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Obesity insulin inflammation

Seda Kahraman, Alev Eroglu Altinova, Serenay Elgun, Mehmet Muhittin Yalcin, Banu Aktas Yilmaz, Cigdem Ozkan, Mujde Akturk, Fusun Balos Toruner
Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) plays a role in metabolic and inflammatory diseases. Increased adenosine deaminase (ADA) has been suggested to induce insulin resistance and inflammation. We measured serum DPP-4 and ADA activities. Serum ADA activity was significantly higher in PCOS group (p = .006), whereas there was no difference in serum DPP-4 activity between the groups (p > .05). When the study subjects were divided into four groups in terms of obesity; an increasing trend in serum ADA activity between the groups was observed and ADA activity was significantly higher in overweight and obese patients with PCOS than nonobese controls (p = ...
March 21, 2019: Gynecological Endocrinology
Patthara Kongsuphol, Shilpi Gupta, Yunxiao Liu, Sajay Bhuvanendran Nair Gourikutty, Subhra K Biswas, Qasem Ramadan
Chronic inflammation mediated by the interaction of immune cells and adipocytes is a key underlying factor in obesity-associated type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Therefore, methods to investigate adipocyte-immune cells interaction and their immuno-metabolic status in obese/T2DM subjects not only serve as an early indicator of disease development but also provide an insight into disease mechanism. A microfluidic-based in vitro model of the human adipose that is interfaced with a co-culture of immune cell has been developed for in vitro immune-metabolic analysis...
March 20, 2019: Scientific Reports
Clara Marquina, Aya Mousa, Regina Belski, Harry Banaharis, Negar Naderpoor, Barbora de Courten
Lower copy number variations (CNVs) in the salivary amylase gene ( AMY1 ) have been associated with obesity and insulin resistance; however, the relationship between AMY1 and cardiometabolic risk has not been fully elucidated. Using gold-standard measures, we aimed to examine whether AMY1 CNVs are associated with cardiometabolic risk factors in an overweight or obese, otherwise healthy population. Fifty-seven adults (58% male) aged 31.17 ± 8.44 years with a body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m² were included in the study...
March 19, 2019: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Jinming Peng, Yan Jia, Tianyong Hu, Jing Du, Yue Wang, Baohui Cheng, Kaikai Li
SCOPE: Excessive fat accumulation in adipose tissue leads to obesity and related chronic inflammation. This study aimed to examine the effects of gallocatechin -(4→8)-gallocatechin-3-O-gallate (GC-(4→8)-GCG), a main proanthocyanidin dimer from Camellia ptilophylla (Cocoa tea), on adipocyte- and adipose-related inflammation in vivo and in vitro. METHODS AND RESULTS: C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and GC-(4→8)-GCG (40 or 80 mg/kg/d) for 8 weeks...
March 20, 2019: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Catherine Godfrey, Andrew Bremer, Diana Alba, Caroline Apovian, John R Koethe, Suneil Koliwad, Dorothy Lewis, Janet Lo, Grace A McComsey, Alison Eckard, Suman Srinivasa, Janine Trevillyan, Clovis Palmer, Steven Grinspoon
Metabolic complications relating to complex effects of viral and immune mediated mechanisms are now a focus of clinical care among persons living with HIV (PWH) and obesity is emerging as a critical problem. To address knowledge gaps, the NIH sponsored a symposium in May 2018 entitled "Obesity and Fat Metabolism in HIV-infected Individuals." Mechanisms relating to adipose dysfunction and fibrosis, immune function, inflammation, and gastrointestinal integrity were highlighted as contributors to obesity among PWH...
March 20, 2019: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Lan Bai, Hongliang Li
Hepatic lipid metabolism is closely associated with certain diseases, such as obesity, diabetes, fatty liver, and hepatic fibrosis. Hepatic steatosis results from systemic metabolic dysfunction that occurs via multiple processes. The initial process has been characterized as hepatic lipid accumulation that may be caused by increased liver lipid uptake and de novo lipogenesis or decreased lipid oxidation and lipid export; subsequently, multiple additional factors that trigger inflammation and insulin resistance (IR) aggravate the progression of hepatic steatosis...
March 19, 2019: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
Yevheniia Kyriachenko, Tetyana Falalyeyeva, Oleksandr Korotkyi, Nataliia Molochek, Nazarii Kobyliak
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a disorder characterized by chronic inflated blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia), at first due to insulin resistance and unregulated insulin secretion but with tendency towards global spreading. The gut microbiota is recognized to have an influence on T2D, although surveys have not formed a clear overview to date. Because of the interactions between gut microbiota and host homeostasis, intestinal bacteria are believed to play a large role in various diseases, including metabolic syndrome, obesity and associated disease...
