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Schizophrenia depression

Anna C Domen, Sjors C F van de Weijer, Monique W Jaspers, Damiaan Denys, Dorien H Nieman
OBJECTIVES: Cognitive impairment affects many psychiatric patients, influences daily functioning, and should be an important treatment focus. Assessment of cognitive status is crucial in cognitive remediation studies. However, current test batteries have limitations. A new, online tool, the MyCognition Quotient (MyCQ), was developed to assess cognition within 30 min. We present the psychometric properties and aim to determine the validity of the MyCQ by comparing it with the Cambridge Neuropsychological Automated Test Battery (CANTAB)...
February 13, 2019: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
Wen-Wen Cheng, Qiang Zhu, Hong-Yu Zhang
We applied Mendelian randomization analyses to investigate the potential causality between blood minerals (calcium, magnesium, iron, copper, and zinc) and osteoporosis (OP), gout, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), type 2 diabetes (T2D), Alzheimer's disease (AD), bipolar disorder (BD), schizophrenia , Parkinson's disease and major depressive disorder. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are independent ( r ² < 0.01) and are strongly related to minerals ( p < 5 × 10-8 ) are selected as instrumental variables...
February 12, 2019: Nutrients
Tiina Taka-Eilola Nèe Riekki, Juha Veijola, Graham K Murray, Jari Koskela, Pirjo Mäki
BACKGROUND: Maternal antenatal depression may alter offspring neurodevelopment, but long follow-up studies are lacking. We studied the risks for mood disorders and schizophrenia in adult offspring of antenatally depressed mothers, taking account parental severe mental disorders. METHODS: In the general population-based Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort with 12,058 children, 13.9% of the mothers reported themselves depressed at mid-gestation. The offspring were followed 43 years...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Affective Disorders
Axel Haglund, Henrik Lysell, Henrik Larsson, Paul Lichtenstein, Bo Runeson
OBJECTIVE: The risk of suicide is elevated after discharge from a psychiatric hospital. This study aimed to investigate how recent suicidal behavior affects the risk of suicide in patients with different psychiatric diagnoses immediately after discharge. METHODS: Registers with national coverage were linked to create a study cohort including all individuals discharged from psychiatric hospitals in Sweden from 1973 through 2009. Hazard ratios for discharge diagnoses were calculated...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Tarek Alhamad, Farrukh M Koraishy, Ngan N Lam, Sreelatha Katari, Abhijit S Naik, Mark A Schnitzler, Huiling Xiao, David A Axelrod, Vikas R Dharnidharka, Henry Randall, Rosemary Ouseph, Dorry L Segev, Daniel C Brennan, Radhika Devraj, Bertram L Kasiske, Krista L Lentine
BACKGROUND: Cannabis is categorized as an illicit drug in most US states, but legalization for medical indications is increasing. Policies and guidance regarding cannabis use in transplant patients remain controversial. METHODS: We examined a database linking national kidney transplant records (n=52,689) with Medicare claims to identify diagnoses of cannabis dependence or abuse (CDOA) and associations (adjusted hazard ratio, 95% LCL aHR95% UCL) with graft, patient and other clinical outcomes...
February 4, 2019: Transplantation
Dong Ik Park, Christoph W Turck
High comorbidity and complexity have precluded reliable diagnostic assessment and treatment of psychiatric disorders. Impaired molecular interactions may be relevant for underlying mechanisms of psychiatric disorders but by and large remain unknown. With the help of a number of publicly available databases and various technological tools, recent research has filled the paucity of information by generating a novel dataset of psychiatric interactomes. Different technological platforms including yeast two-hybrid screen, co-immunoprecipitation-coupled with mass spectrometry-based proteomics, and transcriptomics have been widely used in combination with cellular and molecular techniques to interrogate the psychiatric interactome...
