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Microvascular inflammation

Hakan Babaoğlu, Ata Baytaroğlu, Murat Torğutalp, Abdulsamet Erden, Sibel Kadayıfçılar, Umut Kalyoncu
Background/aim: We aimed to assess the association between retinal vascular caliber (RVC) scores and disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Materials and methods: Forty-seven RA patients, 32 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, and 45 healthy people were enrolled. RA and SLE patients were subdivided into groups according to C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. RA patients were also grouped according to Disease Activity Score-28 (DAS-28). Fundus photography was performed for all patients...
February 11, 2019: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
Yu Ho Lee, Se-Yun Kim, Haena Moon, Jung-Woo Seo, Dong-Jin Kim, Seon Hwa Park, Yang-Gyun Kim, Ju-Young Moon, Jin Sug Kim, Kyung-Hwan Jeong, Sung-Jig Lim, Chan-Duck Kim, Jae Berm Park, Byung Ha Chung, Yeong Hoon Kim, Jaeseok Yang, Hyung-In Yang, Kyoung Soo Kim, Sang-Ho Lee
Endocan is a water-soluble proteoglycan exclusively secreted by vascular endothelium. Endocan levels may be elevated in kidney transplant recipients experiencing antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR), which is characterized by vascular inflammation in transplanted kidney. We evaluated the clinical relevance of endocan as markers of microvascular inflammation in patients who underwent kidney transplantation. Plasma and urinary endocan levels were measured in 203 kidney transplant recipients and were compared across different etiologies of allograft dysfunction and various pathologic scores...
February 12, 2019: Scientific Reports
James R Wodicka, Vasilios A Morikis, Tima Dehghani, Scott I Simon, Alyssa Panitch
Introduction: The glycocalyx is a layer of glycoproteins, proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans that coats the luminal surface of most blood vessels. It effectively regulates adhesive interactions between leukocytes in flowing blood and the endothelium, where during inflammation, binding to E- and P-selectins and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) promotes cell tethering and arrest under shear flow. Methods: In this study, we examine the targeting of E-selectin by an engineered peptide moiety bound to a dermatan sulfate backbone...
2019: Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering
Kristine Ravina, Ben A Strickland, Robert C Rennert, Joshua Bakhsheshian, Jonathan J Russin, Steven L Giannotta
Objective  To investigate risk factors for symptom recurrence in patients requiring a revision microvascular decompression (MVD) for trigeminal neuralgia (TN) or hemifacial spasm (HFS). Design  Retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database. Participants  Seventeen consecutive patients undergoing revision MVD at our institution between January 1993 and September 2017. Main Outcome Measures  The incidence and causes for revision MVDs were recorded. Response to revision MVD for TN was tracked using the Barrow Neurological Institute (BNI) grading scale...
February 2019: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part B, Skull Base
Bruno D'Agostino, Manuela Sgambato, Renata Esposito, Giuseppe Spaziano
Asthma is a heterogeneous chronic inflammatory disease of the airways. The most prevalent form is atopic asthma, which is initiated by the exposure to (inhaled) allergens. Intermittent attacks of breathlessness, airways hyperresponsiveness, wheezing, coughing, and resultant allergen-specific immune responses characterize the disease. Nociceptin/OFQ-NOP receptor system is able to combine anti-hyperresponsiveness and immunomodulatory actions. In particular, N/OFQ is able to inhibit airways microvascular leakage and bronchoconstriction through a presynaptic and non-opioid mechanism of action that blocks tachykinin release...
February 7, 2019: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Amrita Ayer, Claire Mills, Catherine Donovan, Robert H Christenson, Peter Ganz, Ruth F Dubin
INTRODUCTION: Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have reduced endothelial function, but whether macro- and microvascular endothelial function correlate with baseline risk factors and cardiovascular outcomes in this population is not well understood. METHODS: Among 146 participants of the Cardiac, Endothelial Function and Arterial Stiffness in ESRD (CERES) study, we evaluated macro- and microvascular endothelial dysfunction as flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and velocity time integral (VTI), respectively...
February 6, 2019: Hemodialysis International
Florah Tshepo Moshapa, Kirsten Riches-Suman, Timothy Martin Palmer
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing worldwide, and it is associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). For T2DM patients, the main surgical intervention for CAD is autologous saphenous vein grafting. However, T2DM patients have increased risk of saphenous vein graft failure (SVGF). While the mechanisms underlying increased risk of vascular disease in T2DM are not fully understood, hyperglycaemia, insulin resistance, and hyperinsulinaemia have been shown to contribute to microvascular damage, whereas clinical trials have reported limited effects of intensive glycaemic control in the management of macrovascular complications...
