keratin. The structure and compositions of the prepared HA were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectrum, and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM)...
February 11, 2019: Nanomaterials
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