March 15, 2019: World Journal of Diabetes
Gloria Formoso, Maria P A Baldassarre, Federica Ginestra, Maria Assunta Carlucci, Ines Bucci, Agostino Consoli
Pregnancies complicated by diabetes have largely increased in number over the last 50 years. Pregnancy is characterized by a physiologic increase in insulin resistance which, associated with increased oxidative stress and inflammations, could induce alterations of glucose metabolism and diabetes. If not optimally controlled, these conditions have a negative impact on maternal and foetal outcomes. To date, one can resort only to diet and lifestyle to treat obesity and insulin resistance during pregnancy and insulin remains the only therapeutic option to manage diabetes during pregnancy...
March 19, 2019: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Zhuoqun Liu, Ningning Wang, Yanan Ma, Deliang Wen
Obesity is a common chronic metabolic disease that is harmful to human health and predisposes the affected individuals to a cluster of pathologies. Insulin resistance (IR) is one of the most frequent complications of obesity. Hydroxytyrosol (HT) may reduce obesity and IR in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice; however, the mechanism underlying is still unknown. Systemic low-grade inflammation and intestinal dysfunction are thought to be associated with obesity and IR. In this study, we found that HFD feeding for 8 weeks altered the intestinal microbiota, injured intestinal barrier function, increased endotoxin release into the blood, enhanced the expression of inflammatory factors (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6) and lipid accumulation in liver, caused obesity, and aggravated IR via the JNK/IRS (Ser 307) pathway in HFD mice...
2019: Frontiers in Microbiology
Masaki Yamamoto, De-Huang Guo, Caterina M Hernandez, Alexis M Stranahan
Obesity and insulin resistance elicit blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown in humans and animal models, but the relative contributions of the two pathologies remain poorly understood. These studies initially addressed the temporal progression of cerebrovascular dysfunction relative to dietary obesity or diet-induced insulin resistance in male mice. Obesity increased BBB permeability to the low molecular weight fluorophore sodium fluorescein (NaFl), while diet-induced insulin resistance increased permeability to both NaFl and Evans Blue, which forms a high molecular weight complex with serum albumin...
March 18, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Gao Sun, Charles V Jackson, Karen Zimmerman, Li-Kun Zhang, Courtney M Finnearty, George E Sandusky, Guodong Zhang, Richard G Peterson, Yi-Xin Jim Wang
BACKGROUND: Metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, obesity, and hyperglycemia are prominent risk factors for the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)/steatohepatitis (NASH). Dietary rodent models employ high fat, high cholesterol, high fructose, methionine/choline deficient diets or combinations of these to induce NAFLD/NASH. The FATZO mice spontaneously develop the above metabolic disorders and type 2 diabetes (T2D) when fed with a normal chow diet. The aim of the present study was to determine if FATZO mice fed a high fat and fructose diet would exacerbate the progression of NAFLD/NASH...
March 18, 2019: BMC Gastroenterology
Adri Chakraborty, Sheridan Barajas, Gabriela M Lammoglia, Andrea J Reyna, Thomas S Morley, Joshua A Johnson, Philipp E Scherer, Joseph M Rutkowski
Obese adipose tissue expansion is an inflammatory process that results in dysregulated lipolysis, increased circulating lipids, ectopic lipid deposition, and systemic insulin resistance. Lymphatic vessels provide a route of fluid, macromolecule, and immune cell clearance, and lymphangiogenesis increases this capability. Indeed, inflammation-associated lymphangiogenesis is critical in resolving acute and chronic inflammation, but it is largely absent in obese adipose tissue. Enhancing adipose tissue lymphangiogenesis could, therefore, improve metabolism in obesity...
March 11, 2019: American Journal of Pathology
Rodrigo Martins Pereira, Kellen Cristina da Cruz Rodrigues, Chadi Pellegrini Anaruma, Marcella Ramos Sant'Ana, Thaís Dantis Pereira de Campos, Rodrigo Stellzer Gaspar, Raphael Dos Santos Canciglieri, Diego Gomes de Melo, Rania A Mekary, Adelino Sanchez Ramos da Silva, Dennys Esper Cintra, Eduardo Rochete Ropelle, José Rodrigo Pauli, Leandro Pereira de Moura
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has a positive correlation with obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). The aerobic training is an important tool in combating NAFLD. However, no studies have demonstrated the molecular effects of short-term strength training on the accumulation of hepatic fat in obese mice. This study aimed to investigate the effects of short-term strength training on the mechanisms of oxidation and lipid synthesis in the liver of obese mice. The short duration protocol was used to avoid changing the amount of adipose tissue...