2019: Cardiology Research and Practice
Jana D Braun, Diego O Pastene, Annette Breedijk, Angelica Rodriguez, Björn B Hofmann, Carsten Sticht, Elke von Ochsenstein, Heike Allgayer, Jacob van den Born, Stephan Bakker, Sibylle J Hauske, Bernhard K Krämer, Benito A Yard, Thomas Albrecht
Although methylglyoxal (MGO) has emerged as key mediator of diabetic microvascular complications, the influence of MGO on the vascular transcriptome has not thoroughly been assessed. Since diabetes is associated with low grade inflammation causing sustained nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation, the current study addressed 1) to what extent MGO changes the transcriptome of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) exposed to an inflammatory milieu, 2) what are the dominant pathways by which these changes occur and 3) to what extent is this affected by carnosine, a putative scavenger of MGO...
February 4, 2019: Scientific Reports
Yan Li, Chuanlin Hu, Pengcheng Wang, Yan Liu, Luyang Wang, Qingmeng Pi, Zhiyong Gong, Xu Yang, Michael Mak, Yang Wu
BACKGROUND: A growing body of evidence shows that indoor concentrations of airborne particles are often higher than is typically encountered outdoors. Since exposure to indoor PM2.5 is thought to be associated with cardiovascular disease, the health impacts of indoor air pollution need to be explored. Based on animal models, ambient particulate matter has been proved to promote coagulation which is very likely involved in the pathogenic development of cardiovascular disease. However, animal models are insufficient to predict what will happen with any certainty in humans...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
Alessandro De Stefano, Liliana Mannucci, Federica Tamburi, Carmine Cardillo, Francesca Schinzari, Valentina Rovella, Steven Nisticò, Luigi Bennardo, Nicola Di Daniele, Manfredi Tesauro
Metabolic diseases are chronic disorders correlated to a greater risk of cardiovascular event and death. Recently, many data have sustained the biological link between microvascular dysfunction, oxidative stress, vascular inflammation, and metabolic diseases. The determination of new and specific blood biomarkers of vascular inflammation associated with obesity-related metabolic syndrome (MetS) and diabetes such as lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2 ) could be useful to identify subject with high risk of cardiovascular events...
January 2019: International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology
Chunmei Cui, Yuehua Li, Ying Liu
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the common microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus, which is the main cause of blindness in diabetic patients. Angiogenesis plays an important role in retinal detachment and retinal microvascular inflammation throughout the whole development of DR. This study aimed to investigate the regulatory effect and the potential mechanism of miR-377 on high glucose and hypoxia-induced angiogenesis and inflammation in human retinal endothelial cells, and found that the miR-377 level was significantly increased after high glucose and hypoxia-mimetic agent to simulate the DR milieu...
January 31, 2019: Human Cell
Axel Haarmann, Michael K Schuhmann, Christine Silwedel, Camelia-Maria Monoranu, Guido Stoll, Mathias Buttmann
Chemokines (C-X-C) motif ligand (CXCL) 5 and 8 are overexpressed in patients with multiple sclerosis, where CXCL5 serum levels were shown to correlate with blood⁻brain barrier dysfunction as evidenced by gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Here, we studied the potential role of CXCL5/CXCL8 receptor 2 (CXCR2) as a regulator of paraendothelial brain barrier function, using the well-characterized human cerebral microvascular endothelial cell line hCMEC/D3. Low basal CXCR2 mRNA and protein expression levels in hCMEC/D3 were found to strongly increase under inflammatory conditions...
January 30, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jose Pablo Vazquez-Medina, Jian-Qin Tao, Prial Patel, Renata Bannitz-Fernandes, Chandra Dodia, Elena M Sorokina, Sheldon I Feinstein, Shampa Chatterjee, Aron B Fisher
Peroxiredoxin 6 (Prdx6) is a multi-functional enzyme that serves important anti-oxidant roles by scavenging hydroperoxides and reducing peroxidized cell membranes. Prdx6 also plays a key role in cell signaling by the activation of NADPH oxidase,type 2 (Nox2) through its phospholipase A2 (aiPLA2) activity. Nox2 generation of O2.-, in addition to signaling, can contribute to oxidative stress and inflammation such as during sepsis-induced acute lung injury (ALI). To evaluate a possible role of Prdx6-aiPLA2 activity in the pathophysiology of ALI, wild type (WT) and Prdx6-D140A mice which lack aiPLA2 but retain peroxidase activity were administered intraperitoneal LPS...