2019: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Keiko Iwata
Mental disorders, such as major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder (BD), and schizophrenia (SZ), are generally characterized by a combination of abnormal thoughts, perceptions, emotions, behavior, and relationships with others. Multiple risk factors incorporating genetic and environmental susceptibility are associated with development of these disorders. Mitochondria have a central role in the energy metabolism, and the literature suggests energy metabolism abnormalities are widespread in the brains of subjects with MDD, BPD, and SZ...
2019: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Joshua J Chauvin, Thomas R Insel
Millions of people suffer from serious mental illness, but very few receive consistent coordinated care. Since leaving his post in 2015 after 13 years as director of the National Institute of Mental Health, co-author Tom Insel has been on a mission to use technology (such as mining your smartphone) to better understand your state of mind and treat depression, schizophrenia, and other disorders. Insel and co-author Joshua Chauvin, part of the team at a healthcare innovation company, examine the potential and pitfalls of this next digital frontier ...
November 2018: Cerebrum: the Dana Forum on Brain Science
Lavanya P Sharma, Y C Janardhan Reddy
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms (OCS) are known to be highly comorbid with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Comorbid OCD/OCS influences the course of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. There is also some evidence to suggest that a diagnosis of OCD may be associated with elevated risk for later development of psychosis and bipolar disorder. Comorbid OCD/OCS is associated with a greater severity of schizophrenia phenotype and poorer prognosis. In addition, certain atypical antipsychotics, clozapine in particular are known to induce or worsen OCS in schizophrenia...
January 2019: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Dan J Stein
The discipline of global mental health has emphasized the importance of the treatment gap in mental disorders, and of addressing this gap via changes in health policy, an emphasis on human rights, and innovations such as task-shifting. Although global mental health research has focused on both common mental disorders such as depression, and serious mental disorders such as schizophrenia, it has paid relatively little attention to obsessive-compulsive and related disorders (OCRDs). Nevertheless, international collaborations have recently paid a good deal of attention to the nosology and neurobiology of OCRDs, and given the prevalence and morbidity of these conditions, further work along these lines should be encouraged...
January 2019: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Adrian B R Shatte, Delyse M Hutchinson, Samantha J Teague
BACKGROUND: This paper aims to synthesise the literature on machine learning (ML) and big data applications for mental health, highlighting current research and applications in practice. METHODS: We employed a scoping review methodology to rapidly map the field of ML in mental health. Eight health and information technology research databases were searched for papers covering this domain. Articles were assessed by two reviewers, and data were extracted on the article's mental health application, ML technique, data type, and study results...
February 12, 2019: Psychological Medicine
Ather Muneer, Rana Mozammil Shamsher Khan
The Endoplasmic reticulum (ER), an indispensable sub-cellular component of the eukaryotic cell carries out essential functions, is critical to the survival of the organism. The chaperone proteins and the folding enzymes which are multi-domain ER effectors carry out 3-dimensional conformation of nascent polypeptides and check misfolded protein aggregation, easing the exit of functional proteins from the ER. Diverse conditions, for instance redox imbalance, alterations in ionic calcium levels, and inflammatory signaling can perturb the functioning of the ER, leading to a build-up of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the lumen...
January 2019: Chonnam Medical Journal
Daniele Mattei, Tina Notter
The hypothesis that the neuroimmune system plays a role in the pathogenesis of different psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, depression, and bipolar disease, has attained increasing interest over the past years. Previously thought to have the sole purpose of protecting the central nervous system (CNS) from harmful stimuli, it is now known that the central immune system is critically involved in regulating physiological processes including neurodevelopment, synaptic plasticity, and circuit maintenance...
February 10, 2019: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Wolfgang Fleischhacker, Silvana Galderisi, István Laszlovszky, Balázs Szatmári, Ágota Barabássy, Károly Acsai, Erzsébet Szalai, Judit Harsányi, Willie Earley, Mehul Patel, György Németh
BACKGROUND: Negative symptoms in schizophrenia are heterogeneous and multidimensional; effective treatments are lacking. Cariprazine, a dopamine D3 -preferring D3 /D2 receptor partial agonist and serotonin 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist, was significantly more effective than risperidone in treating negative symptoms in a prospectively designed trial in patients with schizophrenia and persistent, predominant negative symptoms. METHODS: Using post hoc analyses, we evaluated change from baseline at week 26 in individual items of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and PANSS-derived factor models using a mixed-effects model for repeated measures (MMRM) in the intent-to-treat (ITT) population (cariprazine = 227; risperidone = 227)...