April 1, 2019: Journal of Endocrinology
Jiao-Yang Li, Ya-Di Wang, Xiao-Yan Qi, Li Ran, Tao Hong, Jing Yang, Bin Yan, Zhe-Zhen Liao, Jiang-Hua Liu, Xin-Hua Xiao
BACKGROUD: CCN3 is a novel adipokine and has emerged as a potential metabolic regulator. However, information regarding the role of CCN3 in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) remains unclear. This study measured for the first time serum CCN3 levels in T2DM and explored the correlations between its serum levels and various metabolic parameters in humans. METHODS: A total of 219 newly diagnosed T2DM (nT2DM) patients and 205 healthy control subjects, matched for age and sex ratio, were enrolled...
March 13, 2019: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Hiraku Ono
Insulin exists in the central nervous system, where it executes two important functions in the hypothalamus: the suppression of food intake and the improvement of glucose metabolism. Recent studies have shown that both are exerted robustly in rodents and humans. If intact, these functions exert beneficial effects on obesity and diabetes, respectively. Disruption of both occurs due to a condition known as hypothalamic insulin resistance, which is caused by obesity and the overconsumption of saturated fat. An enormous volume of literature addresses the molecular mechanisms of hypothalamic insulin resistance...
March 15, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jeanne M Walker, Patricia Eckardt, Jose O Aleman, Joel Correa da Rosa, Yupu Liang, Tadasu Iizumi, Stephane Etheve, Martin J Blaser, Jan L Breslow, Peter R Holt
Background and Aim: The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a pathological condition comprised of abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. It has become a major threat globally, resulting in rapidly increasing rates of diabetes, coronary heart disease, and stroke. The polyphenol resveratrol (RES) is believed to improve glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance by activating sirtuin, which acetylates and coactivates downstream targets and affects glucose and lipid homeostasis in the liver, insulin secretion in the pancreas, and glucose uptake in skeletal muscle...
January 10, 2019: Journal of Clinical and Translational Research
Larisa Litvinova, Pavel Zatolokin, Maria Vulf, Ilia Mazunin, Daria Skuratovskaia
BACKGROUND: Mitochondria play a central role in the regulation of energy metabolism, and the biogenesis of mitochondria is enhanced by the action of nitric oxide (NO), which is the key signaling molecule in the regulation of vascular homeostasis. A disturbance in the regulation of energy metabolism can be a key reason for the formation of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Moreover, mitochondrial dysfunction leads to oxidative stress, which increases the production of proinflammatory cytokines...
March 13, 2019: BMC Medical Genomics
Andrew P Demidowich, Jordan A Levine, Ginikanwa I Onyekaba, Shahzaib M Khan, Kong Y Chen, Sheila M Brady, Miranda M Broadney, Jack A Yanovski
AIMS: Low-grade inflammation is believed to contribute to the metabolic dysregulation of obesity. Colchicine can reduce inflammation by inhibiting microtubule propagation and inflammasome assembly. We evaluated efficacy and safety of colchicine for improving metabolic and inflammatory outcomes in people with obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adults with obesity and MetS, but who did not have diabetes, were randomized to colchicine 0.6mg or placebo capsules twice daily for three months...
March 14, 2019: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Michinari Nakamura, Junichi Sadoshima
The prevalence of obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes is increasing rapidly. Most patients with these disorders have hypertriglyceridemia and increased plasma levels of fatty acids, which are taken up and stored in lipid droplets in the heart. Intramyocardial lipids that exceed the capacity for storage and oxidation can be lipotoxic and induce non-ischemic and non-hypertensive cardiomyopathy, termed diabetic or lipotoxic cardiomyopathy. The clinical features of diabetic cardiomyopathy are cardiac hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction, which lead to heart failure, especially heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF)...
March 14, 2019: Journal of Physiology
Tamer Bego, Adlija Čaušević, Tanja Dujić, Maja Malenica, Zelija Velija-Asimi, Besim Prnjavorac, Janja Marc, Jana Nekvindová, Vladimír Palička, Sabina Semiz
Background: FTO , a gene recently discovered in genomewide associated studies for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), play an important role in the management of energy homeostasis, nucleic acid demethylation and regulation of body fat mass by lipolysis. The aim of this study was to analyze the association of FTO rs8050136 A>C genetic variant with clinical and biochemical parameters of T2D in the population of West Balkan region (Bosnians and Herzegovinians and Kosovars). Methods: The study included 638 patients with T2D and prediabetes and 360 healthy controls of both genders, aged from 40 to 65 years...
April 2019: Journal of Medical Biochemistry
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