January 31, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Jia Liu, Zhenqi Liu
Insulin is a vascular hormone and regulates vascular tone and reactivity. Muscle is a major insulin target that is responsible for the majority of insulin-stimulated glucose use. Evidence confirms that muscle microvasculature is an important insulin action site and critically regulates insulin delivery to muscle and action on myocytes, thereby affecting insulin-mediated glucose disposal. Insulin via activation of its signaling cascade in the endothelial cells increases muscle microvascular perfusion, which leads to an expansion of the endothelial exchange surface area...
January 29, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
George A Parker, Na Li, Kyle Takayama, Ann M Farese, Thomas J MacVittie
Male rhesus macaques were subjected to partial-body irradiation at 10, 11, or 12 Gy with 5% bone marrow protection. Animals were euthanized when dictated by prospectively determined clinical parameters or at approximately 180 d following irradiation. Histological sections of lung and heart were stained with hematoxylin and eosin as well as a battery of histochemical and immunohistochemical stains. Histopathological alterations in the lung were centered on fibrosis, inflammation, and reactive/proliferative changes in pneumocytes...
March 2019: Health Physics
Ming Chen, Min Yang, Wei-Ping Zhou, Shi-Ting Li
BACKGROUND: The complete pathogenesis of hemifacial spasm (HFS) remains unknown. Some patients with HFS have shown the thickened, opaque and sticky arachnoid membranes during microvascular decompression (MVD) procedures. This phenomenon indicates a possible relationship between inflammation and HFS. However, few studies have focused on it. This study aims to explore the role of inflammation in pathogenesis of HFS. METHODS: The levels of interferon gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin 2 receptor (IL-2R), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 8 (IL-8), interleukin 10 (IL-10) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), white blood cell (WBC), neutrophil and lymphocyte were compared between HFS patients, lumbar disc herniation (LDH) patients and healthy participants...
January 23, 2019: World Neurosurgery
Ashok Sharma, Maria L Valle, Connor Beveridge, Yutao Liu, Shruti Sharma
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a microvascular disease of the retina and the leading cause of visual disability in diabetic patients. Genetic factors have shown to play a pivotal role in DR onset, and several candidate genes have been associated with its progression. A literature search was performed to identify the genes known to be associated with DR through linkage analysis, candidate gene association, and genome-wide association studies (GWAS). A further literature search was performed to discover their potential connection with various biological pathways...
January 24, 2019: Eye
Yohkoh Kyomoto, Hiroshi Kanazawa, Yoshihiro Tochino, Tetsuya Watanabe, Kaziuhisa Asai, Tomoya Kawaguchi
BACKGROUND: Airway microvascular system participates in the airway inflammation that is central to the pathophysiology of inflammatory lung disorders. OBJECTIVE: To examine the role of airway microvascular permeability on airway obstruction in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS: We measured the airway microvascular permeability index (AMPI) separately in the central or peripheral airways using a bronchoscopic microsampling technique in 9 non-smokers, 18 smokers without COPD (10 former smokers and 8 current smokers), and 26 smokers with COPD (12 former smokers and 14 current smokers)...
January 2019: Respiratory Medicine
Tian Zhou, Yiming Zheng, Li Sun, Smaranda Ruxandra Badea, Yuanhu Jin, Yang Liu, Alyssa J Rolfe, Haitao Sun, Xi Wang, Zhijian Cheng, Zhaoshuai Huang, Na Zhao, Xin Sun, Jinhua Li, Jianqing Fan, Choogon Lee, Timothy L Megraw, Wutian Wu, Guixue Wang, Yi Ren
The clearance of damaged myelin sheaths is critical to ensure functional recovery from neural injury. Here we show a previously unidentified role for microvessels and their lining endothelial cells in engulfing myelin debris in spinal cord injury (SCI) and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). We demonstrate that IgG opsonization of myelin debris is required for its effective engulfment by endothelial cells and that the autophagy-lysosome pathway is crucial for degradation of engulfed myelin debris...
January 21, 2019: Nature Neuroscience
Anastasios Tentolouris, Ioanna Eleftheriadou, Evangelia Tzeravini, Dimitrios Tsilingiris, Stavroula A Paschou, Gerasimos Siasos, Nikolaos Tentolouris
Endothelium plays an essential role in human homeostasis by regulating arterial blood pressure, distributing nutrients and hormones as well as providing a smooth surface that modulates coagulation, fibrinolysis and inflammation. Endothelial dysfunction is present in diabetes mellitus (DM) and contributes to the development and progression of macrovascular disease, while it is also associated with most of the microvascular complications such as diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy. Hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia and dyslipidemia are the main factors involved...
January 19, 2019: Current Medicinal Chemistry
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