February 6, 2019: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
Alannah Miranda, Tatyana Shekhtman, Michael McCarthy, Anna DeModena, Susan G Leckband, John R Kelsoe
BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder is a neuropsychiatric disorder that is characterized by fluctuations between manic and depressive phases. Lithium is the original and best mood stabilizing treatment for bipolar disorder. While its mechanism is not well understood, it is believed to have a strong genetic component, as several studies suggest that lithium responsiveness, in bipolar disorder, is heritable. In this study we aimed to identify genetic variants that are associated with lithium responsiveness in bipolar disorder...
January 15, 2019: Journal of Affective Disorders
Bahareh Peyrovian, Joshua D Rosenblat, Zihang Pan, Michelle Iacobucci, Elisa Brietzke, Roger S McIntyre
Cognitive dysfunction is a principal determinant of functional impairment in major depressive disorder (MDD) and often persists during periods of euthymia. Abnormalities in the glutamate system, particularly in N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) activity, have been shown to contribute to both mood and cognitive symptoms in MDD. The current narrative review aims to evaluate the potential pro-cognitive effects of targeting the glycine site of NMDARs in the treatment of psychiatric disorders, with a special focus on how these results may apply to MDD...
February 6, 2019: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Airi Sekine, Tsutomu Fukuwatari
The tryptophan metabolite, kynurenic acid (KYNA), is a preferential antagonist of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptor at endogenous brain concentrations. Recent studies have suggested that increased brain KYNA levels are involved in psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and depression. Most of the brain kynurenine (KYN), the KYNA precursor, comes from the periphery, and the liver has a central role in the peripheral tryptophan metabolism. In this study, the effect of acute liver failure (ALF) on brain KYNA production and on the peripheral tryptophan metabolism was investigated in rats...
February 6, 2019: Neuroscience Letters
Edward H Patzelt, Wouter Kool, Alexander J Millner, Samuel J Gershman
The law of least mental effort states that, everything else being equal, the brain tries to minimize mental effort expenditure during task performance by avoiding decisions that require greater cognitive demands. Prior studies have shown associations between disruptions in effort expenditure and specific psychiatric illnesses (e.g., schizophrenia and depression) or clinically-related symptoms and traits (e.g., anhedonia and apathy), yet no research has explored this issue transdiagnostically. Specifically, this research has largely focused on a single diagnostic category, symptom, or trait...
February 8, 2019: Scientific Reports
Anne D Müller, Ida C T Gjøde, Mette S Eigil, Helle Busck, Merete Bonne, Merete Nordentoft, Anne A E Thorup
BACKGROUND: Children born to parents with a severe mental illness, like schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major recurrent depression, have an increased risk of developing a mental illness themselves during life. These children are also more likely to have developmental delays, cognitive disabilities, or social problems, and they may have a higher risk than the background population of experiencing adverse life events. This is due to both genetic and environmental factors, but despite the well-documented increased risk for children with a familial high risk, no family-based early intervention has been developed for them...
February 8, 2019: Trials
Tom Macpherson, Takatoshi Hikida
Over the last few decades, advances in human and animal-based techniques have greatly enhanced our understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying psychiatric disorders. Many of these studies have indicated connectivity between and alterations within basal ganglia structures to be particularly pertinent to the development of symptoms associated with several of these disorders. Here we summarize the connectivity, molecular composition, and function of sites within basal ganglia neurocircuits. Then we review the current literature from both human and animal studies concerning altered basal ganglia function in four common psychiatric disorders; obsessive compulsive disorder, substance-related and addiction disorders, major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and schizophrenia...
February 8, 2019: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
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